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"ii!l'iJW!iaiili!l5M5!|i!e'«55gitiil!i!!!i!l!Erlia; 



UNIVER5ITY OF PITTSBURGH 




Darlington Alemorial Library 



x^ 



'^'■K^ 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN 



PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 



HELD AT 



PHILADELPHIA, 



FOR PROMOTING 



USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOLUME L 



THE SECOND EDITION CORRECTED. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PRINTED BY Ji. AITKEN ^ SON, AT POPE's HEAD 
IN MARKET STREET. 



M.DCC.LXXXIX. 



^ 






9 77 "^^^^"v. 



> 



PROTHONOTARY's OFFICE, Philadelphia county. 

J DO certify that on tll.i 2<)th day of April, 1 789, a Book entitled " Tranfadions of the American 
Philofophical Society, held at Philadelphia, for promoting ufeful Knowledge," I'ol. 1. thefe- 
lond edition correSied, printed at Philadelphia, by R. Aitkcn & Son, at Pope's Head, in Market- 
i>:rcet, -was entered in my o^ice, ^j» Robert Aitken. 

JAMES BIDDLE, Prot. 



( iii ) 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

^ I ^HE promoting of ufeful Knovv^Iedge in 
1 general, and fuch branches thereof in 
particular, as may be more immediately fer- 
viceable to the Britiih Colonies, being the ex- 
prefs purpofe for which the American Phi- 
'I LOsopHicAL Society was inftituted; the Pub- 

lication of fuch curious and ufeful Papers, as 
may, from time to time, be communicated to 
them, becomes, of courfe, one material part of 
their defign. 

As foon therefore as the Society judged 

that they had received a fufficient Number of 

^^Communications for a Volume, they appointed 

^ a Committee, to affift the Secretaries, in fe- 

le6ling out of them fuch as might be moft pro- 

V, per for the public view. And for their direc- 

*^ tion in the execution of this truft, the two 

following rules were given, viz. 

^ Firjl, " That the grounds of the Commit- 

U tee's choice of Papers for the Prefs, fhould al- 

ways be, the importance or fingularity of the 
fubje6ls, or the advantageous manner of treat- 
ing them, without pretending to anfwer, or tp 

make 






?o 



IV 



Advertisement. 



make the Society anfwerable for the certainty 
of the fa^ls, or propriety of the reafonings, 
contained in the feveral Papers fo publifhed, 
which mufl" ftiil reft on the credit or judgment 
of their refpedive Authors. 

Secondly, "That neither the Society, nor the 
Committee of the Prefs, do ever give their opi- 
nion as a body, upon any paper they may pub- 
lilli, or upon any fubjecl, of Art or Nature 
that combes before them." 

Thefe Rules were adopted from theRules of 
that illuftrious Body the Royal Society of 
London, whofe example the American Phi- 
losophical Society think it their honor to 
follow, in their endeavours for enlarging the 
Sphere of Knowledge and ufeful Arts. And 
though, in Countries where the Arts and all 
ufeful Improvements have arrived almoft at 
their maturity, the following Work may fcarce 
be confidered as a mite thrown into the com- 
mon treafury; yet here, where they are but in 
their infancy, it may be received as fome ac- 
ceffion to our fmaller Stock. 



L A W S 



( V ) 

LAWS AND REGULATIONS, 

OF THE 

American PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

Held at PHILADELPHIA^ for promoting 
USEFUL KNO WL EDGE. 

TWO Societies having formerly fubfifted in Philadelphia, whofe 
views and ends were the fame viz. " the Advancement of iife- 
fitl Knoxvledge'^ — it was judged that their union would be of public 
advantage; and they were accordingly united J^a?zz/^rj; 2d, 1769, by 
a certain Fundamental Agreement ; the chief Articles of which are . 

Firft^ That the name of the United Society fhall be The American 
Philofophical Society, held at Philadelphia for promoting lifcfiil Know" 
ledge. 

Secondly i That there iliall be the following Officers of the Society, 
viz. one Patron, one Prefident, three Vice PrefidentSj one Treajurer^ 
four Secretaries^ and three Curators. 

Thirdly, That all the above officers fhall be chofen annually by 
ballot, at the firft meeting of the Society in January; excepting only 
that inftead of eletSting a Patron, the Governor of the Province be 
requefted to be Patron. 

Other Laws were to be made by the United Society ; "and accord- 
ingly the following LAWS, &c. were palled February 3d, 1769 : 

I. Of the annual Payments to he made by Members. 

EVEPvY Member of this Society ihall fubfcribe Ten Shillings 
yearly, to be applied by the Society to fuch purpofts as they Ihall 
direct; and no Member flitall be entitled to a vote in the annual elec- 
tion of officers, unlefs it appears that he has paid into the hands of 
the Treafurer, the fubfcription of the preceding year, and all former 
arrears, if any there w^ere. 

Every Member hereafter to be chofen, agreeable to the Laws of 
this Society, lliall pay Ten Shillings admiffion money, and aHo fub- 
fcribe for the yearly payment o£ Ten Shillings, before he is entitled 
to have any vote in the buiinefs of the Society at their meetings. 

ll. Of 



VI 



LAWS, &c. 



II. Of the EleElion of Members. 

The ele£lion of new Members fhall be bv ballot, and that only on 
the third Friday in the months of January, April, July and October; 
•ind in order to fuch election at leaft twenty Members muft be prefent. 

Any Member may, at any meeting, propofe fuch perfon or per- 
fons, as he thinks proper to be a Member or Members of this Soci- 
ety, but no perfon fhall be ballotted for, unlefs his name, together 
v-'ith the name or names of the Member or Members who propofed 
him, has been fixed up by the Secretaries for the view of the Society, 
at the two meetings preceding the time of eledlion. Nor fliall any 
perfon be deemed duly chofen unlefs. three-fourths of the votes of 
the whole Members be in his favour. 

III. Of the Officers^ and manner of their eleSlion. 

The election of fuch Officers as are to be chofen in this Society, 
fliall be on the firft Friday in January every year, by ballot or writ- 
ten ticket, between the hours of Two and Five in the afternoon, at 
fuch place in this city as fhall be fixed by the Society at their previ- 
ous meeting on the third Friday in December evei'yyear; of which 
notice fhall be given in the Gazette, or fuch other public Papers as 
the Society fhall order, at leaft one week before the day of eledlion. 

Before opening the eleflion, the company that fhall be met at half 
an hour after Two, fhall appoint three Members of the Society as 
judges of the election, and alio two clerks or fecretaries, for taking 
down the names of the voters. And in cafe of an equality of votes 
for any Officer, after calling up the ballots, the decifion fhall be by 
lots, to be drawn by one of the judges. 

IV. Of the Prefident. 

The Prefident is to prefide at all meetings, to preferve order, to 
regulate the debates, and to ftate and put queftions, agreeable to 
the fenfe and intention of the Members. 

V. Of theVice-Prefidents. 

In the abfence of the Prefident^ his duty fliall devolve on the 
Vice-PrcfidentSy fo that they fhall prefide alternately at meetings. But 
if the Vice-Prefident, whofe turn it is to prefide at any meeting, 
fliould be abfent, his place fliall be I'upplicd by any of the other Vice- 
Prefidents, who Ihall be prefent, according as he may be next in turn. 
If only one Vice-Prefident be prefent, he fhall of courfe prefide; and 
if neither the Prefident, nor any Vice-Prefident be prefent, the Mem- 
bers met, fliall appoint one of their number to take the chair for 
that meeting. VI. Of 



LAWS, &c. vii 

VI. Of the Treafurer. 

The Treafurer fhall receive the fubfcriptions of the Members, and 
all the other monies that may become due to the Society, and fhall 
pay the fame agreeable to their ordei-s, certified to him by the Pre- 
fident, Vice-Prefident or Member, who was in the Chair when the 
order was made. The Treafurer fliall keep a regular account of all 
monies received and paid by him as aforefaid; and once every year, 
or oftener if required by the Society, he fliall render an account to 
them of the ftock in his hands, and the difburfements made by their 
order, and fhall deliver up to his fucceflbr the books and all papers 
belonging to them, together with the ballance of cafh in his hands. 
And for the faithful dilcharge of his truft, he fliall before he enters 
on his office, give bond and fecurity to the Prefident and Vice-Pre- 
fidents; in double the fum which they, or any three of them, fliall 
judge he may probably become entrufled with, during his faid office. 

VII. Of the Secretaries, 

The Secretaries fliall fo fettle matters as to take equal fliares of all 
all bufinefs, and fo as that two of them fliall ferve at evei-y meeting, 
viz. one to take the minutes, and one to read all letters and papers 
that maybe communicated to the Society. It is alfo the bufinefs of 
the two Secretaries of each particular meeting, to copy into the minute 
book, the proceedings of that meeting in order to produce the fame 
fair to the nextraecting. Theyarefurther tocopyinto the properbooks 
all fuch letters, papers andeflays, as the Society may think fit to pre- 
ferve on record, and to have the fame ready to be laid before the 
next meeting. 

The other two Secretaries are, in the mean while, to give notice 
to new members of their elecflion, and agreeable to the diredlions of 
.the Society, to write or anfwer letters; and in general, to rnanags 
all matters of Corre/pondcnce. 

The Secretaries may, for their own eafe, change places; fo that 
the two who have ferved as correfponding Secretaries, for one month 
or limited time, fliall take their turn to ferve for the like time as 
fitting or attending Secretaries. 

VIII. Of the Curator Ss 

The bufinefs of the Curators fliall be to take charge of, and pi-e- 
ferve, all Specimens of natural ProduBiois, whether of the nniidaly 
Vegetable or Foffil kingdom; all models of machines and inllrumeuts, 
and all other matters and things belonging to the Society, which 
Ihall be committed to them; to ciafs and arrange them in their pro- 
per 



VI 11 



LAWS, &c. 



per order, and keep an exad" lift of them, with the names of the 
refpe^tive donors, in a book provided for that purpofe; which book 
fhall be laid before the Society, as often as called for. 

The Curators, on entering upon their office, iliall give fuch a 
receipt for every thing that is committed to their charge, as the So- 
ciety Ihall think proper -, and, at the end of their term, Ihall deliver 
up the fauie to their fucceffors. For the faithful performance of 
their duty, and of the trufi: repofed in them, they fhall give bond 
to the Prefidents, and Vice Prefidents, in fuch a fum as they, or any 
three of them, fhall require, 

IX. Of the Meetings of the Society. 

The ordinary meetings of the Society fliall be on the firft and 
third Fridays of every month, from Odtober to May, both inclulive, 
^i fix o'clock in the evening, and on the third Friday in each of the 
other four months, zx fevcn o'clock. 

No meeting fliall be continued after ten o'clock, nor any new mat- 
ter be introduced by motion or otherwife, after nine o'clock. 

X. Of the Difpofition of 3ioney^ and making ne%v Laws. 

No part of the Society's ftock fliall be difpofcd of in Premiums y or 
otherwife, nor fliall any new laws be made, until the fame have 
been propofed at one meeting, and are agreed to by two-thirds of 
twenty or more Members prefent at a fubfequent meeting. 

XL Of other Proceedings of the Society. 

No queftion fhall be put on a ^notion, unlefs the motion htfccond~ 
ed\ and the determination of any queftion fhall be by ballot^ inf^ead 
of open fuffrage, if defired by any four INIembers. In cafe of an 
equality of votes on any queftion, the fame fhall be deferred to ano- 
ther meeting. 

When any Member fpeaks he fliall fland up, and addrefs himfelf 
to the Chair, and the reft fliall remain fdent in their feats. When 
two or more offer to fpeak at the fame time, the preliding ISIember, 
in that, as in other matters of order, fliall regulate and determine 
who fliall fpeak firft. 

XII. Of Committees, 

The INIembers of this Society fliall be clafTed into one ot more of 
the following Committees. 

I. Geography, Mathematics, Natural Philofophy and Af^ronomy. 

2- Medicine land Anatomy. 

3. Natural Hiftory and Chymiflry 4. Trade 



( i« ) 

4. Trade and Commerce, 

5. Mechanics and Archite(n:urC't 

6. Hufbandi-y and American Improvements. 

Thefe Committees Ihall meet on their own adjournments, and at 
fuch other times as the Society Ihall appoint, for the confideration of 
any matters referred to them, and (hall have power to chufe their 
own Chairman." But no Committees as fuch, /hall ta'ke up any new 
bufinefs of the Society, but fliall confine themfelves only to the fub-« 
jedls for which they are appointed, and to matters rcfen-ed to thcnn 
by the Society. 

4 true Copy, compared ivhh ^ WILLIAM SMITH, 1 „ 

the orighml Laivsinthe ^ CHARLES THOMSON, J i^ecntartet. 
Sodi'ty's Booh by ~ - •> ' J 



LIST OF THE OFFICERS, 



OF THE 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIEIT, 

Held at Philadelphia, for promoting ufeful Knowledgej 
For the Year 1770. 

PATRON, The Governor of the Province, for the titne being, 

OFFICERS, ele£led January 5th, 1770. 
President. Benjamin Franklin, LL. D. F. R. S. Gott. S, Soc, 

rjofeph Galloway, Efq. Speaker of the Aflembly of 

•tr r, I Pennfylvania. 

Vice Presidents. ■< t^ t^, -^ d j 
1 Dr. 1 nomas oond. 

V, Samuel Rhoads, Efquire, 

Treasurer. Mr. Philip Sing. 

rWilliam Smith, D. D. Provoft of the College of 
j Philadelphia. 
Secretaries. ^ Mr. Charles Thomfon, 

I Thomas Mifflin. 

|_ George Roberts. 

{Benjamin Rufh, M. D. Profeflor of Chymiftry, Col- 
lege of Philadelphia. 
Mr. Owen Biddle. 
Ifaac Bartram. 

^O^' !• b HONORABLE 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



A 

HONORABLE William Allen, 
Efq, Chief Juftice of Pennfyl- 

vania. 
John Allen, Efq. 
Andrew Allen, Efq. 
James Allen, Efq. 
Mr. James Alexander. 
Francis Alifon, D, D. "\'^ice Provoft 

of the College of Philadelphia. 
Dr. James Anderfon of Maryland, 
Mr. Arbo of Bethlehem. Pennfylvania. 
Mr. Matthias Afpden.* 

B 

Samuel Bard, M. D. Profeffor of the 
Praftice of Phyfic, King's College, 
New-York. 
Thomas Barnfley, Efq. of Bucks 

county, Pennfylvania. 
Rev. Thomas Barton, A. M. of Lan- 

cafler, Pennlylvania. 
Mr. John Bartram, Botanift to the 

King: Acad. Reg. Suec. Soc. 
Mr. Mofes Bartram. 
Mr. William Bartram. 
Mr. John Bavnton. 
I'aul Bedford, £iq. of Barbadoes. 
Hon. Jonathan Belcher, Efq. Chief 

Juflice of Nova-SLOtia. 
Mr. Henry Bembridj^c. 
Mr. John Benezst. 
Dr. Charles Bcniall, of Germantown, 

Phil.idclphia county. 
Mr. William Bettle.' 
Mr. Clement Biddle. 
Edward Biddle, Efq; of Reading in 

PcnnfyUania. 
James Biddle, Efq ; 
Pliineas Bond, M. D, 
Mr. Thomas Bond. 
Mr. Thomas Bradford. 
Mr, Joi'eph Bringhurlt. 
George Bryan, Efq; 

C 

Dr. Thomas Cadwaladsr. 

Mr. John Cadwaladcr. 

Mr. Lambert Cadwalader. 

Mr. Samuel Caldwell. 

Lionel Chalmers, M. D. of Charlef- 

town, South-Carolina. 
Dr. John Chapman. 
Benjamin Chew, Efq; 

* All tliofc Members whofe places of abode 



Dr. Gerardus Clarkfon. 

Matthew Clarkfon, Efq ; 

Mr. Thomas Clifford. 

Hon. Cadwalader Colden, Efq; Lieut, 

Governor of New-York. 
Thomas Coombe, Efq ; 
Miles Cooper L. L. D. Prefident of 

King's Coll. New-York. 

D 

Rev. James Davidfon, A. M. Profef- 
for of Languages in the College of 
Philadelphia. 

Mr. Benjamin Davis. 

Rev. John Davis, A. M. 

John Deas, Efq; of Charleftown, 
South-Carolina. 

Dr. John De Normandie. of Briflol, 
in Pennfylvania. 

Mi. James Dickinfon. 

John Dickinfon, Efq ; 

Mr. Henry Drinker. 

Mr. John Drinker. 

Jacob Duche, Efq; 

Rev. Jacob Duche, A. M. 

Mr. Edward Duffield. 

Samuel Duffield, M. B. 

Hon. Daniel Dulaney, Efq; of Ma- 
ryland. 

E 

Mr. Samuel Eldrige. 

Mr, Samuel Elliot, of Bofton. 

Dr. Cadwalader Evans. 

Rowland Evans, Efq; Philadelphia 
County. 

Capt. Ofwald Eve, 

Rev, John Ewing, A. M. 
F 

Rev. Frederick Farmer. 

Mr. Samuel Felfled, of Jamaica. 

Mr. Thomas Fifher. 

Paul Fooks, Efq ; Profeflfor of the 
French and Spanifh LanTua<Tos, 
Coll, Philad, "" 

Joleph Fox, Efq; 

John Foxcroft, Efq ; 

Thomas Foxcroft, Efq ; 

His Excellency William Franklin 
Efq; Governor of New-Jerfey. 

G. 

His Excellency General Gage, Com- 
mander in Chief of his Majelty's 
Forces in North-America, 

Benjamin 
arc not fpecificd, are of the city of Philadelphia. 



LIST or MEMBERS. 



x; 



Bcnjatnin Gale, M, D. of Connefticut, 

Alexander Garden, M. D, of Char- 
leflown, South-Carolina, 

Valentine Gardner, Efq ; of New- 
York.^ 

Sidney George, Efq; of Maryland, 

Mr. Thomas Gilpin. 

George Glentworth, M. D, 

Dr. Archibald Glolier, of Antigua, 
• Thomas Graeme, M. D. 

H 

Hon, James Hamilton, Efq; 

Mr. David Hall. 

Rev. Mr. Harding, 

Dr. Robert Harris. 

Mr, Jofeph Harrifon. ^ of New-Eng^ 

Mr, Peter Harrifon. J land, 

Mr, William Henry of Lancafter, 

Pennfylvania. 
Gilbert Hicks. Efq; Bucks County, 

Pennfylvania, 
Mr. Henry Hill. 
Michael Hillegas, Efq; 
Mr. John Himili of Charleftown, 

South-Carolina. 
Richard Hockley, Efq; 
flenry Holiday, Efq; of Mar)7land. 
Mr. Levi Holingfworth, 
Edward Holyoke, L L. D. of MaflTa- 

chufetts-Bay. 
Hon. Stephen Hopkins, Efq ; of 

Rhode-lHand. 
Mr. William Hopkins. 
Francis Hopkinfon, Efq; 
Jofhua Howell, Efq ; 
Jofeph Hutchins, A, B. of Barbados. 

I 

Mr. Benjamin Jacobs, Philadelphia 

County. 
Abel James, Efq ; 
David Jamefon, Efq ; M. D. of York, 

Pennfylvania, ' 
Hon. Sir William Johnfon, Bart, of 

Mount Johnfon, in the Province of 

New-York. 
John Jones, M, D. of New-York. 
Ilaac Jones, Efq; 
Robert Strettell Jones, A. M. 
Ralph Izard, Efq ; of Charles-Town, 

S. Carolina. 



K 



Dr, John Kearlly, 

Dr. John Kearfly, Jun. 

Rev, Ebenezer Kinnerfley, A. M, 

Profeifor of EngUfh and Oratory, 

Coll. Philadelphia, 
JohnKidd, Ef(j; "1 Bucks 

jofeph Kirkbride, Efq-. / County, 
Adam Kuhn, M. D. Prof. Bot, & 

Mater, Med, Coll. Philad, 

L 
LynfordLardner, Efq; 
Arthur Lee, M, D. 1 r ,,. . . 
Francis Lee, Efq; / of Virginia. 
Thomas Livezey, Elq; Philadelphia 

County, 
William Livingfton, Efq ; of New- 
York. 
William Logan, Efq; 
Dr. John Lorimer of Wefl-FIorida, 
Dr, James Lloyd, of Bofton, 
John Lykens, Efq; Surveyor-Gene- 
ral of Pennfylvania, 

M 
Mr, Frederic Marfhall, of NortlvCa- 

rolina. 
Thomas Mc.Kean Efq; of Newcaftle 

on Delaware. 
Mr. Humphrey Marfhall of Chefler 

County, Pennfylvania, 
Dr. HughMcrcerofFrederickfburgh, 

Virginia. 
Samuel MiifRin, Efq; 
Mr, Samuel Miles, 
Mr, Peter Miller of Ephrata, in Pcnn- 

fylvania, 
Dr, Mim of York, Pennfylvania. 
Charles Moore, M. D. 
Dr. Samuel Preflon Moore, 
Mr. George Morgan, 
John Morgan, M. D. F. R. S, Prof. 

Theor. and Praft, Phylic, College 

Philadelphia. 
John Morris, Efq. 
Dr, Morton, of Jamaica. 
Mr. John Murgatroyd, 

N 
Mr. Lewis Nicola of Northampton, 
Pennfylvania. Rev. 



xu 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



o 



Rev. Jonathan Odell, A. M. of Bur- 
lington, New-Jcriey. 
Mr. ]ohn Francis Oberlin,! of Beth- 
Mr. "John Okely, \ lehem in 
Dr. Otto, J Pennfyl. 
Mr. Jofcph Ottolenge, of Georgia. 
Hon, Andrew Oliver, Lieut. Gov. 
Maffachufetts Bay. 
P' 
William Parr, Efq. 
Mr. Ifaac Pafchal. 

Dr. John Paichalof Derby, Pennfyl. 
Mr. Jofeph Pafchal. 
Mr. Stephen Pafchal. 
Mr. James Pearfon. 
Mr. James Pemberton. 
Mr. I frael' Pemberton. 
Mr. Edward Pennington. 
Richard Peters, D. D. Redorof Chrift 
Church and St. Peters, Philadelphia. 
Edmund Phyfick, Efq. 
Mr. William Poole of Wilmington, 

Pennfylvania. 
Mr. Chriftian Frederick Poft, of the 

Mofquito Shore. 
Mr. Thomas Potts, of Philadelphia 

County. 
Jonathan Potts. M. B. of Philadelphia 

County. 
Samuel Powell, Efq. 
Dr. Thomas Preflon. 
Ebenczer Prime, M. D. of Ncw-Yoik. 
Mr. Robert Proud. 
Mr. Tliomas Pryor. 
Mr. Samuel Purviance, Jun. 

R 

Hon. Charles Read, Efq. of Burling- 
ton, New-Jerfcy, 

John Redman, M. D. 

Jofeph Reade, Efq. 

-Mr. John Reynell. 

Mr. John Rhea. 

Mr. Samuel Rhoads, Jun. 

Dr. Charles Ridgley of Dover, on 
Delaware. 

David Rittenhoufc, A. M. 

Mr. Hugh Roberts. 

Mr. Samuel Robinfon. 

John Rofs, Efq. 

William Rumfcy, Efq. of Maryland. 

S 
Dr. Sandiford of Barbados, - 



John Morln Scot, Efq. of New-York. 
Mr. William Scull of Reading, Penn- 
fylvania. 
John Sellers, Efq. of Chefter Coun- 
ty, Pennfylvania. 
Edward Shippen, Efq. ofLancafter, 

Pennfylvania. 
Edward Shippen, Jun. Efq. 
Jofeph Shippen, Jun. Efq. 
Dr. William Shippen. 
William Shippen, Jun. M. D. Prof. 

Anat. Coll. Philad. 
Samuel Shoemaker, Efq. 
Mr. Pierre Eugene du Simitiere. 
Williams Smibert, M. D. of Bofton 
Hon. Samuel Smith, Efq. "^1 ofthe Pro- 
John Smith, Efq. Ivince of 
W. Peartree Smith, Efq. J N. Jerfey. 
Dr. Ifaac Smith, 

Hon. William Smith, Efq. of New- 
York. 
Jonathan Smith, A. M. 
Mr. Robert Smith. 
Mr. Thomas Smith. 
Dr. Peter Sonmans. 
Alexander Stedman, Efq. 
Right Hon. William Earl of Stirling, 

of Bafkenridge, New-Jerfey. 
Richard Stockton, Efq, of New-Jerfey 
Rev. Samuel Stillman, A. M. of Bof- 
ton. 
Ezra Styles, D. D. of Connefticut. 
Captain Jofeph Styles. 

T 

Mr. Richard Thomas, of Chefter 

county, Pennfylvania. 
James Tilghman, Efq. 
Dr. John Tweedy, of Newport, 

Rhode-Hland, 

W. 

Nicholas Wain, Efq. 

John ^\^llker, Efq. of Virginia. 

Hon. Afliton Warner, Efq. 1 r 

Hon,Thomas\\'^arner, Efq. > , 

c 1 wr xrr ' I Antigua 

Samuel Warner, Llq. J ° 

Stephen Watts, Efq. 

Mr. James Wcbbof Lancafher, Penn- 
fylvania. 

Mr. Richard Wells, of Burlington, 
New-Jerfey. 

Rev. MV. Samuel Weft, of New- 
England. 

Mr. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xiu 



Mr. William Weft. 
Mr. Ifaac Wharton, 
Mr. Samuel Wharton. 
Rev. Ch, Whittlefcy, of Connefticut. 
William White, A. M. 
Alexander Wilcocks, Efq. 
Hugh Williamlon, M. D. 
Thomas Willing, Elq. 
James Wilfon, Efq. of Carliflcj Penn- 
fylvania. 



John Winthrop, Efq. F. R. S. Hol- 
lifian Prof. IVlathematics, at Cam- 
bridge, in New-England. 

John Witherfpoon, D. D. Prefident 
of the College of New-Jcrfey. 

Mr. James Worral. 

James Wright, Efq. of Lancafter 
county, Pennfylvania. 

Mr. Benjamin Wynkoop, 



EUROPEAN MEMBERS. 



MONSIEUR Buffon, o^ Paris. 
Peter Bergius, M. D. Prof. Nat. 

Hift. Stockholm, 
John Martin Butt, M. D. of Bath, 

England. 
William CuUen, M. D. Prof. Med. 

Univerfity of Edinburgh. 
Sir Alexander Dick, M. D. Bart, of 

Edinburgh. 
Mr. Jeremiah Dixon. London. 
Mr. James Fergufon, F. R. S. London. 
John Fothergill, M.D. Y. R.S.London. 
Signior Famitz, of Naples. 
Dr. John Gill, of Fvinjale, Ireland. 
Mr. William Hewfon, Prasleftor 

Anat. London. 
Richard Huck, M.D. Y.R.S. London. 
John David Ilahn, M.D. Prof. Med. 

andPhilof. Univeriity of Utrecht, 



Hon. Ifaac Jamineau, Efq. Britifti 

Conful, Naples. 
Sir Charles a Linne, M. D. Knight of 

the Polar Star, Firft Phyfician to the 

King of Sweden, Prof. Med. and 

Bot. Upfal. 
William Logan, M. D. London. 
Nevil Mafkelyne, B. D. F. R. S. and 

Aftronomer-Royal, Greenwich. 
Mr. Charles Mafon, London. 
Chriftian Magee, L. L.D. oi' Heidelberg, 
Mr. Edward Nairne, London. 
Richard Penn, jun. Efq. London. 
Sir G. Saville, Bart. York, in England. ^ 
James Span, M. D. Profeff. Materia 

Medica, Univerfity of Dublin. 
Mr. Benjamin Weft, London. 
Charles Magnus Wrangel, D. D. of 

Sweden. 



O ¥ ¥ I C E R S for the Year 1771. 
President and Vice-Presidents, the fame as for the laft Year. 
Treasurer. Thomas Coombe, Efq. 
r William Smith, D. D. Provoft College Philadelphia.. 



Secretaries. 



J David Rittenhoufe, A. M. 
1 Rev. John Ewing, A. M. 
t Robert Strettel Jones. A. M. 

f Benjamin Rulh, M. D. Prof. Chym. 



Curators. \ Adam Kuhn, M. D. Prof.Bot. & Mat.Med. I S^l^^r, 
[William Shippen, jun. M. D. Prof. Anat. I ^^^i^^del. 



CONTENTS 



( J^iv ) 

CONTENTS 

O F 

V O L U M E I. 

^DESCRIPTION of an Orreky, txecuted on a neto plan, 5>i D. Rit- 

■^ TENHousE, A. i\f. Page 1 

Calculation of the Tranfit of Y&nus over the Sun. as it is to happen June ^d, 

1769, in lat. 40*^. N. long. 5A. JVe/i from Greenwich. By D. Rittenhouse, 

A. M. communicated June 21/?, 1768. p, j^ 
Calculation of the fame for the city of Philadelphia, By Rev. John Ew ing, A. M. 

Communicated June2ifl, 1768. p. ^ 

An account of the Tranfit of Venus over the Sun, Jfune ^d, 1769, as obfervedat 
NoRRiTox, in Pennfylvania. By the Committee appointed for that obfervation. 
Drawn up, and cummunicated, in behalf of the Committee, by Rev. William 
Smith, D. D. p. 8 

An account of the Transit of Venus over theSvH, June ^d, 1769, and of 
the Tranft of Mercury Nov. gth, both as obferved in the Statc-Houfe Square^ 
Philadelphia. By the Committee appointed for thofe obfervations. Drazon up 
and communicated, in behalf c>f the Committee, byRev,]oiivi Ewing, A. M, 

p. 39 

An account of the TRxyisir of Venus over the Sun, June ^d, 1769, as obferved 
near Cape Henlopen, on Delaware. By the Committee apointedfor that obfervation. 
Drawn up and communicated, in behalf of the Committee, by Mr. Owen 

BiDDLE. p^ OQ 

An account of the Tranfit of Venus over the Sun, June ^d, 1 769, as obferved at Pro- 
vidence, New England. Drawn up by Benjamin West, A, M. and tranf- 
mittedto the Society by Mr. Jofcph Brown. p. qi, 

Obfervations of the Tranfit of Venus aW Eclipfe of the Sun, June ^d, 1769. 
made at the Royal Obfervatory, Greenwich. By Rev. Nevil Maskelyne. 

B. D. F. R. S. and Aftronom r-Royal. Tranfmitted by himfelf, and communi- 
cated to the A)nerican Philofophical Society, i^j^ Wi lliam Smith, D. D. p. 100 

Some account of the Tranfit of Yen vs, and Eclipfe of the Sun, as obferved at the Liz- 
ard Point, June^d, 1769. By Mr. John Bradley. Extra^ed from a paper 
of the Aflronomer- Royal, p^ jq8 

A letter from Rev. Nevil Maskelyne, B. D. F. R. S. Aftronomer-Royal, to 

i^a'. William 5mith, D. D. Provofl of the College of Philadelphia, giving 

fome account of the Iludfon's Bay and other Northern obfervations of the Tranfit 

of Venus, June ^d, 1769. p.iii 

An account of tlie terreflrialmeafunment between the Obfervotories of Norriton 
flHii Philadelphia; \v?7A the difference of longitude and latitude thence de- 
duced. ^^ William Smith, D. D. p. ha. 

Apparent time of the Contacts of the limbs of the Sun and Venus ; with other 
circumflances of mo ft note, in the different European obfervations of the Tranfit^ 
June^d, 1769. p-^^^ 

An improvement in the conflruclion of Godfrey's f commonly called FladleysJ Qua- 
drant. By Rev. John Ewing, A. M, p^ 126 

An, 



CONTENTS xr 

A71 ejfay on Comets, and an account of their luminous appearance ; together with 
form C07ije6iures concerning the origin o/Heat. £y Hugh Williamson, M. D, 

P' ^33 

Obfervations on the Comet of June and July^ 1770; with the Elements of its Mo- 
tion, and the TrajeBory of its Path, in two Letters, Jrovi DavidRittenhouse, 
A. M. to William Smith, D. D. Provojl Coll. Philadelphia. p. 144 

An Account of the fame Comet, in a letter from the Right Hon. William, Earl 
of Stirling, to William Smith, D. D. Provoft Coll. Philad. p. 152 

An cafy Method cf deducing the Time of the Sun's puffing the Meridian per Clock, 
without the help of the Equation Tables, by equal Altitudes taken on twojucceeding 
Days. By David Ritte nhouse, ^. M. Communicated by Willi amSmith, 
D. D. Provofi Coll. Plaladdphia. p. 155 

An Account of the Tranfit of Mercury over the Sun, Nov. gth, as obferved at 
No RR I TON, in Pcnnfylvaniaj by the Committee appointed for that Obfervation. 
Drawn up and communicated by direSlion and in behalf of the Committee, by Wil- 
liam Smith. D. D. Provofi Coll. Philadelphia. p. 158 

The Sun's Par ALLAx deduced from a Comparifon of theNoRRno\ Obfervations 
of the Tranfit of Venus, 1769; zvith the Greenv.ich and other European Ob- 
fervations of the fame. By William Smith. D.D. Provo/l Coll. Phila. p. 162. 

CONTENTS of Sect. IL 

An Effay on the Cultivation of the Vine, and the making and preferving of WinCy 
fuited to the different climates of North- America. By the Hon. *Ed\v'ARd Antill 
Efq. Communicated by Mr. Charles Thomson. p, 180 

The Method of curing Figs ; and obfervations on the raifing and dreffing of llzsi?, 
By Hon. Edward Antill,- Efq. . p. 266 

Obfervations concerning the Fly-Weevil, that destroys the Wheat; withfome 
ufeful difcoveries and Conclufions, concerning the Propagation and Progrefs of that 
pernicious InfeEl, and the Methods to be ufed for preventing the DefiruHion cf the 
Grain by it. By Colonel Langdon Carter, of Sabine- Hall, Virginia; com- 
municated by Colonel 'Lee, of Virginia. p. 274 

Obfervations on the fame fubjeB j by the Committee of Hufbandry, &c. p. 287 

Obfervations on the Native Silk Worms, of North- Americas by Mr. Moses 
Bartram. p. 294 

A Memoir on the Diflillation of Persimons. By Mr. Isaac Bartram. p. 301 

Account of an Oil made from the Seeds of the Sun-Flower. By Dr. Otto, of 
Bethlehem. Communicated by Dr. Thomas Bond. p. 304 

An Effay on the exprtffing of Oil from the Svk-Y lower Seed. 5^ John 
Morgan, M. D. p. 305 

A Letter on theexprefingofafneOilfroniBEhiE Seed. By Mr. John Morel, of 
Georgia. Communicated by Mr. Charles Thomson. p. 309^ 

The Method of defraying Vv'ild Garlic. By Mr. Henry Hollixgsworth, 
of Elk- Ridge. p. 311 

A Method of preferving Peafe from the Worms. By Mr. Peter Miller, of 
Ephrata. Communicated by Mr. Charles Thomson. p. 313 

An eafy Method of preferving Subjects in Spirits. By Mr. L. Nicola, p.. 314 

A Letter from BethUhem, onmaking Clrkast W ive. p. 317 

A Letter from Dr. Lorimer, of JVefi- Florida, to Hugh Williamson. M. D. 
containing fome Remarks on the Climate, vegetable ProduElions, &c. p. 320 

A cataloguz of fuch foreign Plants as are worthy of being encouraged in the American 
Colonies, for the Purpofes of Medicine, Agriculture and Commerce. p. 325 

DireB,ions 

* Mr. Antili. was one of his Majefty's Council for the Province of Nev.-Jerfey, and a 
y^onhy 'Wexnhtx oi t.\ie American Fh'dofo^hical Soiiety ; but he died before the publication of die 
Lift prefi:ced to this Volume. 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



DireElions for pnttmg vp Seeds and Plants, fo as to prefn-ve them in ajiate of Vegi-- 
tation, for being tranfported to dtjiant countries. p. 330 

An Attempt to account for the Change of Climate^ which has been cbferveain the 
Middle Colonies in North- America, ^v Hugh Willi ams on, ilf. i). p. 336 

CONTENTS ofSECT. III. 

An Account of the Eruption of Mount Vcfuvius. in 1767; in a Letter from an Eng- 
lifli Gentleman refiding at Naples, io John Morgan, M. D. Prof. Med, Coll. 
Philadelphia. ' p. 345 

A Dcfcripiion of a Self-vioving or Sentinel Register; invented by Mr, Wil- 
liam Henry, of Lancafter, in Pennfylvania. p. 350 

An Account of a Machine for pumping Veffels at Sea without the Labour qf Men, 
iiv i\I/-. Richard Wells, />• 353 

An Abflracl offundry Papers and Propofals for improving the Inland Navigation 
of Pennfylvania and Maryland, by opening a Communication between the Tide- 
Waters af Delaware and Chefnpeak-Bay, illujlrated with a Map, &c. p, 357 

A Defcription of a Machine for cutting Files. p, 365 

CONTENTS of Sect. IV. 

An Analyfis of the Chalybeate Waters of Brifiol, in Pennfylvania; in tzco Letters 
from Dr. John De Normandie of Brifiol, to Dr. Thomas Bond of Phila- 
delphia, V. P. of the American Philofophical Society. p. 368 

Remarkable Cafe of a Tetanos and Locked Jaw cured by amazing Qiiantities 
of Opium; by Z)r. Archibald Gho&'Vi.K. of Antigua; communicated by Joim 
Morgan, M. D. Prof. Phyfic, Coll. Philadelphia. p. 379 

An Account of the EffeBs of the Strammonium, or Thorn Apple. By Benjamin 
Rush, M. D. Prof. Chym. Coll. Philadelphia. p. 384 

An Enquiry into the Nature, Caufe and Cure of the Angina Suffocativa, or 
Sore Throat Diflemper. By Samuel Bard, M. D. Prof. Phyfic, King's Coll, 
New-York; communicated by John Morgan, M. D. Prof. Phyfic^ College 
Philadelphia. p. 388 

An Account of an Aurora Borealis, from a Correfpondent at Lancafler, in Penn- 
fylvania. p, 404 

An Account of a Horizontal Wind-Mill, by Mr. Thomas Gilpin. 405 

An Account of a new Species of Grape Vines, by Mr. John Jones, at Indian 
River, Worcefler County, Maryland. p. 406 



PREFACE. 



PREFACE. 

KNOWLEDGE is of little ufe, when confined to mere fpecu- 
lation ; But when fpeculatjve truths are reduced to pradlicej 
when theories, grounded upon experiments, are applied to the com- 
nion purpofes of life; and when, by thefe, agriculture is improved, 
trade enlarged, the arts of living made more cafy and comfortable, 
and, of courfe, the increafe and happinefg of mankind prom*otedj 
knowledge then becomes really ufefuh That this Society, therefore, 
may, in fome degree, anfwer the ends of its iniiltution, the mem- 
bers propofe to confine their difquiiitions, principally, to fuch fub- 
je(Sls as tend to the improvem-ent of their country, and advancement 
of its intereft and profperity. 

The tract of country now pofTefTed by the Englifh in hl^rth-Ams- 
rica is large and very extenfive; thefoil and climate various j and, ly- 
ing between the 25th and 55th degrees of North latitude, is not only 
fubjecft to the gradations from extreme heat to extreme cold, but 
feems capable of fupplying almofi; all the produiftions of the earth. 
It is watered with plentiful ftreams, accommodated with creeks, 
bays and havens, and interfered by rivers, which run far into the 
country, and not only open an eafy communication with the ocean, 
but, by interlocking with each other, afford an inland navigation 
of fome thoufand miles, that with no great expence might be ren- 
dered ftill more extenfive. 

By the induftry of its inhabitants, the land in many places is 
cleared of its wood, reduced to arable and pafture ground, and ren« 
dered fit to receive thofe fruits, trees, plants and grain, which are 
proper to every foil. -'-The Indians who were natives of this coun- 
try, and whofe employments were hunting and fifhing, paid little re- 
gard to hufbandry, or the cultivation of the land. To trade and com- 
merce they were ftrangers- Elegance of living they defpifed. They 
depended on the bow, and v/ere content if, with the fortune of the 
chafe, the fpontaneous fruit? of the foreft, the fifh which they 
caught, and a little //z^m?? corn which their women and children raifed, 
they could fupport life. Hence it was that, upon the firft difcove- 
ry of America by the Europeans^ Indian corn v;as the only grain 
found here. 

The fruits, trees, plants, and grain, introduced by the new In- 
habitants, are moftly fuch as were cultivated in European countries, " 

c from 

i^a) Bell's Travels In to China. Du Halde's Hiftory of C.'ilna. Kaempfer'j Hiftoryof TapAa, 



XVIU 



PREFACE. 



from whence thefe inhabitants came. But the foil and climate oi 
thcfe countries being different from that of Europe, no wonder if 
many of th<?m do not fucceed here as well as in Europe. 

If we may trufl: to the report of travellers, (a) this country, in the 
fame degree of latitude, very nearly refembles China, or the tracft of 
kind that forms the eaftern fide oi Afia, in foil, climate, temperature 
of the air, winds, weather and many natural pi'odudtions. And 
the fame refcmblance is remarkable between the weftern fide of the 
old world and the weflrcrn fides of our continent; (^) whereas the 
eaftern and weftern fides of the fame continent differ greatly. 

From the lateft and beft- accounts, (c) we find that Kamtfchatka^ 
and the coaft to the north of it, arc in almoft every refpeft, fimi- 
lar to Labrador in America; but very different from thofe parts of 
Europe which are comprehended within the fame degrees of latitude 

Philadelphia lies in the 40th degree of north latitude, the veiy 
fame as Pekin in China, and nearly the fiime with Madrid in Spain, 
and that part of California, of which Sir Francis Drake took pof- 
feffion. In Philadelphia and Pekin, which lie on the fame fides of 
the two continents, namely, the eaftern, the winters are cold, and 
the fummers are very warm. The fame winds, in both places, pro- 
duce the fame effedls. Thus in both, the north-weft winds are cold 
and piercing; the fouth-weft warm and dry; the north-eaft cold and 
wet; the fouth-eaft wet but warm. Befides, the general winds that 
prevail are the north-weft in winter, and fouth-weft in fummer. 
But the cafe is different in Madrid and California, though thefe 
places agree with each other in almoft every circumftance. 

This refemblance is manifeft not only in the weather and climate, 
but is alfo remarkable in the foil and natural produce. Tobacco, 
Phytolacca, (or poke) the perfimon tree, the mulberry tree, with fe- 
veral others, are natives of China, they are alfo the natives of this 
part of America. Ginfeng is gathered to the weftward of Pekin, and 
as far as we know, has not been found in anyother part of the world, 
except within the lame degrees of latitude in America. Thefe ob- 
fcrvations give grounds to hope that, if proper enquiries were made, 
many more of the native plants of Chi7ia, and very poliibly the Tea, 
fo much in ufe amongft us, and now become fo neceflary a part of 
our diet, might be found in America. 

Who knows whether the arrack tree, of which we read, may not 
be the fame as the American cocoti; or as our fugar maple, which, 
for many years fuccefllvely, will yield a large quantity of rich, fweet 
fap, from whence a fine fpirit may be diftilled? It might be worth 

enquiring 

(i) Natural and Civil Hijlorv o/'California. 
(t) MiUlcrV ^oj(?5-wy/ow Afia/o America. 



PREFACE. xix 

enquiring, whether the cotton of Firginia, which is different from 
that raifed in our iflands, is not the fame as that of which the Chinefe 
make their fine callicoes and muflins ; whether the Indian hemp of 
Americay or more probably, the filk grafs found in Virginia^ is not 
the fame as the Chinefe Herba ; and whether the filk, gathered from 
the trees in China^ of which poets and travellers have told marvel- 
lous ftories, is any thing more than the cocoons, which, in many 
places, are to be found in great plenty, on our trees and bufhes. 

The filk of China feems to be of different forts j that of which their 
Bandanoes and coarfe filks are made, is ftrong and harfli ; that 
which they work up into their fine damalks is foft, but of a weaker 
thread. Hence it is probable, that they have different fpecies of 
filk-worms. In this part oi America ^ different kinds of filk-worms 
are found upon different trees and flirubs; the cocoons of fome of 
them, particularly thofe that feed on the faffafras, are larger, and 
the filk they produce, though not fo fine, is much ftronger than that 
of the Italian filk worm that feeds on the mulberry. Is 'there not 
reafon then to believe that, if experiments were made with our own 
filk-worms, and fuch as are mofi: ufeful were propagated, this coun- 
try might, in a few years, produce plenty of filks .f* 

Such of the plants of China as have been introduced here, feem to 
agree with our foil and climate, and to thrive in a degree equal to 
our warmeft expedtations; witnefs the rice, the whiik and the Chi- 
nefe vetch. Thefe may encourage us to try others. From the trials 
made in our iflands of the fugar cane, coffee, ginger, &c. there is rea- 
fon to hope, that the fpices of thc.EaJl-Indies may be propagated and 
cultivated there. 

Thus by introducing the produce of thofe countries, which lie on 
the eafi: fide of the old world, and particularly thofe of Chinay this 
country may be improved beyond what heretofore might have been 
expe6led. And could we be fo fortunate as to introduce the induf- 
try of the Chinefe^ their arts of living and improvements in huf- 
bandry, as well as their native plants, America might in time become 
as populous as Chinay which is allowed to contain more inhabitants 
than any other country, of the fame extent, in the world. 

We have many trees, plants, roots and herbs, to the medical vir- 
tues and \ifes of which we are flrangers. The fruit of our peifimon 
tree has been ufed, to good purpofe, in brewing beer-, but it was not 
known before the experiment was made, by order of this Society, laft 
winter, that one bufliel of this fruit will yield above a gallon of proof 
fpiritj of an excellent tafte and flavour. To what ufcs in pharmacy 

the 



XX PREFACE. 

the gum, thf. bark and roots of this tree, which is fo very aftringent, 
may be applied, is unknown. The virtues of the Magnolia and fpice- 
wood are not fufficiently afcertained, though they have been ufed, 
and found to be excellent remedies in fome diforders. There is a 
tree called the Xantholixum, that grows in Maryland, Virginia and 
both the CaroUnaSy the bark of which is of fuch a particular qua- 
lity, that the fmalleft bit of it, on being chewed, ftimulates the 
glands of the mouth and tongue, and caufes a flow of faliva equal to 
that of a flight falivation, while its action continues. No rational 
experiments have yet been made to find out its virtues and ufes. A 
number of other trees might be mentioned, fuch as the faflafrafs, the 
wild cinnamon, the magnolia altifllma; the fragrant fmell and aro- 
matic tafte of which prove that they have medicinal qualities, though 
their ufes are not fully known. The fumach likewife deferves exa- 
mination. Its feed or berries, if not the wood itfelf, might be ufed 
in dying. The Indians mix its leaves with their tobacco, and there- 
by render it more aromatic and agreeable in fmoking. There is a 
fpecies of it which yields a gum that nearly if not exaftly relembles 
the Gum Copal. Indeed there is reafon to believe it is the very 
fame. 

Our wines and raiflns are imported from foreign countries; while 
nature points out, that there cannot be a country more proper than 
this is for producing the grape. Before our lands were cleared, and 
fo many of the grape vines extirpated, foreigners who vifited this 
country, could not help obfcrving and admiring the quantity that, 
like native vineyards, prefented themfelves to their view. And even 
now our hills, vales and level land abound with them. They grow 
in every foil, are fuiced to every climate, and without cultivation, 
pour forth their fruits in abundance; many of them rich and luf- 
cious to the tafte. It is not a little furpriflng thei'efore, that the 
culture of the grape was not among the firft of our improvements. 
Confldering the great variety of vines wc have on this continent, it 
is not to be doubted that, with a little care and induftry, America 
might produce wine fufficient, not only for home confumption, but 
even for exportation; and, confldering the richnefs of many of our 
grapes, in their prefent wild, uncultivated fliate, and the improve- 
ment they mull receive from culture, there is reafon to hope that, in 
time, our wine may be much efteemed. 

It would be endlefs to recount aU our plants, roots and herbs; 
many of which, though now neglected, might, with a little care and 
attention, become articles of commerce, and be of great ufe to our 
country. It is found from experience that flaxfced, by reafon of 

the 



PREFACE. 



XXI 



the drought and fcorching Sun In May and June^ does not grow 
well, and hemp requires fo rich a foil, that few pieces of ground will 
produce it. There is a plant, a native of this country, which grows 
in many places, but delights more particularly in light fandy foils, 
known commonly by the name of Indian hemp; its bark is fo ftrong 
that the Indians make ufe of it for bow-ftrings. Could we but find 
a method of feparating and fofteningits fibres, fo as to render it fit 
to be fpun into fine thread, it might ferve as a fubftitute for flax and 
hemp. This plant deferves to be cultivated on another account. 
The pod it bears contains a fubftancc that, from its foftnefs and elaf- 
ticity, might be ufed inflead of the fineft down. Its culture is eafy, 
inafmuch as its root, which penetrates deep into the earth, furvives 
the winter, and fhoots out fre(h ftalks every fpring. Five or fix 
years after being fown, it is in its greatell perfection. With the roots 
of plants, unknown to white people, the Indians ftain wood, hair 
and ikins of a beautiful colour, that preferves its luflre for years, 
though expofed to the weather. With the juice of herbs they relieve 
many difeafes, heal wounds, and cure the bite of the moft venomous 
fnakes. A perfedl knowledge of thefe fimples, and of many others, 
with which our country abounds, might be of great ufe to mankind. 
The bowels of our earth are but little explored, notwithftanding 
the encouragement received from the experiments that have already 
been made. There is a great variety of clays, many of them valuable. 
Of fome, good crucibles have been made, and fire bricks, equal to 
any in the world. Others have anfwered fo well in burning, as to 
induce one to hope, that in time, a porcelain, equal to that brought 
from China, may be made here. Near Newcajile on Delaware, a 
clay is found, which, ufed as a paint, retains its colour for years, 
even when expofed to the weather, without any mixture of oil. In 
many places is found a kind of earth, which has been ufed inflead 
of Spanifi brown, and anfwered the end. In other places there is 
an ochre, which dyes a wainfcot colour. May not fome of thefe 
clays have medicinal qualities? About eighteen miles fi-om this city, 
on the banks of Nejhameny, is a large bed of black lead. The lands 
to the fouthward are fo replete with nitre, arc fo favourable for pro- 
ducing it, that, infundry places, it appears like a hoarfroft, on the fur- 
face of the ground. We are informed that a gentleman in Virginia 
made a large quantity of fiiltpetre from the fweepings of his tobacco- 
houfe, for which he received a medal from the Society of Arts: And, 
to evince the importance of this difcovery, the fame gentleman afierts 
that, from the floor of a tobacco-houfe, fixty b)' forty feet, maybe 
collefted by a very fimple procefs, fixteen hundred weight of nitre 
in a year. Nay, it is faid there are, if the expreflion maybe allowed, 
mines of faltpetre in the mountains. Of 



XXll 



PREFACE. 



Of ores and minerals /America produces variety, as well as plen- 
ty; iron, copper and lead are found in many places. Some famples 
of tin, antimony and bifmuth ores have been lately difcovered, and 
other minerals, the nature and properties of which are not fuffici- 
ently afcertained. 

It would be worthy of every perfon, therefore, who wifhes to im- 
prove his country, and advance its intereft, to try whether he can- 
not find at home, or introduce from abroad, new fpecies of plants, 
trees, fruits, grain, &:c. fuitablc to our own foil and climate, for the 
fupport and ornament of life, and for articles of trade and commerce. 
Each one according to his opportunities and ability, fhould explore 
the virtues of our native plants, &c. and fearch out the treafures which 
nature has concealed in the bowels of the earth. 

Such difcoveries will not only be a benefit to ourfelves, but they 
•will render us more ufeful to our mother country. They will give 
full fcope to our induftry, without exciting her jealoufy, or interfere- 
ing in the leaft with her manufadtories; they will enlarge and give 
ftability to her commerce. For if by thefe means, the continental co- 
lonies can fupply her with the rarities of China, and her illands can 
furnilh the rich fpices of the EaJl-IndicS, her merchants will no longer 
be obliged, in order to obtain thefe, to traverfe three quarters of the 
globe, encounter the difficulties of fo tedious a voyage, and, after 
all, fubmit to the infolence, or exorbitant demands of foreigners. 

Already has Britain experienced the advantage of her colonies 
furnifliing thofe articles, with which Ihe ufed to be fupplied by for- 
eign nations. In the infancy of the colonies, and before they were 
fettled, fhe depended on Sweden and Riijfia for naval ftores. Thefe 
nations, imagining that flie could not procure them elfewhere, and 
refolving to increafe their gain, entered into a combination to raife 
the price : And had not her colonies furniflied thele articles, fhe 
mull have given up the empire of the fea, or fubmitted to their ar- 
bitrary impofiiions. 

But to accompliih thefe deGrable ends, it is efteemed necefifary, 
and propofcd, that men of learning and enquiry fhould turn their 
thoughts and attention to thefe fubjedls. The bulk of mankind fol- 
low a beaten track. They feldom turn their thoughts to experiments, 
and fcarcely ever adopt a new meafure, until they are well afilired 
of fucccfs and advantage from it, or are fet upon it by thofe, who 
have weight and mfluence with them. 

That this Society may, as far in their power, contribute to the 
carrying fuch a plan into execution, it is propofed to make it a prin- 
cipal part of their bufinefs to inquire, and try to find out, what our 

country 



PREFACE. 



XXlll 



country is capable of producing; what improvements may be made 
in agriculture, farming, gardening, &c. The beft methods of manu- 
ring land, of reftoring foils, that are worn out, and of protedling 
and guarding our fruits, trees, plants, and grains, from worms, in- 
fers andblafi:sj how to improve the breed of ufeful animals, and 
introduce other fpecies from foreign countries; how to preferve our 
timber for fhip-building and other purpofes, and to increafe the moft 
valuable forts, the beft time for felling and the beft method of fea- 
foning it ; what are the virtues and ufes of the many plants, &c. 
which this country produces; what exotics or medicinal plants may- 
be introduced, and the beft method of propagating the moft ufeful 
of them; v/hat new vegetable juices may be difcovered, and the beft 
way of managing them; what improvements may be made in the 
art of fermentation, making of wine, cyder, vinegar, &c. the cheap- 
eft and beft methods of making highways, caufeways and bridgesj 
joining of rivers, and increafing our inland navigation. 

But it is not propofed to confine the views of the Society, wholly, 
tothefe things, fo as to exclude other ufeful fubjedls, either in phyfics, - 
mechanics, aftronomy, mathematics, &c. 

The means of conveying knowledge are now become eafy. Print- 
ing houfes are erefled in all the principal towns on the continent, and 
regular pofts eftablifhed to can-y. letters and papers from one to ano- 
ther. Philadelpbiay (the place where this Society meets) hath, by 
its central fituation, not only a ready communication by land, with 
our continental-colonies; but likewife with our Iflands, by vefTels 
employed in carrying on our trade. Befides, hints thrown out in 
our public circulating papers are not loft, as in this country, almoft 
every man is fond of reading, and feems to have a thirftfor knowledge. 
The Society are very fenfible how unequal they are to the tafk of 
carrying into execution a plan of fo extenfive a nature. But they 
hope the ufefulnefs of it will procure them the countenance and affift-- 
ance of every man who wifhes well to his country. 

There are many gentlemen in different parts of the country, whom 
Providence hath bleffed with affluence, and whofe underftanding is 
improved by a liberal education. From fuch the Society promife 
themfelves great affiftance, as their fortunes enable them to make 
experiments, which men of narrow circumftances would not dare to 
attempt. The farmers employed in cultivating the lands are intel- 
ligent and fen Able, capable of obfervation, and of making many ufe- 
ful experiments. From thefe we fliall thankfully receive every hint 
and pradtical obfervation, relative to the improvement of their farms, 
the culture of trees and grain, the raifing of ftock, 6c. As among 

our 



XXIV 



PREFACE. 



our mechanics many are expert and ingenious, the Society hope to 
be favoured with any new inventions and difcoveries they fhall make; 
and as many of our young men, who have turned their thoughts to 
philofophical fubjecls, have difcovered fuch a degree of judgment and 
genius, as will enable them to carry their refearches far into nature, 
their fentiments on fuch fubjedts, as they fhall be pleafed to commu- 
nicate to us, fliall be received with thankfulnefs. For befides the 
other advantages that may redound from an inftitution of this fort, 
it may have a tendency to infpire our youth with a love of know- 
ledge, to draw them gently from fcenes of dilfipation, and to ani- 
mate them with a laudable defire of diftingulfhing themfelves by im- 
provements in arts and fcienees, and by ufeful difcoveries that may 
do honour to themfelves, and promote the intereft of their country. 

Every (pecimen of what is curious or valuable In forming a cabi- 
net, or colle(Stion of folTil, vegetable or animal fubftances, that may 
enlarge the bounds of natural hiftory in general, and of this part of 
the world in particular, will be efteemed agreeable prefents, and 
grateful acknowledgments will be made to the rcfpedtive donors. 

The Society propofe, as foon as their ftock will enable them, to 
reward with fuitable premiums every perfon who fhall make any va- 
luable improvement, invention or difcovery, in any of the fubjedls 
before mentioned. They will always be ready to incorporate as 
members, thofe who deferve well of their country . In fliort, 
the chief merit the Society mean to claim to themfelves is only 
that of encouraging and directing enquiries and experiments, of re- 
ceiving, colle£ling and digefting difcoveries, inventions and improve- 
ments, of communicating them to the public, and diilinguifliing the 
authors-, and of thus uniting the laboi\rs of many, to attain one end, 
namely, the advancement of ufeful knowledge and improvement of 
our country. 



TRANS- 




TRANSACTIONS 

O F T H E ' 

American Philosophical Society, &c. 



SECT.!. 

Mathematical and Astronomical Papers. 

A defcription of a neiv Orrery, planned and noiv near- 
ly fnijhed by David Rittenhouse, A. M. of Nor- 
riton^ in the county of Philadelphia, Conrmunicated by 
£)r. Smith. 



Read zift 
Mar. 1768. 



THIS machine Is Intended to have ihree faces^ 
ftanding perpendicular to the horizon: 
That in the front to be four feet fquare, 
made of fheet brafs, curioufly polifhed, filvered and paint- 
ed in proper places, and otherwife ornamented. From 
the center arifes an axis, to fupport a gilded brafs ball, in- 
tended to reprefent ihefun. Round this ball move others, 
made of brafs or ivory, to reprefent the planets ; They are 
to move in elliptical orbits, having the central ball in one 
focus; and their motions to be fometimes fwifter, and 
fometimes flower, as nearly according to the true law of 
an equable defcription of areas as is poffible, without too 
great a complication of wheel-work. The orbit of each 
planet is like wife to be properly inclined to thofe of the 
others; and their Jphelia a.nd Nodes juftly placed; and 
. Vol. I. A their 



2 MATHEMATICAL and 

their velocities fo accurately adjufted, as not to differ fen- 
fibly from the tables of aftronomy in fome thoufands of 
years. 

For the greater beauty of the inftrument, the balls re- 
prefenting the planets, are to be of a confiderablebignefs; 
but lb contrived, that they may be taken off at pleafure, 
and others, much fmaller, and fitter for fome purpofes, 
put in their places. 

When the machine is put in motion, by the turning of 
a winch, there are three indexes, which point out the hour 
of the day, the day of the month and the year, (according 
to the Julian account) anfwering to that fituation of the 
heavenly bodies which it then reprefented; and fo conti- 
nually, for a period of 5000 years, either forward or 
backward. 

In order to know the true fituation of a planet, at any 
particular time, the fmall fett of balls are to be put each 
on its refpe£tive axis, then the winch to be turned round 
'till each index points to the given time; then a fmall 7>- 
k/cope, made for the purpofe, is to be applied to the cen- 
tral ball, and directing it to the planet, its longitude and 
inclination will be feen on a large brafs circle, filvered, 
and properly graduated, reprefenting the Zodiac^ and 
having a motion of one degree in 72 years, agreeable to 
the preceffion of the Equinoxes: So likewife by applying 
the telefcope to the ball reprefenting the Earth, and di- 
reding it to any planet, then will both the longitude and 
and latitude of that planet be pointed out (by an index, 
and graduated circle) as fecn from the earth. 

The two lefler Faces are four feet in heighth, and 2 feet 

3 inches in breadth: One of them reprefents and exhibits 
all the appearances of Jupiter, and his fatellites, their 
eclipfes, tranfits and inclinations: Likewife all the appear- 
ances of Saturn, with his ring and fatellites. And the 
other reprefents all thephaenomina of the Af <?(?«, particularly 
the exa6t time, quantity, and duration of her eclipfes, and 
thofe of the Sun, occafioned by her interpofition; with a 

moft 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 3 

moft curious contrivance for exhibiting the appearance of 
a Solar Eclipfe at any particular place on the earth : Like- 
wife the true place of the Moon in the figns, with her la- 
titude, and the place of her Apogee and Nodes^ the Sun\ 
declination, equation of time, &c. It muft be underftood 
that all thefe motions are to correfpond exactly with the 
celeftial motions, and not to differ fome Degrees from the 
truth, as is common in orreries. 

The whole may be adjufted to, and kept in motion, by 
a ftrong Pendulum Clocks neverthelefs, at liberty to be turn- 
ed by the winch, and adjufted to any time, paft or future. 

N, B. The above machine is to be fupported by a ma- 
hogany cafe, adorned with foilage, and fome of the beft 
enrichments of fculpture. The part containing the me- 
chanical aftronomy of the Moon^ has been fometime finilh- 
ed, and is found perfectly to anfwer, by many trials al- 
ready made of it. The remainder of the work is now al- 
moft completed. The clock part of it may be contrived 
to play a great variety of Mtific. 



The 



^ MATHEMATICAL and 

The folloiving CALCULATIONS and PROJECTIONS 
of the Tranfit of Venus ivere laid before the Society a- 
greeable to their Dates ^ and claim a Place here-, as it 
may be of Ufe-, in various Refpe6is^ to compare them ivith 
the actual Obfervations of the Tranfit, afterivards made 
in this Pronjince ; and from thence to collet the Diffe- 
rences betiveen Computation and Obfervatiouy together 
ivith the Caifes of thofe Differences, 

Read 2ift T)ROJECTION of the e»fmtig Transit af VENUS over tht SUN, ivbhh is U 
June. 1768. JL A<j/>/«j June 3d, 1 769. ify David Rittenhoufc, A.M. 

Elements from Halley's Tables, for Lat. 40" N. b* Long. 75 W. from Greenwich. 

Communicated by Revd, Dr. Sniith. 

1769, June 3d, at 3 h. P. M. Sun's place, al 13®. 4i'. 37" . , 

Heliocentric place of $ in ecliptic, 8. 13. 18. 11 Lat. g N. 4^ 29'*! , 

V At 8 Hours P. M. Sun's place, a» 13^. 33' 35" >[,' r-^ v ' 

Place of Venus 8. 13. 38 .z Lat. ? $1. 3' l8" 



vRiq 



f^'.' 



Q ^ ^ 4- 27 

Log. © a 5.006568 Diftance 10152385 
Log. ? <J 4.861095 Dift. 726265Z 

Log. ? «G 4.460858 Dift. "a88^^ 

Diff. Log. .400237 

Apparent Semidiameter of 15'. 5l''=l5', 85 
Apparent Semidiameter of $ - - o', 5719 
Diminifh'd * Semidiam. of 6',306O • „ ■ r , ^ 00 
Diminifti'd Semidiam. of ^ o'^y^S'" ^"''° °^726a to 2889. 

Beginningof the Tranfit, ah. 16' 
End, 8. 50 

But fuppofing the Sun's horizontal Parallax but 8 Seconds, then for the above Lat. and Lon. 

Firft External Contaft will be at ah. iimin. 

* 716* Diameters ivere diminifhed tc anfiuer the Scale to vbich the Lat. of Venus ivasfet off in the 
frojeHion. 

Sec the Froje^iofi ; Plate I. 

The 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 5 

The folloiving Paper by the Re'vd. Mr. Ewing, ivas alfo 

\^''^>/ '" . coriiniunicated. 

'o .-7. ..';• ^ 

ht\L -GENTLEMEN, 

^'?768!"' A S yo" ^ave taken under confideration, the 
_/^ propofal which I made to you the 19th 
of April lall, of obferving the enfuing Tranfit of Venus 
over the diik of the Sun, which will be on the 3d 
of June, 1769; permit me to lay before you a pro- 
jection of the Tranfit, as feen from Philadelphia, to- 
gether with the elements of the projection, deduced 
from as accurate a calculation as I could make from 
Dr. Halley's Tables. I find from the obfervations made 
on the laft Tranfit in June, 1761, that the mean mo- 
tion of Venus, tor the year 1769, fhould be 21" more than 
thefe tables make it, and that the place of the nodes of 
Venus, as ftated in thefe tables, needs the following cor- 
redion. At the time of the ecliptical conjundtion of the 
Sun and Venus in June 1761^ their place was i^if 36' 
33", and her geocentric latitude was 9' 44/' .9 fouth. Then 
fay, as 72626.3 the diftance of Venus from the Sun : 
28894.9 the diiiance of Venus from the earth :: 584''.9 
her geocentric latitude : 3' 52^.7 1 her heliocentric latitude 
at that time. Then fay, as the tangent of the inclination 
of her-orbit with the ecUptic, is to rad. fo is the tangent 
of her. heliocentric latitude to the fine of her diftance from 
the node;- i, ^. as T^ 3" 23' 20": rad, :: T, 3^ 52''.7i : 
S, I'' 5' 14'', which dedudt from her place June 6, 1761, 
at the time of the tranfit, viz. at 5'' 57' 20" at Greenwich; 
and the remainder viz. 2* 14° 31^ 19" is the place of her 
afcending node at that time. The motion of her nodes,' 
as dated by Dr. Halley, is 31" per annum; therefore, foi*" 
8 years, add 4' 8" to the abovementioned place of her 
node and the fum, viz. 1' 14" '>^^' 2j" is the place of the 
node in the year 1769, June 3d. With thefe correded 
elements, and others, as in the tables, the following cal-» 
culations are made. 

The 



6 MATHEMATICAL and 

The apparent time of the ecliptical conjundion of the 
Sun and Venus, as.feen from the center of the earth, 1 769, 
June 3d, 5\ 4' 43", as reckoned at Philadelphia, ^^. o' 
32" weft from Greenwich. The place of the Sun and 
Venus, at the time of the tranfit, is 2* 13" 26' ^2", The 
placeof her defcendin^j^ node is 8* 14" 35' 27" at that time. 
The geocentric latitude of Venus at that timeis^io' i6".2g5 
The Sun's femidiameter is 15' 45^.65. The femi- 
diamcter of Venus o' 29". Their fum 16' 14". 65; 
Their difference is 15' 16". 6^. Venus*s horary motion 
from the Sun 3' 57".43. The angle made by the axis of 
the earth and ecliptic, as feen from the Sun, y* 3' 16". 
The angle made by the axis of Venus's vifible path and 
the axis of the ecliptic, is 8° 34' ly"; the angular point 
or node being i' 8' 5$" weft of the Sun. The angle made 
by the earth's axis and the axis of Venus's vifible path is 
equal to the fum of thefe, 15" 37' 2,5"* The horizontal pa- 
rallax of the Sun on the day of the tranfit is 8".5204, 
when his diftance from the earth is 101521.2, his paral- 
lax at his mean diftance 1 00000 beingfuppofedtobe8".65, 
as found at the laft tranfit, 1761. ^ The horizontal 
parallax of Venus on the day of the tranfit 29".9348, 
when her diftance from the Sun 72626.3, her mean dif- 
tance being according to her periodic time 72333. The 
difference of thefe, viz. 21 ".4144, is the horizontal pa- 
rallax of Venus from the Sun on the faid day. The tran- 
fit begins, as feen from the earth's center, at 2'', 17' 2o".48, 
and ends at 8\ 41' 46". 72. The total ingrefs at 2^ 
36' 31". 38; the beginning of egrefs at 8\ 22' 35". 82; fo 
that the whole duration between the internal contadts will 
be 5", 46' 4".44. But thefe times will be confiderably al- 
tered by the parallaxes of Venus in longitude and latitude, 
as obferved from different parts of the earth. The whole 
effed of the parallaxes of Ion; itude and latitude at the time 
of the external conta<ft to haften it, being 3' 31", the time 
of it, as feen from Philadelphia, is at 2", 13' 49" 28"' 
P. M. And the time of total ingrefs at Philadelphia is 

2\ 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 7 

0^. 52' 27"; the total effect of thefe parallaxes, to accele- 
rate the internal contad: being 4' 4". 

Thefe times depend upon the longitude of Philadelphia, 
weft of Greenwich, which in this calculation is fuppofed to be 
5% o' 32", which is as near aslhaveyet been able to afcertain 
it, by comparing a number of obfervations made on the e- 
clipfes of the firft fatellite of Jupiter, with Mr. Emmerfon's 
tables. But thefe cannot be depended upon for the longi- 
tude, within a minute or two of time, which will by no 
means anfwer the defign of afcertaining the diftances of 
the Sun and planets by the enfuing tranfit. I would there- 
fore beg leave to propofe to the Society, that provilion be 
made, without lofs of time, for erecting a fmall obfervatory 
in Ibme convenient place that the occultations of fome 
known ftars by the Moon, and the eclipfes of Jupiter's fa- 
tellites, may be noted, and compared with the correfpon— 
ding obfervations made at Greenwich and other places:: 
And that fome proper perfons be appointed to make the 
obfervations, at the expence of the Society, that our lon- 
gitude may be afcertained with the precifron that is necef- 
fary. It would be proper, that at leaft two fetts of obfer- 
vers be appointed to view the tranfit in this city, in order 
to guard againft the fatal accident of lofing; the Sun out 
of the field of the telefcope, in the critical and important 
moment; which I find happened to a good aftronomer in 
the Ea-ft-Indies, at the time of the laft tranfit. It is very 
difficult to preferve a celeftial obje£t in the field of a telef- 
cope, that magnifies confiderably. 

The expence of making thefe obfervations, wi'thfufficient 
accuracy, muft be confiderable; but it is hoped that an op- 
portunity will not be neglected on this account, which,, 
for its importance to the intercfts of aftronomy and navi- 
gation, has juftly drawn the attentionof every civilized na- 
tion in the world, and which will not be prefented again 
for more than a century to come, 

Thefe 



8 M ATHEM AT;iLiG AL and 

.Thefe things are fubmitted, with all humility and de- 
ference to the judgment of this refpedable Society, by 

Their very humble Servant, 

'1phlladclph'ia,'June\3,, 1768.""''^' JOHN EWING. 

N. B. The difference between fome of thefe Numbers 
and thofe printed in the American Magazine, was occafion- 
ed by neglecting the 21'' of correction in the place of 
Venus, as inconfiderable, the effedt of which is here ta- 
ken into the computation, and the refult is fet down above. 
See the projediion, plate 2. 

An Account of the Tra-n sir of Venus o'ver^ /^^ ISun*j- 
* JDiSK, as obfer'ved at Norriton, in the County ofVhX-- 
~^\2^6iQ\^\\\^.^andPro'v'mce o/'Pennfylvania, June 3d, 1769. 

^7 William Smith, D. D, Pro'uofl of the College of ^Yix- 
ladelphia, John Lukens, Efq; Surveyor-General of 
Pennfylvania, David Rittknhousf, J. M. o/'Norri- 
ton, and John Sellers, Efq; Reprefentati've in AJfein- 
blyfor Chefter County 

Being the Commitee appointed for that Obfervatio7i^ by the 
American Philosophical Society, held at Phi- 
Xz.AtX'^hAdi^ for promoting tfeful Knoivledge. 

Communicated to the Soci p.ty, July 20//7, 1769, hyDirec- 
tion,and in Behalf of the Committee; by Z)r. Smith. ,:, 

G E N T I.E M E N, '> 

AMONG the various public fpirited defigns, that 
have engaged the attention of this Society, fince its 
firft Inftitution ; none does them more honor than theit: 
early refolution to appoint Committees, of their own 
Members, to rake as manyobfervations, in different places, 
of that rare Fhcs7io?neno7i, the Transit of Venus over 
the Sun'jDisk, as they had any probability of being able 
to defray the expence of, either from their own funds, or 
the public affiltancc they expeded. 

As 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 9 

x^sthe members of the Noniton-Committee live at fome 
diftance from each other, I am, therefore, at their requeft, 
now to digeft and lay before you, in one view, the whole 
of our obfervationsiathat place; diftinguifhing, however, 
the part of each obferver; and going back to the firft pre- 
parations. For I am perfuaded that the dependance, which 
the learned world may place on any particular Tranfit- 
Account, will be in proportion to the previous, and fubfe- 
quent care, which is found to have been taken in a feries 
of accurate and well conduced obfervations, for afcertainino- 
\h^ going of the time-pieces, and fixing the Latitude and 
Longitude of the place of obfervations, &c. 

And I am the more defirous to be particular in thefe 
points, in order to do juftice to Mr. Rittenhoufe^ one of 
our committee; to whofe extraordinary flcill and diligence 
is owing whatever advantage may be derived, in thele re- 
fped:s, to our obfervation of the Tranftt itfelf. It is fur- 
ther prefumed, that aftronomers in diftant countries, will 
be defirous to have not only the work and refults belong- 
ing to each particular Tranfit-Obfer'uation^ but the mate- 
rials alfo, that they may examine and conclude for them- 
felves. And this may be more particularly requifite, in a 
New Obfervatory, fuch as Norriton^ the name of which 
hath perhaps never before been heard of by diftant aftro- 
nomers; and therefore, its latitude and longitude are to 
be once fixed, from principles that may be fatisfadory on 
the prefent, as well as on any future occafion. 

Our great difcouragement, at our firft appointment, was 
the want of proper apparatus, efpecially good Tele/copes^ 
with Micrometers. The generofity of our Pro'uincial Af- 
femhly foon removed a great part of this difcouragement, 
not only by their vote to purchafe one of the beft reflect- 
ing Telefcopes, with a 7)^//c/«^'s Micrometer; but likewife 
by their fubfequent donation of One Hundred Pounds^ for 
erecting Obfervatories, and defraying other incidental ex- 
pences. It was forefeen that on the arrival of this telefcope, 
added to fuch private ones as might be procured in the 
Vol. L B city 



lo MATHEMATICAL and 

city, together with fitting up the inftruments belonging to 
the Honorable the Proprietaries of the province, 'uiz. the 
equal Altitude and Tranftt Injlrument^ and the large aftro- 
nomical SeHor^ nothing would be wanting for the City 
Objer'uatory in the State-Houfe Square, but a good Time 
Piece, which was eafily to be procured. 

We remained however ftill at a lofs, how to furnifh the 
Norriton Ohfewatoryx But even this difficulty gradually 
vanifhed. Yj&xXy \n September^ 1768, foon after the no- 
mination of our Committees^ I received a letter from that 
worthy and honorable Gentleman, Thomas Pemh Efq. 
one of the Proprietaries of this Province, which he wrote 
at the defire of the Rev. Mr. Majkelyne^ Aftronomer Roy- 
al, expreffing their defire, " That we would exert our- 
" felves in obferving the Tranfit, for which our fituation 
" would be fo favourable;" and inclofing fome copies of 
Mr. Mafkelyyieh printed directions for that purpofe. 

This gave me an opportunity, which I immediately em- 
braced, of acquainting Mr. Penn what preparations we 
had already made; and what encouragement the Aflem- 
bly had given in voting One Hundred Pounds Sterling, for 
the purchafe of one refleding Telefcope and Micrometer, 
for the City Obfervatory; but that we fhould be at a great 
lofs for a telefcope of the like conftrudion for the Norri- 
ton Obfervatory^ and requefting him to order a Refie6lor of 
two, or two and an half feet, with Dollondh Micrometer, 
to be got ready as foon as poffible in London. It was not 
long before I had the pleafure to hear that Mr. Penn had 
ordered fuch a Telefcope, which came to hand about the 
middle of May, with a moft obliging letter, expreffing 
the fatisfadion he had in hearing of the fpirit fhewn at 
Philadelphia^ for obferving this curious Phoenomenon 
when it fhould happen; and concluding as follows 

*' 1 have fcnt by Captain Sparks, a refledling Telefcope 
*' with Dollond's Micrometer, exad to your requeft, which 
" I hope will come fafe to hand. After making your ob- 
" fcrvation with it, I defire you will prefent it, in my 

" name 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. ii 

" name to the college — MefTrs. Mafon and Dick/on tell me, 
" they never ufed a better than that* which I formerly 
" fent to the Library Company of Philadelphia, with 
" which a good obfervation may be made, though it has 
" no micrometer." 

We were now enabled to furnifli the Norriton Obferva- 
tory, as follows, 'viz, 

1. A Gregorian RejieBor about 2 f. focal length, with 
2iDoUond\ Micrometer. ThisTelefcope hath four different 
magnifying powers, viz. 55, 95, 130, and 200 times; by 
means of two tubes containing eye glafles that magnify 
differently, and two fmall Speculums of different focal 
diftances. Made by Nairne. Ufed by Dr. Smith. 

2. A RefraSior of 42 f. its magnifying power about 
140. The glafles were fent from London with the large 
Refiedor, and belonged to Harvard College, New-Eng- 
land; but as they did not arrive time enough to be fent 
to that place before the Tranfit, they were fitted up here 
by Mr. Rittenhou/e; and ufed by Mr. Lukens. 

3. Mr. Rittenhou/e*s RefraBor, with an objedl glafs of 
36 f. focus, and a convex eye glafs of 3 inches, magnify- 
ing about 144 times. Ufed by Himself. 

Both thefe Refradors, as well as the Refledor, wxre in 
mofl exquifite order. 

4. An Equal Altitude Injlrumentt its tclefcope three and 
an half feet focal length, with two horizontal hairs, and 
a vertical one, in its focus, firmly fupported on a ftone 
pedeftal, and eafily adjufted to a plummet wire 4 feet in 
kngth, by 2 fcrews ; one moving it in a North and South, 
the other in an Eafl and Weft direction. 

5. A Tranftt Tele/cope^ fixed in the Meridian on an axis 
with fine ffeel points; fo that the hair in its focus can 

move 

• Mr. Owen Biddle, who was appointed by the Society to condudl: the obfervation near 
Cape Henlopin, had this telefcope ; nothing being defired there but the contaBs and their exadt 
time; which he obtained to great fa tisfatftion, as by his report may appear. As he had but 
fbort time to prepare, and there was a difficulty in getting the neceflary apparatus for fixing, by 
his own obfervations, the longitude and latitude of the place chofen for his ftation, itwasre- 
folved to depend on the afcertaining thefe articles, by running a line from the place of his ob- 
fervation to a known point in the work of MefTrs. Llaftn and Diron, when employed in fet- 
tling the boundary lines oi Pennfylvania and Maryland; and in meafuring a degree of latitude, 
along that fine level peninfula, between Ddaivarc and Cbefaptak Bays. 



12 MATHEMATICAL and 

move in no other dlredlon than along the meridian; in 
which are two marks South and North, about 330 yards 
diftance each; to which it can be readily adjuftedin a hori- 
zontal pofition by one fcrew as it can in a vertical pofition 
by another fcrew. 

6. An excellent Time-Piece^ having for its pendulum- 
rod a Hat fteel-bar, with a bob weighing about 12 lb. and 
vibrating in a fmall arch. It goes eight days, does not 
ftop when wound up, beats dead feconds, and is kept in 
motion by a weight ot 5 lb. 

Thefe three lalt articles were alfo Mr. RittenhoiiJe''i-> pro- 
perty, and made by himfelf. 

7. An Ajironomical ^ladrant^ two and an half f. radius, 
made by SiJJoiu the property of the Zajl Jerfey Proprie- 
tors; under the care of the Right Hon. William Earl of 
Stirlitig-, Surveyor-G^«fr<3/ of that Province; from whom 
Mr. Liikens procured the ufe of it, and fent it up to Mr. 
Rittenhoufe for afcertaining the latitude of the Obferva- 
tory. Thus we were at length completely furnifhed with 
every inftrument proper for our work. 

As Mr. Rittenhoufe\ dwelling at Norriton Is about 20 
miles North-Weft of Philadelphia, our other engagements 
did not permit Mr. Lukens^ or myfelf, to pay much at- 
tention to the neceflary preparations; but we knew that 
we had entruftcd them to a gentleman on the fpot, who 
had joined to a complete fkill in mechanics, fo extenfive an 
ajironomical and mathematical knowledge, that the ufc, 
management, and even the conftrudion of the neceflary 
apparatus, were perfectly famxiliar to him. Mr. Liikens 
and myfelf could not fet out for his houfe till Thurfday, 
June ift; but, on our arrival there, VN^e found every pre- 
paration fo forward, that we had little to do, but to exa- 
mine andadjuft our refpedive telefcopes to diftind vifion. 
Ele had fitted up the different inftruments, and made a 
great number of obfervations, to afcertain the going of his 
Time-Piece, and to determine the latitude and longitude 
of his Obfervatory. The laudable pains he hath taken in 

thefe 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 13 

thefe material articles, will beft appear from the work it- 
felf, which he hath committed into my hands, with the fol- 
lowing modeft introduction; giving me a liberty, which his 
own accuracy, care and abilities, leave no room to exercife. 

Norriton, July i8th, 1769. 
DEAR SIR, 

<t f^T^JJE inclofed is the beft account I cmi ginje of the 
*' -^ Contacts, as I ohfewed them; and of ivhat I 
'"'- faiv during the interval hetuueen them. I fljouhV be 
*' glad you ivould contraH them^ and alfo the other papers y 
" into a fmaller compafs^ as I ivould have done myfelf if 
*' / had knovon hovu, I beg you ivould not copy any thing 
*' merely becauje I have ivritten it, but leave out vohat 
''^ you think Juperfluous. 

I am. 

With great efteein and affeElion, 

Tours-, &c. 

DAVID RITTENHOUSEr 

To Revd. Dr, Smith. 

Mr. Rittenhoufe's Obfervations at Norriton, before and 
after the Tranfit of Venus, June 3d, 1769; for fixing 
the Latitude and Longitude of his obfervatory-, and the 
going of his clock, &c. 

" TT* ARLY in November, 1768, I began to ereCt an 
" Tj Obfervatory, agreeable to the reiblutions of the 
" American Philojophical Society \ but, through various 
" difappointments from workmen and weather, could not 
" complete it, till the middle of April, 1769. I had for 
" fome time expected the ufe of an Equal Altitude inftru- 
" mentfrom Philadelphia-^ but finding I could not depend 
" on having it, 1 fell to work, and made one of as * fi mple a 

" conftrudion 

* It is dcfcrihcd above. No. 4. of the Apparatus, 



14 



MATHEMATICAL and 



conftrudion as I could. March 2Qth, this inftrument 
was finiflied, and put up out of doors, the Obfervatory 
not being yet ready. 

*' I had, however, for fome weeks before this, with my 
2^6 f. Refrador, obferved eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites, 
in fuch a manner that, though my equal-akitude inftru- 
ment was not finifhed, and confequently I could not fet 
my time-peace to the true noon, I fhould neverthelefs 
be able to tell the time of thofe eclipfes afterwards, when 
the inftrument fliould be ready. For this purpofe, I 
obferved, almoft every fair evening, the time by the 
clock, when the bright ftar in orion difappeared be- 
hind a fixed obftacle, by applying my eye to a fmall 
fight-hole, made through a piece of brafs faftened to a 
ftrong poft. 

The Obfervations were as follows, 'viz. 



1769 


. Star difappear- 




ed, 


per 


clock. 


Immer. ift fatcl. per 


r<:b. 


D. 


h. m. fee. 


clock. 




15 


9. 26. 39 


Feb. D. h. m. fee. 




2Z 


8. 58. 52 


16 14. 24. jS 




M 


8. 50. 57 


23 i6. 17. 41 




Hence, from column 


Mar 


3 


8. 23. 21 


3d, the apparent 




12 


7. 48. 26 


times of the two 




14 


7. 40. 41 


immerfions above, 




17 


7. 29. 4 


are, 




10 


7. 17. 16 


Feb. D. h. m. fee. 




1\ 


7. 13. 21 


16 14. 21. 10 




28 


6. 45- 44 


23 16. 15. I 



Equal altitudes of 


Hence appar. 






noon, or ©'§ 






cent, on Merid. 


Mar. A. M. 


P. M. 


per clock. 


D. h. m. fee. 


h. m. fee. 




r8. 58. 5a. 


2. 56. 52 


h. m. fee. 


19-} 




11- 57' 37- 


C.9- 4- la- 


2- S3- 32 




r8. 56. 40. 


2. 58. 26 




20^ 




II. 57. 18. 


C8. 59' 59- 


a- SS- 7 





" From this time, to May 20th^ the clock was altered 
^' feveral times; once taken down and cleaned, removed 
" back to the obfervatory, and regulated anew. Care was, 
** however, taken to obferve equal-altitudes of the lun, on 
" the days preceding and following any vifible eclipfe of 
*' the iftfatellite; when the wheather would permit. 

" The whole obfervations, during this period, were 
" the following, 



Equal 



^ 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 15 



Equal Altitudes of O 


Hence appar. 


Obferved Immerfi- 


jifril 3d, 1769. 


noon; or 0's 


ons of ift Satel- 




cent, on Merid. 


lite. 


A. M. P. M. 


per clock. 


April 3d. 


h. m. fee. h. m. fee. 






8. 5. %v 4; I. 56 


h. m. fee. 


h. m. fee. 


8. 8. 16 3. 59. a 


12. 3. 35 


14. 5.a. 40 


4th. 






8. 3- 43 4. 3- 3 


12. 3. 9 




8. 6. 38 4- 0. 10: 






loth. 




loth. 


8. 3»- 8 7 




16. 46. 20 


8. 35- 6 S- Cloudy. 




Day-Light. 


8. 36. 31 3 






nth. 






8. 30. az 3. 30. 43 






8- 33- 18 3- 27. 47 


la. 0. ao 




8. 34. 41 3, a6. a* 






ijth. 




izth. 


8. 28. ss ■) 






8. 31. J I S- Cloudy. 
8. 2,3- 16 3 




II. 14- 38 


14th. 






8. 25. 42 3- 33- 56 






Cloudy, 3. 31. I 


II. 59- 38 




8. 30- » 3- 29- 37 






.fl/«y 4th. 






8. 5. li 3. 44- 6 






8. 8. 3 3- 41. 18 


II- 54- 3» 




8. 9. 23 3. 39- 58 






5th. 
8. 4. II 3- 44- 51 




May 5th. 


8. 6. 59 3. 42. 4 


II. 54. aa 


II. 23. 4J 


8. 8. 19 3, 40. 4Z 






60:. 




, 


8. 3- 8 3. 45. 37 






8. J. 54 3. 42. 51 


II. 54- 14 




8. 7-15 - - 






nth. 






8. 34- 51 3- 17- 12 






8. 36. 13 3. 15. 49 


11-55' 54 




8.. 37. 40 3. 14. za 






8. 39- 3 3-12. 59 






15th. 
9. 12. 59 2. 39. 28 


- 


May 14th. 


- - - - 2. 38. a 
9- 15- 53 2. 36. 3a 


II. 56. 7 


Emerfion. 


- - - - 2. 35- 7 




9. 58. ao 



" May 20th, in the morning, the clock was fet up for 
" the laft time, pretty near the mean time. It had no 
" provifion for preventing the irregularities arifmg from 
" heat and cold; nor could Ifind leifure to apply any con- 
*' trivance of this fort. « Thlfi- 



i6 



MATHEMATICAL and 



" This day I llkewife put wires inftead of hairs in the 
telei'cope of the equal-altitude inftrument; and the fol- 
lowing are the obfervations, taken both with it, and 
with the meridian or Traiifit-Telefcopey in the order 
wherein they were made. 

"The illftate of my health would not permit me to fit up 
at nights, to take equal altitudes of the ftars. I was there- 
fore obliged to content myfelf with thofe of t,he fun on- 



1769. 



/i/jv 20th. 



Equal Altitudes ol0 Hence ap- 

A. M. P. M. par. noon ; 

h. m. fee. h. m. fee. or 0's cent. 

8. I. 30*. 3.51. 28 : on Merid. 

8. 2. 52 3.50. 8 1' per clock. 

8. 4- ^5 3-48. 45 h. m. fee. 

8. 5- 36 3-47- 34 I "• J6. 23i 



Ojferved E- 
mjrfions of 
i;'s Satel- 
lites; 



Obfervations with the 
Meridian Telefcope. 

h. m. fee. 

^V'^'^l "-55.16 
on Mend. 5 

Eall Do. II. 57. 31 



Hence ap- 
par. noon ; 
or 0's cent, 
on Merid. 
per clock. 
h. m. fee. 
II. 56. 234 



May 2lfl. 



Clouds. 



3-Si- 


11 


C 2,-50. 


50 


< 3-49- 


27 


I 3.48. 


7 



II. 56. 30 



Em. lit Sat. 

h. m. fee. 
II. 51. 



46 



0W. limb, 11.55.23 
E. Do. 11.57-37 
$ center 
on Merid. 



\ 1.18.39 



II. 56. 30 



May 23d. 



0. 4 iSi- 36 

1. 24 3.52. 16 

2. 47 3-50. 53 
8. 4. 8 - - - 



II- 56. 4i 



0W. limb 11.55-39 
E. Do. 11.57,53 



II. j6. 46 



May a 4th. 



E. limb, 11.58. o 

— pafl". femidi. I. 8 

§ center 7 

ditto, 5 



II. 56. 52- 



I. S. 4 



May 25th. 




0W. limb, 11.55. 53 
E. Do. 11.58. 9 



II. 57- I. 



May 26th. 



7. J, 6.54 i.5S. :,h 

8. 0.15 3.54. 18 
8. 1-37 2,-5-i- 56 
8. 2.57 3.51. is 



II. 57- 10 



W. limb 11.56. 3 
E. ditto, 11.58.18 



II. 57. ic-i 



May 27th. 



3 W. Limb 11.56. 12 
E. Do. 11.58. 27 



II. 57. 19^ 



May iOth. 



2)E. Emib. > I 

, . . , > 20.20. 31 
on Mtriil. S ^ ] 



• In the above Equal Altitudes, it may be proper to obferve that thofe in the afternoon are 
ferdown in an inverted order, the 4th P. M. being oppofite and correfponding to the ift A.M. 
The 111 fet, according to the order in which they hand, is the fun's upper limb at upper hair; 
the fccond' is the upper limb at lower hair; the 3d the lower iimb at upper hair; and the ^th 
til c lower limb at lower hair, as the telefcope inverts. May 31ft. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 17 



jiqu.il Altitudes of 
-- P. M. 
h. m. fee. 
3-58. 49 
3-57- 30 
3-56. 8 
3-54- 49 



i;6v'. 



A. M. 
m, fee. 
57-*9 
58.49 

O.II 

I-3I 



Hence ap- 
par. noon ; 
or 0*s cent, 
on Merid. 
per clock. 

h. m. fee. 

" 58- Si 



May 31/. 

Obferved E- 
merfions of 
l^'sfateilites. 



Obl'ervation* with the 
Meridian Telefcopc. 



h. m. fee. 
0W.limb 11.56. 58 
■hpaff. Qfemidi. I. { 



Hence ap- 
par. noon; 
or ©'tccnt. 
on Merid. 
per clock, 
h. m. fee. 
II. 58- 6 



Juns %d. 



Put imaller wires in 
the Telefcope ; 
hence the differ- 
ence of the inter- 
vals. 

7. 57- 9 
7. 58.29 

7. 59-53 

8. i.i^ 



4, o; 6 
3-58. 47 
3-57.22 
3.56. 3 



II. 58. 34. 



W. limb II. 57. 26 
£. ditto, II. 59. 4> 



II. 58- 334 



^une Id. 



TRANSIT DAY. 
Equal altitudes were 
not taken this day, 
as the inftrument 
was to be other- 
wife employed in 
the afternoon. 



W.limb ri.57.4i 
E. ditto, 11.59.57 



II. 58. 49 



June 4fb. 



- - 4. I. 18 

7. 58.10 1.$^. 59 
7- 59-34 3-58. 35 

8. 0.54 3-57- 15 



II. 59. I i 



W.limb II. 57- 54 
E. ditto, 12. o. lo 



II. 59' * 



Jum 5th. 



7- 56.43- 4- I- 50 

7. 58. 3. 4. o. 30 

7- 59-»7. 3-59- 7 

8. 0.47- 3-57- 47 



II. 59- n\ 



June btb. \ 


9. 11.30 


a.50. 12 
a.48. 51 

2.47. 26 


11. 59. 26. 


Em. ift Sat. 
h. m. fee. 
10. II. 2 


h. m. fee. h. m. lee. 

W. limb II. 58. 18 i 

E. ditto. 12. 0. 33 •^9- 25a 


June Itb. 1 


7. 57-52 

7. 59-16 

8. 0.35 


4. I. 25 
4. 0. I 


II. 59- 36 


Em. 2d Sat. 
8. 23. 42 


W.limb II. 58. 27 

E. ditto, 12. 44 

3) W.limb? , ,, ,, 

on MerM. < 3- »i- 53 


II. 59- i5i 






June M. 




7- 56.27 
7- 57-48 
7- 59-IO 
8. 0.32 


4. 3- 12 
4- I. 5» 
4. 0. a8 
3.59- 7 


II. 59- 48 




W. limb? „ 
onMerid. J "•.y8'40 „. ^9. ^gi 
E ditto, 12. 0.57 


Junt loth. 


7. 56.22 
7- 57-48 
7- 59-i» 

8. 0.32 


4- 4- I 

4. 2. 41 
4. I. 17 
3-59. 7 


12 9^ 






June 12th. 


1 


I e W. limb 11.59.29 

1 E. ditto. li. 1.45 ^-^ 



Vol. I. 



Equal 



i8 



MATHEMATICAL and 



1769. 


• 




y.v/,.13?^. 1 


Equal Altitudes ot 

A. M. P. M. 
h. r.i. fee. h. m. fee. 

7. 59.13 4. 2- 30 

8. 0.33 4. 1- " 


Hence ap- 
par . noon ; 
or 0's cent, 
on Merid. 
per clock. 

h. m. fee. 

12. 0. 50 


Oaferved E- 
merfions of 
If 's Satellites. 

Em. ift Sat. 

h. m. fee, 

la- 5- 59- 


Obfcrvations with the 
Meridian Telefcope. 

h. m. fee. 

0W. limb 11.59. 4* 

E. ditto. 12. I. 59 


Hence ap- 
par. noon; 
or 0's cent. 
on Merid. 
per clock. 
h. m. fee. 
12. 0. 5oi 








June l^ib. 1 






W.limb 11.59-57 
E. ditto, 14. 2. 13 


12 I. 5 


June x6ti. | 


7- 5(>-5'i 
7- j8.ia 
7- 59-36 
8. o.?6 


4. 6. 
4. 4- 
4- 3- 
4. 2. 


16 

57 
33 
12 


l» I 34 




W. limb 12 0. 26 

E. ditto, 12 a. 42 la I. 34. 
If cent. ? „ /: . 
on Merid. 5 9- «- 4 f 


5'anf lytb. 1 








0W.limb. 12. 0. 36 
•j-paff. femid. I. 8,8 


12. I. 44 8 
Ther. T 

mo- V 77" 
meter, j 


If center 7 „ , ,„ 
onMirid.^; 9- I- 5° 


jfaw X9fi6. j 








0W.limb. 12. 0. 56 
-fpaff.femidi i. 8,8 
Ifc. onmer. 8.53. 24 


12. a 4,8 
Therm. 77° 


June 21/?. 1 


1 




0W.limb 12. I. 17 1 la. a. 35^ 
E Do. 12. 3, 34 ' Therm. 8^"^ 


jf»nf 2ld. j 








W.limb la. I. 28 12. 2. 36^ 
E Do. 12. 3. 45 Therm. 74°^ 








June a3</. 


1 j 


0W.hmb, 12. 1. 39 12. .^ jj 
1 E. Do. 12. 3. 55 Therm. 3 i 


Ji//!? 24/A. j 








W. limb 12. I. 49 
E. ditto, 12. 4. 5 


12. z. 57 
rherm. 84" [ 


Jarte 25;^^. 1 






3d fat. out of 
the fhadow, 
on applying 
the eye at 
8- 54- 39 


W.limb 12. I. 57 12. 3. 5\ 
E. ditto, 12. 4. 14 Therm. 80° 


June z6tb. [ 




• 




W. hmb 12. 2. 6 

E. ditto, 12. 4. 23 

3E. limb ? ,0^, ,, 
on Merid. i^^-^3-5i 


12. 3- 14 i 
Therm. 85° 








June Z-Jtb. 










W. hmb 12. 2. 14 , 
E. ditto, 12. 4. 31 1 


12. 3. 22 


3 E. limb 7^ ^ 1 
on Merid, ^9- 4-19 

11 -.onMer. 8. 19. ';8 


Therm. 88°. 



June 28. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



19 



1769. 



Equal Altitudes of 0: 
A. M. P. M. 



h. m.fec. 

7.59- " 
8. o. 31 

8. I. 55 
8- 3- 15 



h. m. fee, 
4- 7-45 
4. 6-25 
4. 5. o 



Hence appar. 
noon; or 0*8 
cent, on Mi- 
rid, per clock, 
h. m. fee. 
12. 3. 29,4 



June 2%th. 
Obiervcd E~ 
clipfes of If 's 
Satellites. 



Obfervations with the 
Meridian Telefcope. 



h. m. iec. 
0W.limb, 12. z, 21 
E. ditto, 12. 4. 38 



Hence appar. 
noon; 0's 
cent, on Mi- 
rid, per clock, 
h, m. fee. 
12. 3. 29-1 



yune O.^th. 




I Em. ift Sat. 
3. 37. Ihavingbeenhid 



byalloudT OW-'-bi2.2.29 

h. m. Ir I E- <^'"0, IZ. 4- 45 



h. m. fee 

10. 25. I 



I»- .3- 37- 
Therm. 85^' 



July 2fl'. 



8. o. 24 4. 7. 28 

8. 1. 44 4. 6. 8 

8. 3. 8 4- 4. 43 

8. 4. 29 - - - 



Immerfion. 
12- 3- 59 I 3d Satellite. 
II. 19. 36 



O W. limb 12. 2. 52 
E. ditto, 12. 5. 8 



12. 4. O 
Therm. 8l"| 



6. o. 46 4. 7. 21 

8. 2. 7 4. 5. 58 1 

8. 3- 31 4- 4. 37 

8. 4. ji 4. 3. 16 



July 3d. 



12. 4. 6 



W. limb 12. 2.59 
E. ditto, 12. 5.15 



12. 4. 6 i 
Therm. 87'° 



Xy 4. 



». I. 9 4. 7. 13 

8. 2. 30 4. 5- 5a 

8. 3-53 4- 4- 3; 

8. 5- 14 4- 3- IP 



12. 4. 14 



W. limb 12. 3. II 
E. ditto, IZ. 5. 23 



12. 5. 14 1 
Therm. 87*' 



>/j5^*. 



8. J. 30 4. »• 57 



I a. 4- I9>3 



W. limb 12 3. II 
-f-pafledfemidi. i. 8. 5 



12. 4. I9i 
Then") 



at 
3P-M- 



94° 



July iti. 



'8. I. 36 4. 7- 41 
8. 2. 56 4- 6. ao 
8. 4. 19 4- 4- 57 



la. 4. 4*1 



W. limb 12. 3. 36 I 12. 4. 44 
E.ditto. IZ. j.5a Therm. 83°x 



TABLE o/"/^f Ecliffes of Jupiter's ijl Satellite, obferved at Hovrlton, from February l6th to June 
lyb; compared ivith the czXcxihXcA times of the fame Edipfes, for Greenivich, in order to fx the 
Longitude of the Ohferi>atory, The Immerftons -were obferved tvith Mr. Rittenhoufe',; RefraSior, 
and the Emerftons -with the Gregorian Refeiior. 



iji. Sat. Immerfions. 
"1769. Apparent time at Norriton, 

D. h. m. fee. 

Feb. 16 14. 21. 10 

23 16. 15. I 

jipril, 3 14- 49- 25 

10 16. 46. o 

la II. 14- 37 

May 5 II. 29. 27 
Emerfions. 

21 II. 55- 13 

June 6 10. II. 3a 

13 13. 5- I 



Calculated apparent time of the Longitude of Norriton W. 
fame at Greenzvich, 

D. h. m. fee. 

Feb. 16 19. 22. 29 

23 21. 16. 3s 

April 3 19. 51. 24 

10 21. 47. 14 

12 16. 16. 13 
May 5 16. 31. 20 

Emerfions. 
ai 16. 56. 49 
June 6 15. 12. S9 

13 17. 6. 31 



from Green 


•K/iVZi ; theH«t 


deduced. 


h. m 


fee 


5- I- 


19 


5- I. 


34 


5- I. 


59 


5. I. 


14 


5- I- 


36 


5- I. 


5$ 


5- r. 


36 


5. I. 


a? 


5. 1. 


30 



Difference of Longitude for a mean of the above 9 Eclipfes 5. 

-which we muft fix for the Longitude of our Obfervatoiy, for tlie prefent. 



I. 34,a2 



But 



20 MATHEMATICAL and 

But {hould the obferved * times of thofe ecllpfes, come 
out dIfFerent at Greenwich from their calculated times in 
the nautical almanac, for the prefent year, a correction of 
the difference of longitude muft be made accordingly. 

OBSERVATIONS /or^x/z/o- the Latitude c/'Norrlton Obfervatory, luHhan Afronomual'^a- 
drant cft-wo and an half feet radius ; made by SiiTon. 

1 his Quadrant was fent up by Mr. Lukens, and creded in the meridian of the Obfervatory, 
Mas 20th, by Mr. RHtenbouf, who took the following obfervations with it, -viz. 

Zenith diitances of ftars, for diftovcring whether there might be any error in the inftruments. 



With the face of the Quadra 


nt weftwardi. 


With the face caftwards. 






Highefl ftar in left 
leg of Bootes 


CMay 31 


ao^ 


36'. 6" 
36. 
36. 


Higheftftarinthe ^5''^'''" ^ 


20°. 


35'- 


55" 


j June 4 


20. 
20. 


left leg of Bootes i Z 


20. 
20. 


35- 
36. 


54 





CMay 31 


19. 


46. 18 


rjunc 6 


19. 


46. 


5 


ArduruB 




19. 
19. 


46. 14 
46. 20 


Ardurus J Z 


19. 
19. 


46. 
46. 


8 

13 




C 5 


19. 


46. 22 


V ^° 


19. 


46. 


II 


Bright ftar in the 
Crown 


Xjune I 


12. 
12. 


39- 36 
39- *7 


Bright flar in the Xjune 6 
Crown i 10 


12. 
12. 


39- 
39- 


34 
18 



From a mean of the above 18 obfervations, the error of the quadrant Is 3,"5 to \t& fuhjirailed 
from the Zenith dillance when the face is weftwards aud added when it is eaftwards. 

OBSERVATIONS 



* Since drawing up the above, the Rcvd. Mr. Maflcelyne, Aftronomer Royal, agreeable to 
my requeft, hath been pleafed to communicate the following lift of edipfes of Jupiter's ift Sa- 
tellite as obferved at the Royal Obfervatory, from April to June, both inclufive, viz. 
1769. Apparent time. Immerfionsof ift Sat. at Greenwich. 

D. h. m. fee. 
March 2<) 12. 25. ^ with 2 f. Refled. madeby5£or/; Apert. 4,5 inches diameter. 
Afril 12 16. 16. 8 with 2 f. RefleA. made by .fljW; Apert. 3,'8 inches diameter. 
28 14. 35. 17 with 5Aor/*s 2 f. Refledor. 
Emerfions. 
i/f ^ 59* 3^' 15 ? with 5iiort'» 2 f. Refledor. 

"^ c9- 3^- 35 3 with 6 f. Newtonian Refleftor; Aperture 9 inches diameter. 

June 8 9. 40. 56 with 6 f. ditto. 

ij II. j,5. 2,^ with 5/&or«'s 2 f. RefleAor. 
July I 9. 50. 24 with ditto. 

Mr. Mafkelyne writes that the 6 f. refle Aor fhews an immerfion later and an cmerfion fooner 
than Short's 2 f. RefleAor by about 20"; and that the difference of the 2 f. refledors, owing 
10 the difiFerence of their apperturcs, may be about 5''. 

There are only three of the above eclipfes obferved at Greenwich, (viz. the 3 immerfions) 
that could have been feen here, and but one of them happens to be among thofe adlually ob- 
ferved, iriz. 

A ■, , .1 Cl6h. 16'. 8" at Greentvich. 
Apr.l 12th. ^jj j^^^ ^tNorritor,. 

Hence j. I. 31 Difference of longitude. 

'Till we have an opportunity, the enfuing fpring, to obferve more eclipfes of Jupiter's Sa- 
tellites, we would rather depend on the difference of longitude deduced from the two foregoing 
correfponding obfervations, than on the m^aw deduced from the calculated times; which, how- 
ever, puts us only 3" more weft. The immerfion of April lath was taken at Green-uicb, with 
fiird'i telefcope of 3, 8 inches aperture, and the fame immerfion at Norriton with arefra<5lor 
that, in all trials, as near as can be judged, gives the fame fecond with the Gregorian refledor 
of 4, 4 inches aperture ; fo that 2" or 3" might be added to the time of the immerfion at Green- 
wich to agree with our telefcope, which would make jh. i' 33" or 34" diif. long, the fame as 
got from the mean of the calculated times. 

The eclipfes of 2d and 3d fatellite arc not fet down, as they arc not fo much to be depended 
en, M thole of the ift. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. %v 

OBSERVATIONS of the Zenith Diflanceof the Sun's upptr and lo-wer Limb ; and the latitude of 
the Obfervatory deduced from eacbfparately 



0's upper limb a Zenith 



May 25- 
26. 
27. 



i8« 48'. 
38 
28. 



18: 
17. 

17- 
17- 
17- 
17- 
16. 
16. 



43- 
36. 



45' 
18 
21 

47 
16 
51 

Si 
21 
10 

45 



Hence Lat. 
40'. It)'. 17" 
40. 10. 10 
40. 10: 10 

C cloudy, and 

\ doubtful. 

40. 10. % 
40. 9. JZ 
40. 9- 34 
40- 9- 47 
40. 10. 14 
40. 10 8 



2. 

4. 

ituhtful. 6. 

7- 17- 3- 
12. 16. 41. 

13- ' 

Mean of the above!, 
j-obfervationsof ©•8^40". iC. l". 33'" 
upper limb is j 

Do. from the 5 ob-7 
fervations of lower > 40. 9- 5°- 48 

limb, 3 

Mean of both, 40°. 9-' 5^" 10"' 
And 39- 56. 54 



0*8 lower limb a Zenith. 
June 



8. 

9- 
10. 
ir. 
14. 



17 • 
17- 
17. 
«7- 
17? 



29'. 
24. 

20. 

15- 
6. 



33" 
35 
5 

59 
9 



Hence Lat. 
40''. 9.' 48" 
9- 47 
9. 49 
9- 52 
9- 58 



-40. 
40. 

40. 
40. 



Mean of the 5 oh-^ 
fervations of the low 
er limb,. 



:|.o. 



.9^. 50". 4 8"' 



for the lat. of Norriion Obfcrvatorp 
lat. of Philadelphia Obfervatory. 



The diflFerence of the above obfervationsi& greater tHan 
might be wifhed. All that can be offered to excufe them 
is the want of better inftruments; though Mr. Rittenhoufe 
thinks the differences chiefly arofe from the adion of the 
fun on the wooden frame which fupported the quadrant. 
For he always obferved that when the fhutter in the roof 
was opened, the plummet- wire would, in a minute or two, 
leave the point, though it had flood over it quietly all the 
forenoon. Yet, not withflanding thofe differences, a Af^jw, 
from fo many, maybe fuppofed very near the truth; fince, 
if we leave out that of June 6th, which differs mofl 
from the others, the mean of the refl will be but 2" great- 
er than it is fet down above. 

So far I have given Mr. Rittenhoufe^^ obfervationSj pre- 
vious, and fubfequent to the Tranftt-, for afcertaining the 
going of his timepiece and fixing the latitude and Ion— 
gitudeof tlie obfervatory, from February 15th to July 8th; 
by which it will appear what laudable diligence he hath 
ufed in thefe material articles. He hath taken many more 
obfervations fmce; but thofe given above, are judged fully 
fufficient to (hew that both the latitude and longitude of 
the obfervatory may be* depended on, and alfo the times 
given on the day of the tranfit. It 

* As the menfuration of the ground between the Obfervatories of Philadelphia and NorritOB, 
■will give the fame difference both of longitude and latitude, which was got by the different 
agronomical obfervations at each place, they may be therefore taken a« aconfirnution of each 
•thcrs. 



22 MATHEMATICAL and 

It hath been mentioned before, that it was on Thurfday 
afternoon, June ift, that Mr.Lukens and myfelf arrived at 
iVbrnVow with a defign to continue withMr.Rittenhoufe *till 
the tranfit fhould be over. The profped before us was 
very difcouraging. That day, and feveral preceding, had 
been generally overcaft with clouds, and frequent heavy 
rains ; a thing not very common for fo long a period at 
that feafon of the year in this part of America. But, by 
one of thofe fudden tranfitions, which we often experience 
here, on Thurfday evening, the weather became perfectly 
clear, and continued the day following, as well as the day 
of the Tranfit^ in fuch a ftate of ferenity, fplendor of fun- 
fhine, and purity of atmofphere, that not the leaft ap- 
pearance of a cloud was to be feen. 

June 2d, and the forenoon of June 3d, were fpent in 
making the neceflary preparations, fuch as examining and 
marking the foci of our feveral telefcopes, particularly the 
reflector, with and without the micrometer. The refledor 

waealfoplaced on a polar axis, and fuch fupports con- 
trived for refting the ends of the refractors, as might give 
them a motion as nearly parallel to the equator as fuch 
hafty preparations would admit. Several diameters of the 
Sun were taken, and the micrometer examined by fuch 
other methods as the (hortnefs of the time would allow. 

The Sun was fo intenfely bright on the Day of the 
Tranfit, that inftead of ufing the coloured glafles fent from 
England with the Refledor, I put on a deeply-fmoaked 
glafs prepared by Mr. Lukens^ which gave a much more 
beautiful, natural and well-defined appearance of the Sun's 
Difk. The fmoaked glafs was faftened on the Eye Tube 
with a little bees-wax, and there was no occafion to change 
it during the whole day, as there was not the leaft cloud, 
or intermiffion of the Sun's fplendor. 

Mr. Rittenhoufe^ in his previous projedion (fee p. 4) 
had made the firft external contact to be, June 3d, 2^, 11' 
for lat. 40° N. and long. ^^. W. of Greenivich; on a 
fuppofition of the Sun's horizontal parallax being 8". He 

happened 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 23 

happened to be very near the truth. For at 2\ 10' ^^^"^ 
mean time, the i ft external contaSl was at Norriton^ lat. 40% 
9'. sG" N. and long. 5'. i'. 31" weft. Other calculations 
made it generally from 6' to 8' later for the latitude and 
longitude. 

Though this calulation was not given, to be entirely de- 
pended on, yet it was fufficient to make us keep what, in 
the Tea phrafe, would be called digood look-out; and there^ 
fore, at one 6*clock^ we took off the Micrometer, which 
had been fitted to the Refledor with a power of 95,and 
adjufted it to diftind: vifionywith the * fame power to ob- 
ferve the ContaSis.. And during the hour that was to in- 
tervene from one to tivo^ we refolved to keep an alternate 
watch through the Rejledory on that half of the Sun^% 
limb, where Venu^ was certainly expected to touch; while 
the others, not thus employed, were fixing what more re^ 
mained to be done, as follows, viz. 

Firft, That each of us might the better exercife our own 
judgment, without being influenced, or thrown into any 
agitation by the others, it was agreed to tranfad every 
thing by fignals, and that one fhould not know what ano- 
ther was doing. The Situation of the Telefcopes, the two 
Refradors being at fome diftancewzVy??^?^^ the Obfervatory, 
and the Refledor ivithin-t favoured this defign. 

Secondly, Two perfons, Mr. Seller Sy one of our Com- 
mitee, and Mr. Archibald MClean^ both well accuftomed 
to matters of this kind, were placed at one window of the 
Obfervatory, to count the clock and take the fignal from 
Mr. Lukens, Two of Mr. RittenhouJe\ family, whom 
he hath often employed to count the clock for him in his 
obfervations were placed at another window to take his 

fignal.. 

* As the two RffraBing Teltfcopes, ufed by my aflbciates, took into theirfeld but a fmall part 
ef the Sun's hmb, and were difficult to manage on account of their length and the Sun's great 
altitude, It wa, thought bcft that I fhould not ufe the greateft power of the R.feaor; that, hav- 
mg a larger field, I might be able to give notice to them, if the Contact flioiild hapiaeD at 
any great diftance from that part of the Sun's limb where it was expedcd, and which might 
not be withm their field. But if it fhould happen near that part, we were to tranfacft every 
thing by fignals given to the counters at the clock, without the leaft notice to each other. It. 
was alfo thought btft that there fhould be fi.me difference in our magnifying powers; and I am 
wellpleafed that I did not ufe a larger with thcRefledor, as the vifion, with the power I ufed,. 
was exquifitely diftind and accurate. 



^4 ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 

fignal. My Telefcope was placed clofe by the clock, and 
I was to count its beats, and fet down my own time. 

Thefc Preliminaries being fettled, we prepared at two 
o'clock to fit down to our refpedive Telefcopes ; or ( I 
fhould rather fay) lie down to the Refra6iors^ on account 
of the Sun*s great height. 

As there was a large concourfe of the inhabitants of the 
county, and many from the city, we v^ere apprehenfive 
that our fcheme for filence might be defeated* by fome of 
them fpeaking, when they fhould iee any of the fignals 
for the Contads; and therefore we found it neceffary to 
tell them that the fuccefs of our obfervation would depend 
on their keeping a profound filence*till the Confabs were 
over. And to do them juftice, during the 12' that enfued, 
ther could not have been a more folemn paufe of filencc 
and expectation, if each individual had been waiting for 
the fentence that was to give him life or death. So regular 
and quiet was the whole, that, far from hearing a whifper, 
or word fpoken, I did not even hear the feet of the coun- 
ters, who pafled behind me from the windows to the clock; 
and was fuprifed when I turned from my Telefcope to the 
clock, to find them all there before me, counting up their 
feconds to an even number; as I imagined, from the deep 
filence, that my aiTociates had yet feen nothing of Femis, 

As the Contads are among the moft efTential articles re- 
lative to this pha^nomenon, it is material, before we fet 
down the times^ to give a particular account of the manner 
in which each obferver judged of them, and the circum- 
ftances attending them. 

Mr. RITTENHOUSE's Account of the Contads. 

" At 2\ 11'. 39'' per clock, the Revd. Mr. Bartotiof 
Lancajler^ who aflifted me at the Telefcope, on receiving 
my fignal,as had been agreed, inftantaneoufly communicated 
it to the counters at the window, by waving a handker- 
chief; who walking foftly to the clock, counting feconds 

as 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 25 

as they went along, noted down their times feparately, 
tigrecing to the J'ame Jecond* And three feconds fooner 
than this, to the beft of my judgment, was the time when 
the leafl: impreflion made by Fenus on the Sun*s limb, 
could be feen by my telefcope. 

-" When the planet had advanced about one third of 
its diameter on the Sun, as I was fleadily viewing its pro- 
grefs, my fight was fuddenly attracted by a beam of light, 
which broke through on that fide oi Venus yet off the Sun. 
Its figure was that of a hroad-hajed pyramid; fituated at 
about 40 or 45 degrees on the limb of Venus ^ from a 
line palling through her center and the Sun's, and to the 
left hand of that line as feen through my telefcope, which 
inverted. About the fame time, the Sun's light began to 
fpread round Venus on each fide, from the points where 
their limbs interfe<5ted each other." See a reprefentation 
of both thefe phsenomena, plate 3. fig. i. 

" As Venus advanced, the point of the pyramid ftill 
grew lower, its circular bafe wider, until it met the 
light which crept round from the points of interfedion of 
the two limbs; fo that when half the planet appeared on 
the Sun, the other half yet off the Sun was entirely fur- 
rounded by a femicircular light, beft defined on the fide 
next to the body of Venus ^ which continually grew bright- 
er, till the time of the internal contad:." See plate 3. fig. 2. 

" Imagination cannot form any thing more beautifully 
ferene and quiet, than was the air during the whole time; 
nor did I ever fee the Sun's limb more perfedly defined, 
or more free from any tremulous motion; to which his 
great altitude undoubtedly contributed much. 

"When the internal contaSl (as it is called) drew nigh, 
I forefaw that it would be very difficult to fix the time 
with any certainty, on account of the great breadth and 
brightnefsof the light which furrounded that part of Venus 
yet off the Sun. After fome confideration, I refolved to 
judge as well as I could of the co-incidence of the limbs ; 
and accordingly gave the fignal for the internal contaH 

Vol. I. D at 



a6 MATHEMATICAL and 

at 2". 28' 45'' by the clock (when the appearance of ri?;zMj 
and the border of light where as in fig. 3. plate 3.) and 
immediately began to count feconds, which anyone who has 
been accuftomed to it, may do for a minute or two, pretty 
near the truth. In this manner I counted no lefs than i' 
32"*before the effed of the atmofphere of Fi?w«j on the 
Sun's limb wholly difappeared ; leaving that part of the 
limb as well defined as the reft. From this I concluded 
that I had given the fignal for the internal contaci too foonj 
and the times given by the other obfervers at Norriton 
confirm me in this opinion.'* 

Mr. LUKENS'^ Account of the Contads. 
" The telefcope I ufed, being a refractor of 42 feet,, 
giving but a fmall field, and fomething difficult to manage, 
by reafon of the Sun's great altitude; I was obliged ta 
move t often, and apprehend that I did not difcover the 
firft impreffion of the planet on the Sun, which my tele- 
fcope would havefhewn. For, after one of thofe movements, 
on bringing the glafs to bear again on that part of the Sun's 
limb where Venus was expedled, I faw a large tremulous 
fhadow, already fome what advanced, and feeming to prefs 
ftill inwards on the Sun's limb. Having contemplated 
this for a few feconds, and perceiving the appearance 
grov more dark, and make a better defined impreffion on 
the limb, I gave the fignal to the perfons who counted 
time for me, which they noted down feparately at 2^. 12' 
3" by the clock. I fuppofe my telefcope might have fhewn 
the impreffion on the Sun's limb at leaft 15" fooner. 

" When Venus was near one half of her diameter ad- 
vanced on the Sun, 1 faw diftindly a border of light en- 
compaffing that part of her which was yet ofi^ the Sun. 
This was fo bright that it rendered that part of Venus 
vifible and pretty well defined, although not vet entered on 

the 

* Mr. Ritteihoufc thinks tliat aperfon who hud feen the Sun nearer the horizon, and could 
not fo well diftiiigtiiih between the I)ody (>i" Venus, and this furrounding atmofphere, would 
have been near i' later than him in pronouncing the contad; and that the other 32'' elapfed 
before the Sun's limb (through the large refrador he ufed) appeared totally reflored to its for- 
mer fplendor. 

f The obfervers with the rcfradors were obliged to lie on the eround, with their heads 
bolftcrcd up by the perfons that aifillcd them. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 27 

the Sun. But towards the ittternal contafl, the circular 
border of light feemed to grow more dufky towards the 
points where the luminous fegments of the Sun's limb 
were ready to clofe round the planet. This dufkinefs 
did not feem to part wholly from the Sun*s limb, at the 
time I apprehended the body of Venus to be wholly entered 
on the Sun, ^ and when I gave the fignal for the internal 
contadt, which was noted by both the perfons who coun- 
ted for me at 2''. 28^ j8" by the clock. And I judge at 
leaft from 16" to 18" more, before I faw the Sun's limb 
clear of this dufky fliadow." 

Dr. smith's Account of the Contacts. 

" The power kept on the Gregorian rejiedor^ for obfer- 
ving the conta6ls^ as hath been already obferved, was the 
fame which we had been ufing, and were again to ufe, 
with the micrometer -i magnifying 95 times. I had therefore 
a large field, taking in about half the Sun's difk; and the 
inftrument was fo firmly fupported, with its axis in a po- 
lar dire<3:ion, that it could not be (haken by any motion on 
the earthen floor of the obfervatory, and required only an 
eafy movement of one part of the rack-work to manage 
it. With thefe advantages, any part of the Sun's limb 
could be readily kept in the middle of the field, without 
neglecting, every 4" or 5", to caft my eye on all other 
parts of the limb on both fides, where there was any pof- 
fibility of the contact to happen. 

" Within half a minute of the time calculated for the ift 
contact by Mr. Rittenhoufe, I fpokc to the counters at the 
windows to be very attentive to thofe who were to give 
them the fignals from the telefcopes out of doors; and 
turning my eye clofely to the part of the Sun's limb where 
Venus was expe<3:ed, I had viewed it ftedfaftly for feveral 
feconds, without having occafion to change my field, 
when I was fuddenly furprized with fomething ftriking 
into it, like a watery pointed fhadow, appearing to give a 
tremulous motion to all that part of the limb, although 
the lelefcope fiood quite firm, and not the leaft difturbance 
or undulation were perceptible about any other part. 

" The 



28 MATHEMATICAL and 

" The idea I had formed of the conta6l was — That Ve- 
nus would inrtantaneofly make a well defined black and 
fmall impreffion or dent on the Sun. But this appearance 
was fo diflerent, the difturbance on the limb lb ill defined, 
undulatory, pointed, waterifii, and occupying a larger 
Ipace than I expedled, that I was held in a fufpenle of 5" 
or G" to examine whether it might not be fome fkirt of a 
watery flying cloud. 

" Perceiving this Ihadow (atmofphere, or whatever elfe 
it was) to prefs Hill forward on the limb, with the fame 
tremulous pointed appearance, the longeft points towards 
the middle, 1 began to count the beats of the clock for 
either 15" or 16", when a well-defined black dent, appa- 
rently occupying a lefs fpace on the Sun's limb, became 
diftindly vifible. I then quitted the telefcope and turning 
to the clock, noted the time it then fhewed, which was 2". 



12' s" 



" About 22" fooner than this (viz. the 16" I counted, 
and the 5" or 6" in which I remained in doubt at the be- 
ginning) was the firft vifible impreffion on the limb which 
my telefcope would fhew; and I alfo marked that time 
down: viz. 2^ 11' 40" to 43". If this firft impreffion is 
to be taken for the external contaSi^ I think it may be 
judged of almoft to z. fingle fecond, by perfons having 
equally good eyes and telefcopes; which cannot be done, 
as I apprehend, to Je'ueralfeconds^ either with refped: to 
the internal contacl^ or even with refped: to the moment 
of the firft diftin<5l black dent, commonly marked for the 
external contact. In both thefe, fome diff'erences may 
well happen among the beft obfervers, from their different 
manner of judging, in refpect to a circumftance of fuch 
exquifitc nicety. 

" Whether a telefcope of larger powers than what I 
made ufe of, might not have fooner iliewn this firft fha- 
dowy impreffion (that preceded the diftind: black contact) 
I will not take upon me to determine; though, from the 
time given by Mr. R'lttenboufe^ I think it would. But this 

1 can 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 29 

I can be Ture of, that I faw the firft ftroke of it perceptible 
through my telefcope, having that part of the Sun*s limb 
in full and lleady view; and I might have noted the time 
to a fingle fecond, if I had expelled it in that way. 

" As to the internal conta^^ the thread or crefcent of 
light, coming round from both fides of the Sun's limb, 
did not clofe inftantaneoully about the dark body of the 
planet, but with an uncertainty of feveral feconds; the points 
of the threads darting backwards and forwards into each 
other, in a quivering manner, for fome fpace of time, be- 
fore they finally adhered. The inftant of this adhefion I 
determined to wait for, with all the attention in my power, 
and to note it down for the internal conta^ ; which I did, 
at 2\ 29' 5'' by the clock; a few feconds later than Mr. 
Lukens^ who judged in the fame way. And even then, 
though the points of the thread of light feemed to clofe, yet 
the light itfelf did not appear perfed:on that part of the limb 
till about 12" afterwards; and I apprehend that a perfon 
who had waited for the perfed:ion of this fmall thread of 
light, would have given the contact that number of feconds 
later than I did, although I was later than the others. 

" After the ifl contatf, having quitted the telefcope, to 
note down my time, the gentleman who counted for us, 
and feveral others now in the obfervatory, were impatient 
to fee Venus before fhe had wholly entered on the Sun; an 
indulgence not to be denied them, as the refled:or was 
moft convenient for them. For this reafon 1 did not fit down 
to it again till within 5' or 6' of the internal contad:, and 
confequentlyfaw none of thofe curious appearances, on that 
part of the planet off the Sun, mentioned by my aflbciates. 
But their account may be fully depended on, as both of 
them are well accuflomed to celeftial obfervations, and 
are accurate in judgment as well as fight. The fmall dif- 
ferences in the times of our contaHs^ it is prefumed, may 
be eafily reconciled, from the different powers of our te- 
lefcopes, and other circumftances mentioned in the manner 
of judging. At any rate, we have fet them down faithfully. 

" As 



30 MATHEMATICAL and 

" As to the firft dlfturbance in the Sun's limb, it may- 
be worthy of confideration, whether it was really from the 
interpofition of the limb of Vetms, or of her atmofphere. 
One cannot eafily imagine it to be the former, without 
fuppofmg her limb and body much more ragged and une- 
ven, than they appear when feen on the Sun. An atmof- 
phere is a much more probable fuppofition, not only from 
the faint and waterifh colour at firft, but the undulatory 
motion above mentioned, which might arife from the grow- 
ing denfity of the atmofphere, pufhing forward on the 
Sun, and varying the refraBion of his rays, as they pafs 
in fuccefTion through it. 

" If fuch an atmofphere be granted, it will probably ac- 
count for the tremulous motion, in the thread of light creep- 
ino- round Venus at the internal contaH ; which may be 
thus prevented from clofing and adhering quietly, till this 
atmofphere (or at leaft its denfeft part) has entered wholly 
on the Sun, and confequently the co-incidence of the limbs 
be paft. For, though the atmofphere of Venus (as far as 
we could pofTibly judge) be not vifible on the Sun; yet that 
part of it which is furrounding, or juft entering his limb, 
may be vifible; having, if I may fo exprefs it, a darker 
ground behind it. 

" But thefe are only hafty conjedures, fubmitted to 
others; although, if they have any foundation, it would 
make fome difference in the time eftimated between the 
contaBs. And therefore, thofe aftronomers who may happen 
to be in the w^orld at another tranftt^ will perhaps think it 
beft to fix on fome general mode of pronouncing with re- 
fped to the contads ; either by negleding this atmofphere 
altogether; or taking their time from the appearance and 
difappearance of its effects on the Sun's limb. In either 
cafe, it is prefumed the times of different obfervcrs having 
nearly the fame altitude of the Sun, and equal advantages 
of weather and inftruments, would not differ fo much as 
has been the cafe hitherto, even among eminent aftrono- 
mers at the fome place." 

General 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



3^ 



General TABLE ef the CONTACTS of the Limbs of the SuN aWVenus, as obferved 
at Norriton^yune ^d, I 769. Reduced to apparent Time. 




The apparent time of the Contadls, by different Obfervers, was. 
External ContacS, 
by Dr. Smith. 
Firft vifible impreflion on 
0's hmb, in form of a tre- 
mulous pointed fhadow, at 
h. m. fee. 



2. la. 50to53 
A well-defined black dent 
in 0's limb, at 

2. 13- 15 



External Contad:, 

by Mr. Lukens. 

Mr. Lukens changing his 

field. 



A fmall dent in 0's limb, at 
h. m. fee. 
a. 13- 13 



External Contacfl, 
by Mr. Rittenhouse. 
Firfl impreflion on 0's 
limb, at , h. m. fee. 
3. I a. 49 



Internal Contadt. 
A thread of light, clofmg 
round the dark body of J 
with a tremulous motion, at 
h. m. fee. 
a. 30. 15 
The luminous thread be- 
'come clear and quiet in i%" 
more, viz. at 

a. 2,0. 37 



Internal Contacft. 

Thread of light beginning 
to clofc round $ at 

h. m. fee. 
a. 30. 8 

Thread of light feemed, 
complete, at a. 30. 34 



Internal Contadt. 

Appearance as in plate 3, 
fig. 3, and judged by him for 
the Contadt, at 

h. m. fee. 
a- 29- 55 



"When Venus was fully entered on the Sun's limb, and we had compared 
the different papers on which our contafts were written down, and entered 
them in our book, we prepared for the micrometer and other obfervations. 

Thofe of the micrometer reduced to apparent time, are as follow, viz. 






Apparent 


Micrometer meafures 


Value of 


Parallaxes of J from 


adjufted 




time. 


of leaft diftance of 


micromet. 


to the times of the 


micrometer 





June 3d, 


neareft limbs of 


meafures; 


meafures, in order 


to the pro- 





1769. 


and $ 


or leaft dill. 


jedtion; by Mr. Rittenhoufe. | 








of limbs, in 






1 






min. and 






< 

V 






fee. of 0's 


In the 1 In Path 


Perpendi. 


0' 

• t3 






diameter. 


Vertical. | of £ 


to Path. 




H.M.Scc. 


Inches, aoths. 5ooths. 


M. Sec. 


Seconds. 


Seconds. 


Seconds. 


I 


3- 7- 19 


0. 4- 0,5 


I- 4.5,4 


14,54 


13,67 


4,94 


a 


3- II- 39 


0. 4. la 


I- J7>6 


14,74 


13,88 


4,96 


3 


3- 17- 43 


0. 5. a 


a- 13,5 


15,09 


14,34 


5,01 


4 


3- 3*. 3 


0. 6. 14 


a. 52,7 


15,77 


14,93 


5,^i 


5 


3- 4C'. 4 


0. 7. 4 


3. 8,6 


16,17 


15,32 


5,33 


6 


4. 35. 5 


0. 10. ai,5 


4. 46,67 


18,45 


17,45 


6,01 


1 
S 


4- 57- 9 


0. II. 19 


J- 10,75 


19,0a 


17,95 


(i,%% 


5- 7- 49 


0. II. aa,75' 


5- 14,5 


19,5^ 


18,36 


6,63 


9 


S- ai. 40 


0. II. a3,5 


5- 15,3 


19,88 


18,64 


6,98 


10 


5- 31- 46 


0. II. ai,5 


5- 13,17 


ao,ia 


18,8 


7,ai 


n 


5- 4a. 38 


0. II. I7,j 


5. 8,93 


30,36 


18,95 


7,48 


la 


5- 51- 10 


o- "• 13,5 


5- 4,7 


ao,5a 


19,06 


7,67 


13 


6. aa. 14 


o- lo- 5,5 


4- 39,7 


aijOo 


19,31 


8,57 


14 


6. 31. 5 


0. 9. ao 


4. 18,58 


ai,ia 


19,33 


8,8a 


15 


6. 41. 34 


0. 9. 


3- 57,38 


ai,aa 


19,15 


9,14 


16 


6. 48. la 


0. 8. 13 


3. 44,66 


zi,a6 


19,1a 


9,31 


17 


6. 53- 30 


0. 8. 1,5 


i- 33,47 


ai,a8 


19,04 


9,49 


18 


6. 56. aa 


0. 7. a3 


3. a8,76 


31,39 


19,03 


9-56 



Diftance 



MATHEMATICAL and 



Uiitaiice ol the limbs of and $ in Chords pa- 
ruUel to the Equator. 



H.M.Sec. 



8. 53 



27 
28 



20ths. jooths. 
17. 14,3 E. limb 
6 E. limb 
20 E. limb 
6.5 W.limb 



3- 



15- 



Sec. 
44,57 
14,74 
0,08 

43, 7 



Parallaxes to the times of the 
micrometer meafures. 



Seconds. 
3,40 
5,86 
8,06 
8,2 



Seconds. 


Seconds. 


17,0 
18,16 


i6,i 
17,18 


20,75 
20,81 


19,16 

19,2 



Diameters of June 3, 1769. 



Time per clock 

J. M. 

1. m. fee. 

i- 3S- o 

!. 40. o 

!. 45- 
F. 

2- 35- 
40. 



M. 



Micrometer 

nieafurcs. 

In. 20ths. jooths. 

3- "• 13 

3. II. 

3. II- 



16 
13 



II. 
II. 



13 
12 



Value. 



Mean of the above 5 horizontal 1 

diameters of - - - ] 

Or leaving out the 2d which differs" 

mod; from the reft, and was judged < 

to be taken too large; the mean of| 

the other 4 is - - 



m. 
31- 
31- 
31- 

31- 
31 



fee. 
34.16 
37,34 
34,16 

34,16 

33,1 



I Diameters of $ taken on June 3d, 

I . 1769- 

[Time per ( Micrometer Value. 

clock. meafures. 

h. m. fee. In. aoths. jooths. 



31- 34.58 



31- 33,89 



o. o 

2. o 

4. o 

15. o 

55- o 
58. o 



4,6 
5,0 

5,'i5 
4,7 
4,7 
5,33 



bee. 
56,75 
57,18 
5 7,44 
56,91 
56,91 
5 7,53 



Mean of the above 6 for dia- ] 
meter of $ - - - - ( 



57,13 



Which gives 0's femidiameter i^s'- 46," 94 ; that is, one/rcond and | of a fecond larger than the 
diameter given in the nautical almanack for the tranfit day. Yet, Venus's diameter, though 
taken with the utmoft care by the fame micrometer and at the fame focus (ai the Sun's) come* 
cut about one fecond lefs than it was expeded, being 57", 12; or about 1-33 of 0's diameter. 
The vertical diameter of on the fame day was 31'. 3l",8 at 4h. 40. F. M. 

Of the micrometer meafures, the 2d, 5th, and i8th 
diftance of the neareft limbs of the Sun and Venus ; the 
I ft in a chord parallel to the equator, the ift and 6th of 
the diameters of Venus ; and the i ft and 4th of the diame- 
ters of the Sun, were taken by Mr. Rittenhoule. The 3d 
and 1 6th diftance of the neareft limbs, the 3d diameter of 
Ve?ius and the 2d of the Sufi., were taken by Mr. Lukens. 
All the other micrometer meafures were taken by myfelf, 
while Mr.Rittenhoufe applied himfelf totake the appulfes 
of the limbs of the Sun and center of Ve7ius to the crofs 
hairs of his equal altitude inftrument, Mr. Lukens writing 
down the obfervations and their exa£t time. 

The micrometer meafures were all feparately reduced to 
their value in minutes and feconds by Mr. Rittenhoufe, 
and by myfelf, making the proper allowance for the error 
ofadjuftment of the inftrument. Many more micrometer 
meafures might have been taken j but had we made the 

intervals 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. ;^;^ 

intervals between them muchlhorter than 8 or lo minutes, 
they would have been of little ufe in the projedion, and 
would have crouded it too much. Nor could we have be- 
ftowed the fame care in fetting the inflrument, reading off 
the vernier, &c. if a much larger number had been taken. 

In order to judge of the errorof the micrometer (if any) 
Jupiter's diameter was not only taken with it both ways, 
viz. to the right and to the left, but Mr. Rittenhoufe like- 
wife took a mean to the right of lo diameters of a white 
painted circle about 330 yards diftant, and alfo a mean of as 
many to the left. This work was performed early in the 
morning before fun-rife; when the air was free from all 
tremulous motion; and the refult gave an error of adjuft- 
ment of 1'', 12 to be fubftra<Sted from all the micrometer 
meafures. 

It was once intended ftill further to confirm the work 
of the following delineation, by applying the obfervations 
of the appulfes of the limbs of the Sun and center of Fenust 
mentioned to have been taken above. But the lines necef- 
fary for this, would have confufed the figure; and the 
micrometer obfervations being found fo exact, any further 
ufe of the others, than to try how well they would agree, 
wasthoughttobeneedlefs, efpecially as the fradions of fe- 
conds in them could not be eftimated, fo as to come up to 
the accuracy of the micrometer. For this reaibn, they are 
not fet down. 

Delineation oftbeTranJit f?/' Venus over the Sun, accordiwj- 
to the foregoing Obfer vat ions ^ Y^ith the principles of the 
ivork. By Mr. Ritten house. 

^HE Sun's horizontal parallax is allumed 8", 65 

at his mean diftance from the earth; from which, 

and the obferved lead: diftance of the centers of the Sun and 
Venus, the chord of the tranfit line was laid down. The 
Sun's femidiameter and that of Venus are taken as by the 
above obfervations. One point in the tranfit line was then fix- 
ed by the firfi: micrometer diftance of the limbs at 3''. 1' 19'' 
Vol. I. E apparent 



ttr 



34 MATHEMATICAL and 

apparent time. This line was then divided caretully 
into hours and minutes, fuppofing Venus to move 2/^Oy"^6 
over the Sun's Diik in an hour, according to a calculation' 
I had formerly made from Halley's tables. The place of 
Venus's center in the tranfit line, was then marked to the 
times of each of the obfervations ; and from thence the ap- 
parent place of her center found, by fetting off the quantity 
of her parallax from the Sun in its proper direction. About 
each of the centers fo found, a circle is defcribed with the 
radius 28', ^"6. the obferved femidiameter of Venus. Blank 
lines were next drawn through the Sun's center and the 
apparent place of the center of Venus; and on thefe the 
black lines were drawn from the Sun's limb precifely of 
fuch length as we found they ought to be by the micro- 
meter ; fo that it may be feen at once how far they corre- 
fpond with each other, by obferving how much they exceed 
or fall {hort of reaching the limb of Venus. 

Out of the 1 8 micrometer obfervations, there is fo exadl 
a correfpondence among 14 of them, that I am well con- 
vinced they may be depended upon. Two of the others, 
as will appear by the figure, reach about a fgcond over the 
limb of Venus ; and the other two are fcarce a/econd fhort 
of it. Such fniall differences might eafily have happened 
for the leaft inaccuracy in reading off the time, or the divi- 
fionsof the vernier, or from their not being exacStly taken 
in the diredion of the neareft diftance of the limbs; that is 
in a line joining the center of the Sun and Venus. 

The meafures intended to be taken in chords parallel 
to the equator, are likewife exceeding near the truth, if it 
be confidered in fetting the micrometer to that diredion, 
we had only the truth of the polar axis to depend on, which 
was conftrudcd haftily to anfwer the purpofe, of the day. 
Threeof thefe meafures agree well with each other, and with 
all the other micrometer obfervations, on fuppofing the 
ch>>rd in which they were taken inclined half a degree to 
the plane of the equator. The 4th is ftillmore nearly pa- 
rallel, but diverging fomething the other way. Thefe 

chords 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 35 

chords are delineated in the projedion, and ferve to confirm 
the other work. 

All the parallaxes of Venus from the Sun were taken 
from a projedion on a large fcale of half an inch to a fe- 
cond, and then reduced to the fcale of this delineation. Af- 
ter calculation fome of thofe parallaxes, and finding that 
thofe got by the projedion came as near thofe got by cal- 
culation, as it was poffible to lay them down from the fcale; 
any further nicety was not thought neceflary. 
The angle of Venus,s vifible way with the ") 

Ecliptic I find to be ^ 8"". 28'.27'^ 

The angle of the ecliptic with a parallel of ~) 

declination at 3\ P.M 3 7°-5'-i3" 

Decreafing 53" per hour. o 

Latitude of the Obfervatory (as above) 40". q' . c6" 

Hence the parallaxes were fitted to each of the micrometer 

obfervations, as laid down above. If a computation be 

made from the firft micrometer obfervation of the diftance 

of the limbs, we fhall find the time of the leaft diftance of 

the centers of the Sun and Venus as feen from the Earth's 

center to have been - - - 5\ 26' 16" 

If a like computation be made from the C 

1 6th obfervation ft will be found (_ 5. 26. 21 
By comparing fome other obfervations with thefe I con- 
clude the time of leaft diftance of the centers to have been 
S\ 26'. 20" 

Then fay, as radius to the tangent of the angle of Fenus^s 
vifible way with the ecliptic; fo is the leaft diftance of the 
centers, to that portion of the path, intercepted between 
the place of Fenus at the time of the leaft diftance of the 
centers, and her place at the time of ecliptic conjudion; 
that is — 

Rad : T. 8°. 28;. 2/ :: 610" : 9o",88. 
But 90", 88 reduced to time is - - o^ 22'. 41^' 
Time of leaft diftance of centers is - 5. 26. 20 
Difi^erence of which is the time of "> ~ 

ecliptic conjundion 3 S^- 3' • 39" 

Again 



36 MATHEMATICAL and 

Again Rad : kc. 8". 28' 27" : : 610" :6i6'\yy, the geo- 
centric latitude o^Venus at the time of ecliptic conjunc- 
tion. 
From the logarithm oiVenus geocent. lat. 2.7900974 
Suhftradtthe difF.of the logarithms oO 

Venus\ diftance from the earth, and > 0.4002370 

from the fun, ) 

Remainsthelog.of theheliocentriclat. 2.38986o4r=4'.5",30 

Then fay, as the tangent of the inclination of the orb 
of Venus, is to radius, fo is the tangent of her heliocen- 
tric latitude to the fine of her diftance from the node in 
the ecliptic; that is 

T. 3°. 23'. 20" : Rad : : T. 4'. 5^39 : Sine 1°. 9'. 4" 
the diftance from the node. 

The 5/T«'s place by Halley's tables at the"? , <> fi' '' 

time of ecliptic conjunction was 5 * ^ * * '^ 

Diftance of the node from the Sun, Q* ^' 9' 4 

Thefum is the place of F<?«ttj*s afcendine ? ^ 

A *= >- 2. 14. ^^. 76 

node, ;i, . / ! . .3 -r jj o 

But, by Halley's tables, the place of > f, ^ 

Fenus to the above time is only ^ ' 

That is tenjeconds too flow. 

Thus gentlemen you have a faithful account of our 
whole v^^ork, which we could have wiftied to have reduced- 
to lefs compafs. Had our latitude and longitude been 
previoufly fixed, as they had been at Philadelphia by able 
mathematicians, a great part of our work might have been 
faved. But we thought it neceflary (as hath been before 
hinted) to fhew that fuch pains were taken in thefe mate- 
rial articles that they may be depended on. And as we 
were happily favoured at the Iranfit, with advantages of 
v^'cathcr, and other circumftances, which cannot have hap- 
pened to the generality of obfervers in many parts of the 
world, it was thought we fhould be more readily excufed, 
by men of fcience, for the infertion of things that might 
be fupcrfluous, than the omiflion of the leaft article mate- 
rial. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 37 

rial, In the account of the phoenomenon, that will never 
be obferved again, by any of the prefent generation of men, 
I am, 

Gentlemen, with great refpe^t, 

Your mod obedient humble fervant, 

Philadelphia -July WILLIAM SMITH. 

19th, 1769. 

P. S. As it is hoped that not only this province in ge- 
neral, but likewife the fociety who fet on foot, and the 
honourable Houle of Aflembly, who fo liberally encou- 
raged, the defign for obferving the tranfit here, may de- 
rive fome credit from the laudable fpirit fhewn on that 
occafion, I fliall add an extract of a letter from the Revd. 
Mr. Maikelyne, the Aftronomer Royal, to fhew how well 
our labours have been received at home. 

SIR, Greenwich, Jz/^z//? 2, 1769. 

"T THANK you for the account of the Pennfylvania 
J^ obfervations (of the tranfit) which feem excellent and 
complete^ and do honour to the gentlemen who made them, 
and thofe who promoted the undertaking; among whom 
I reckon yourfelf in the firft place. 

" As foon as I can fettle the longitude of their places 
of obfervations, with refpedt to this place, I hope to be 
able, from comparing them with my own, and other Eu- 
ropean obfervations, which I have already received, to find 
the Sun's parallax, nearer than we could depend on it from 
the tranfit in 176 1. " I do 

The reader is defired to make the following correi5*;ion of the equal altitudes of April nth 
and 14th, as that part of the work was printed off before the millake was difcovered. 



r 


A. 


ikf. 


P 


. M. 


h. 


m. 


fee. 


h. 


m. 


fee. 


8. 


30- 


31 


3. 


30. 


43. 


8. 


33 


23 


3- 


27- 


47. 


J. 


34 


53 


3- 


26. 


22. 



Hence appar. I 

noon; per I 

clock. 

h. m. fee 

12. o. 25. I 



^ f A. M.- P. M. 

2. I h. m. fee. h. m. fee. 

"" ' " 25. 42 3. 33. 56 

— - - I. l\. -i. 

.8. 30. 2 3. 29. 2,1 



Appar. noon; 
per clock. 

h. m. {zc. 
"• 59- 37 



which gives i" to be fubtra<3ed from, inftead of being added to, the obferved time of the im- 
merfion of ift fatellite, April I2i:h, and makesit iih. 14'. 37" (as it (lands correded in the table 
of eclipfes o* the fatellitcs) inltead of nh. 14'. 39", as it would be deduced from the altitudes 
printed above for April nth, compared with thofe ot April 14th. 

The emerfion of ad fatellite, per clock, Tunc 7th, is aifo to be read, 8h. 4 ^'. 29", inflead of 
8h. 23'. 42". 



^S MATHEMATICAL and 

" I do not yet know whether the obfervations made by 
Meflrs. Mafon and Dixon in Pennfylvania will fuffice to 
fettle the longitude of Philadelphia, to the exadtnefs here 
rcquifite. I vvifh, therefore to receive the obfervations of 
the eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites, made there in the fpring 
of this year, of which Dr. Smith makes mention. Thofe 
which have been made here, I have fet down on the 
*next page, and requeft you will be pleafed to fend them 
to him, with my beft compliments and congratulations on 
his and his fellow obfervers fuccefsful labours. I wifh al- 
fo to have an account of the difference of latitude and 
longitude between the P hiladelphia objewatory, and the 
two other ohfewatories at Norriton and the Capes of De- 
laivare ; and alfo how much the State Houfe fquare dif- 
fers from the fouthermoft point of the city of Philadelphia, 
to which Meflrs. Mafon and Dixon have referred their 
obfervations. 

" When you receive any further account of the Penn- 
fylvania obfervations, promifed by Dr. Smith, or any other 
American obfervations, I ihall be obliged to you for a 
fight of them. 

" I beg you will accept of the enclofed account of my 
obfervations of the tranfit, and of the eclipfe of the Sun, 
June 3d. You will perceive that feveral phoenomena 
noted at Norriton agreed with thofe obferved here ; but 
they have further obferved a curious circumfl:ance at the 
firft entrance of Venus, which the low altitude of the Sun 
did not permit me to obferve here; as, on the other hand, 
fome phoenomena were noted here, which they have not 
taken notice of. 

" In a few days I will do myfclf the pleafureto leave fome 
of my pamphlets with you, which I beg you would fend 
to the Pennfylvania obfervers, when you have an oppor- 
tunity. I am, SIR, 

Your very humble Servant 

NEVIL MASKELYNE." 

To the hon, Thomas Penn, E/q. 

The 

* They arc infcrted above at the bottom of page 30. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 39 

The above letter was occafioned by a fliort account I had 
fent to Mr. Penn four days after the tranfit, informing 
him of the fuccefs of our obfervations, the times of the con- 
tacts, and afewothercircumftances attending them; which 
he communicated to Mr. Mafkelyne. Since that, Mr. 
Mafkelyne has received full fatisfadtion on all the points 
mentioned in his letter, as complete copies of our different 
obfervations havebeen tranfmitted to Dr. Franklin, to com- 
municate to him, and fuch other aftronomers as he may 
think proper among his correfpondents in Europe. The 
particular circumftances which I mentioned relative to the 
firfl entrance of Venus, was the dufky tremulous fhadow 
or atmofphere that feemed to precede her body, and the 
light that furrounded that part of her limb not entered on 
the Sun, which was alfo obferved by the gentleman at 
Philadelphia, and by Mr. Biddle at the Capes. Which 
of thefe, or whether both, may be the curious circumftance, 
or circumftances, obferved here, which Mr. Mafkelyne 
fays the low altitude of the Sun did not permit him to ob- 
ferve, we cannot tell; as his account of the Greenwich 
obfervations has not. yet come to hand. W. S. 

Jn Account of the Obfervations <?w /;6^ Tranfit o£ Venus over 
the Sun, on the 3^ of June^ 1 769, by the Committee ap^ 
pointed to obferve it at Philadelphia; draivn up^ and 
prefented to the American Philofophical Society, held 
at Philadelphia^ for promoting ufeful Knoivledge-^ 

-SjJOHN EWING. 

GENTLEAiEJj, 

IT doubtlefs muft appear ftrange to many, that the pa- 
rallax of the SuU) which isfo important and fundamen- 
tal an article in aftronomy, has not been fettled by aftro- 
nomers long ago, as fo many things in that ufeful fcience 
depend upon it. But this furprife is leffened by confidering, 
that the fmallnefs of the parallactic angle has eluded their 
moft careful refearches in all ages, as it is but about 8 or 

9 feconds 



40 MATHEMATICAL and 

9 feconds of a minute; fo that the fubtenfe of it, were it 
much larger than it is, muft be invifible to the naked eye 
at the diftance of 6 inches, and it is hardly pofTible to dif- 
tinguiih ID feconds by inftruments, let them be ever fo 
fkilfully made. Many methods have been devifed by 
adronomers, which fhew the ingenuity of the inventors; 
but the difadvantage of them all was, that they depended 
upon obfervations to be made with a precifion, which no 
inftruments hitherto conftruded could poflibly accomplifh. 
The tranfits of Venus alone afford an opportunity of de- 
termining this problem with fufficient certainty, and thefe, 
from the iXr'iCt laws of her motion, happen fo feldom, that 
there cannot be more of them than two in one century, and 
in fome centuries none at all. Three only have been ob- 
ferved fince the creation, and the firft of them by two 
perfons only. The peculiar advantage of this phoeno- 
menon for determining the parallax of the Sun with a 
precifion which is not to be expedted from any other me- 
thod, confifts in its being deduced from the abfolute time 
that elapfes between the inftants of the contads with the 
Sun's limb, as feen from different parts of the earth; or 
from the difference of total durations as noted by diftant 
oblervers, properly ftationed for that purpofe. A fecond 
of time being eafily diflinguifhedbyawell regulated clock, 
if the aforefaid abfolute difference of time be carefully no- 
ted, in places where it will amount to 24 minutes, it will 
give the parallax, fmall as it is, within the hundreth part 
of a fecond of a degree, and confequently the diftance of 
the Sun and planets within the (even hundredth part of 
the whole. In fome tranfits this difference of time will 
be greater, and in others lefs, in certain places on the earth, 
which renders thofe that happen on the northern part of 
the Sun's difc, in general, more favourable to our purpofe, 
than thofe that happen on the fouthern hemifphere. Hence 
it is, that although much was done in this matter by the fe- 
dulity and care of aftronomers at the tranfit in the year 
I 76 1, when Venus paflcd fouth of the Sun's center, yet 

our 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 41 

our expedations could not be fully anfwered by the obfer- 
\ations that were then made; as it was eafily forefeen that 
much greater precifion might be attained, from the advan- 
tageous circumftances that would attend the tranfit in 
1769. The great proficience, which the aftronomers 
made in fettling this fundamental element, beyond what 
was ever known before, has only raifed their expedations 
and engaged their attention to improve every advantage, 
that can be derived from a careful obfervation of this tran- 
fit. If they have not been difappointed by unfavourable 
weather, we hope for the utmoft certainty that can be gain- 
ed in this matter, from the obfervations they have made, 
when they fhall be compared together. But after all, v/e 
muft fit dow^n with thedifagreeablc aflurance that the dif- 
tance of the Sun cannot be determined by them, let them 
be made with ever fo great accuracy, within many thoufand 
miles; which will not appear ftrange, when we confider 
that his diftance is upwards of 94 millions of miles, and 
that an error of a fingle fecond in his parallax will give an 
uncertainty of 10 or 11 millions of miles in his diftance. 

This approximation, however, is fo much greater than 
could be expected, from any other method, that has ever 
been propofed, that it has defervedly engaged the attention 
of every civilized nation in the world ; and it muft redound 
to the honor of our fociety, that they have taken fuch ef- 
fectual care to have proper obfervatories ereded, to furnifti 
them with the neceffary inftruments, and to appoint pro- 
per perfons, to ufe them on that occafion. 

As the credit of our obfervations, and the ftrefs that 
will be laid upon them, in determining the parallax of 
the Sun, will greatly depend not only on the care and fldll 
of the perfons that made them, but alfo on the goodnefs 
of the inftruments, with which we were furniftied ; it has 
been judged proper to give the public the following ac- 
count of our apparatus, and of the pains we have taken to 
have it in the beft order. 

Vol. L F As 



42 MATHEMATICAL and 

As the Society were pleafed to appoint Jofeph Shippen-, 
Efq. Dr. Hugh JVilliamfon^ Mr. Charles Thomfon^ Mr. Tho^ 
'mas Prior^ and myfeJf\ as a committee to obferve the tran- 
fit at the oblervatory, which they had erected in this city, 
we ipared neither time nor labour to have every thing ne- 
ceflary for the obfervation in readinefs. We were provided 
with an excellent le6tor of 6 feet radius, made by the ac- 
curate Mr. Bird, and an equal altitude and tranfit inftru- 
' ment, both belonging to the honourable Proprietaries of 
this province, which the Governor very generouily lent to 
the fociety on this occafion. Our telefcopes were, a large 
refledor of 4 feet focus and 7 inches aperture, which mag- 
nified from 100 to 400 times with an excellent mi- 
crometer of Mr. Dollond's conftrudion fitted to it, which 
the affembly of the province had ordered over at the re- 
queft of the fociety ; a refradting telefcope of 24 feet focus, 
belonging to Mifs Norris; two refleding telefcopes of 18 
inches focus, one the property of Mr. Hamilton, the late 
Governor of this province, and the other of Mr. Prior, to- 
gether with another refledor of 12 inches focus. With 
thefe, and a good time-piece, we promifed ourfelves the 
pleafure of making accurate obfervations, if the weather 
fhould prove favourable. For this purpofe we met fre- 
quently before the day of the tranfit, to adjuft our inftru- 
ments, and to remove every local obftrudion that might 
hinder our obfervations. 

Some of us gave particular attention to the regulation 
of the time-piece, and therefore took the pafTage of the 
Sun's limbs over the crofs hairs of the tranfit inftrument, 
both forenoon and afternoon for many days before and 
after the tranfit, and particularly on that day. As it had 
three horizontal hairs fixed in the focus, it afforded us fix 
fets of correfponding altitudes, which generally agreed in 
giving the time of apparent noon within 2 feconds of each 
other; fo that by comparing them together daily, and ap- 
plying the proper equations for correfponding altitudes, 
on account of the Sun's change of declination between the 

forenoon 



L 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 43 

forenoon and afternoon obfervations, we were aflured of 
the rate of our clock*s going and the time of apparent 
noon to a fingle fecond. We did not think it neceflary 
to burden our minutes, with the great number of obfer- 
vations of this kind, that we made. Let us fuffice to 
fay, that they were made with the utmoft care, and that 
our time-piece was fixed to a large poft funk into the 
ground four or five feet, fecured from (baking by a brick 
wall at the bottom, and no ways communicating with the 
fides of the building. 

The long expedted day of the tranfit came, fo favour- 
able to our wifhes, that there was not the leaft appearance 
of a cloud in the whole horizon from morning 'till night, 
and the fky was uncommonly ferene. The committee af- 
fembled in the morning at the obfervatory, examined the 
adjuftment of their telefcopes anew, and appointed two 
affiftants to obferve the clock, one to count the feconds 
with an audible voice, and the other to write down the mi- 
nutes as they were compleated, to prevent a miftake in 
that article. 

Every obferver being fixed at his telefcope, at leaft half 
an hour before the beginning of the tranfit; we obferved 
the contad:s of the limbs of Venus and the Sun at the 
times mentioned in the following accounts, as they were 
drawn up feparately by the obfervers themfelves, and are 
here inferted in their own words. 

Account of the Co^TACT^, by JOSEPH SHIPPEN, Esq^ 

" I obferved this very uncommon and curious phoeno- 
menon with a new refled:Ing telefcope, made by Mr. 
George Adams, whofe tube is two feet and half an inch 
long, its aperture 4,15 inches diameter, and its magnify- 
ing power about 90 times. After having well adjufted 
its focal diftance, the Sun's limb appeared fo well defined, 
that the leaft obfcuration of it might be clearly difcerned 
by a good eye, 

" In 



44 MATHEMATICAL and 

" In order to difcover the firft external contact, as near 
the precife time of its happening as pofTible, I kept con- 
ftantly in the field of the telefcope, but a fmall arch of the 
Sun's limb, and only that part of it, where it was expeded 
the planet would enter; by which means I believe I faw 
the obfcuration on the limb of the Sun as near the exadt 
time of its beginning as the power of the telefcope would 
admit of. 

" The firft alteration which I perceived in the Sun's difk, 
was a jagged like appearance on a fmall arch of the limb ; 
as if a fhadow had been cafl: on it with an irregular notched 
edge^ which at every fecond, feemed to increafe with a 
kind of waving and tremulous motion. I firft perceived 
this change at 2\ 13'. 47" apparent time, though I was 
not then convinced that that appearance was, either the 
phcEnomenon we looked for, or caufed by the planet's 
near approach to the Sun's limb; but imputed it rather to 
fome duft that might accidentally have fallen on the large 
mirror of the telefcope, as I expedted the contact would 
have fhewn itfelf by one fmall arched indent on the Sun's 
limb. And it was not 'till after twelve feconds more had 
pafTed, that I was certain the contact had happened; for 
then, viz. at 2\i3'.59" apparent time, I could plainly 
diftinguifh a fmgle impreffion, or indent, in the Sun's 
limb; yet it was exceedingly fmall, and without any of 
the jagged appearance before mentioned, 

" 1 cannot well account for thefe different appearances 
in fo fmall a fpace of time, but by fuppofing that the firft 
was occafioned by an atmofphere around the body of Ve- 
nus, which might have obfcured in a fmall degree, part 
of the Sun's limb, a few feconds before the contad; and 
that after Venus herfelf had actually entered on the Sun's 
limb, the brilliancy of the folar rays might have fo far il- 
luminated the atmofphere of Venus, as to caufe the obfcu- 
ration at firft perceived to difappear, and leave only the 
well defined form of the planet on the Sun's difk. 

" On 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 45 

" On confidering the matter in this view, I am inclined 
to think that the firfl: external contadt did not really hap- 
pen 'till at leaft three feconds after I firfl: perceived the 
j^agged obfciiration on the Sun's limb; and then it would 
be at 2''. 13'. 50'' apparent time. 

" But if afl:ronomers agree to fix the time of the firft 
contad at the beginning of that obfcuration, I think it is 
probable the conta61: may have happened two or three fe- 
conds before I difcerned that obfcuration: In which cafe, 
the contact may be faid to take place at 2''. 13'. 44" ap- 
parent time. 

" In determining on the manner in which I fhould judge 
of the internal contact ^ I confidered that after Venus fhould 
move on the Sun's dilk with half her diameter, the horned 
points occafioned thereby in the Sun's limb would appear 
more acute, and approach nearer to each other as the planet 
proceeded till the points fhould actually unite. From this 
refledion I was induced to think, that the inflant of the 
clofing of thofe points ought to be fixed on as the precife 
time of the internal contad; becaufe Venus muft then have 
paflTed the Sun's limb with her whole diameter, and both 
their circumferences, or limbs, might be faid to coincide.- 

" I therefore carefully obferved the progrefs of the plan- 
et, and faw very dilfinctly, as fhe moved onwards, that 
the illuminated points of the Sun's limb became better de- 
fined; and when they approached fo near each other as to 
be within about 8 feconds of touching, which was at 2^. 
31'. 26" ap. time, I heard one of the obfervers call out, 
contaB\ but as his obfervation did not fcem to agree with 
the manner which I had fixed for judging of the contad, 
I continued viewing with the clofefl; attention, in order to 
fix the time of contadt according to the idea I had formed 
of it; and at 2*". 31' 34". ap. timel could fcarcely diftinguifh 
the illuminated points of the Sun's limb to be any longer 
feparate; for in two feconds more they appeared to be fo far 
clofed as to form a fmgle thread of light on that part of the 
Sun's limb, which a few feconds before had been eclipfed. 

I therefore 



46 MATHEMATICAL and 

I therefore conclude that the apparent firft internal contad: 
of Venus happened at 2\ 31'. 34" ap. time. Yet it is 
not improbable that her real contad: may have happened 
a few feconds fooner, if it be certain that Ihe has an atmof- 
phere-y becaufe that might have obfcured the Sun*s limb a 
few feconds after Venus was entirely immerfed within the 
difk; in the fame manner as I judged with refpect to the 
external contact, that the beginning of the obfcuration of 
the Sun's limb was occafioned by the intervention of the 
atmofphereof Venusa few feconds before her body actually 
came in contact with the Sun." 

Account oftht Contacts, by Dr, WILLIAMSON. 

" I made ufe of a refracting telefcope 24 feet long, 
which magnifies ninety times. The glaffes were in very 
good order, and the air uncommonly ferene, fo that the 
Sun's limb appeared very diftindt and well defined, whence 
I promifed myfelf the pleafure of fixing the external con- 
tact to a fecond, but the event convinced me that I had 
promifed too much. A dufky appearence once and again 
drew my attention to a particular part of the Sun's limb, 
but I could fee no fuch dark fpot there as I thought Venus 
mud produce, and it was not till 2". 11'. 31'' mean time, 
or 2^. 1 3 ^ 46" apparent time, that I determined to ftop a 
watch which I had in my hand, to afcertain the time of my 
obfervation, leaft fome accident fhould prevent my hearing 
the affiftant, who flood at 5 or 6 yards diftance by the clock 
counting feconds. At that very time I was doubtful, 
whether the appearance on the limb of the Sun was cer- 
tainly occafioned by the interpofition of the body of Venus ; 
for though the darknefs was of fome extent along the Sun's 
limb, yet the impreffion was not proportionably deep, 
fuppofing that it was made by a circle fo fmall as Venus 
compared with the diameter of the Sun, nor was the dark- 
nefs equally perfed:; yet the fubfequent progrefs of the 
darknefs foon convinced me that I had not been much 
too hady in noting the time of the external contad:. 

" When 



ASTRO i\OMICAL PAPERS. 47 

" When Venus had advanced with a little more than 
half her body on the Sun, her whole eaftern limb appeared 
faintly illuminated : This light feemed to encreafe as fhe 
advanced farther on the Sun, till near the time of the in- 
ternal contadt. By this time I was convinced that Venus 
is furrounded by a denfe atmofphere of a confiderable height, 
which doubtlefs had prevented my fixing the external con- 
tad, with that accuracy I had expeded, and had occafion- 
ed that inequality in the darknefs, which I had obferved 
on the Sun's limb. 

" In determining the internal contad, which 1 appre- 
hend was done with great exadnefs, I attended to the in- 
ftant, when there was a prefed coincidence of the limb of 
Venus with the limb of the Sun, as when two circles touch 
internally. This appeared at 2\ 31'. 24" apparent time. 
I expeded by the time the affiftant had counted another 
fecond, to have feen light diftindly round the eaftern limb 
of Venus ; not fuch a radiance as had for 7 or 8 minutes 
rendered that part of the planet vifible; but a certain nar- 
row portion of the Sun's limb which had a very diftin- 
guiihable appearance from the light I have mentioned. 
The edge of the Sun did not appear fo foon; neverthelefs I 
fixed upon 2\ 31' . 25" for the precife time of the internal 
contad, being certain, that no part of Venus was then off 
the Sun. One or two feconds more were counted before the 
Sun appeared diftindly without the limb of Venus. But 
then it was obvious that Venus did not then touch the Sun's 
limb in any part, lb that the contad was certainly over." 

Mr. Prior made his obfervations with his own refled- 
ing telefcope, whofe magnifying power he does not cer- 
tainly know, but fuppofes it to be at leaft an hundred times. 
He gave the following account of his obfervation of the 
contads, viz. 

" The uncertainty where Venus would touch the Sun's 
limb made me take the following method. From 8 or 9 
minutes paft two o'clock I made it a rule to pafs my eye 
from the lower edge of the field of my telefcope to the up- 

per>, 



48 MATHEMATICAL and 

per, many times in a minute, and examine the limb of the 
Sun ftridly, in hopes of difcovering the atmofphere of 
Venus approach, fo as to give an opportunity of taking the 
contads of the Hmbs to a great certainty. In paffing my 
eye along the limb of the Sun, I difcovered a fmall imper- 
fedion, which I thought muft be the ftroke of the atmof- 
phere, but in four feconds I difcovered it to be the limb of 
Venus, the atmofphere not being vifible on the Sun. The 
time therefore that I note for my external contad is, when 
I firft difcovered that imperfedion on the Sun*s limb, 
which was at 2^. 13'. 42" apparent time. When the bo- 
dv of Venus was fomethinsi: more than one third on the 
Sun, 1 faw hereaflern atmofphere very diftindly refleding 
the light of the Sun fo rtrongly on the limb of Venus, as 
to fhew it well defined; but as it came on the Sun, it was 
entirely loft. The time, I note for my internal contad, 
was, when the thread of light was diftindly feen all round 
the body of Venus, which was at 2''. 31'. 28" apparent 



time.'* 



Mr. James Pearfon, having obferved the external con- 
tad at 2''. 13' . 50" apparent time, with a fmall telefcope, 
belonging to the honorable proprietaries of this province, 
whofe magnifying power is about 60 times; Mr. Charles 
Thompfon obferved the internal contad with the fame te- 
lefcope, of which he gave the following account, viz. 

" At 2\ 29'. 11" mean time, or q}\ 31'. 26". apparent 
time, 1 faw fome tremulous rays of light pafs from the up- 
per or eaftern limb of the Sun to the eye, acrofs, and fo as 
juft to touch the upper limb of Venus. Marking that 
down therefore as the time of contad, I counted four fe- 
conds, at w^hich time I faw a continued thread of light, like 
a filver lace, but ftill with a tremulous motion, round the 
eaftern limb of Venus, v^^hereby it appeared to me that the 
whole body of Venus was then within the difk of the Sun. 
The tremulous appearance of the rays of light, I at firft at- 
tributed to my telefcope refting againft the fide of the ob- 
ervatory, but afterwards apprehended might be owing to 
their pafling through the atmofphere of Venus." The 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 49 

The committee having defired me to ufe the large re- 
fledtor mentioned above, I chofe that power which magni- 
fies the diameters of objeds 300 times; with which 1 ob- 
ferved at 2\ 13'. 48^^. apparent time, an obfcuration on 
the north-eaftern limb of the Sun, gradually advancing 
forwards with a tremulous motion, which, from its irre- 
gular and dufky appearance, I concluded was occafioned 
bv the refradion on the Sun's rays through the atmofphere 
of Venus, which atmofphere foon afterwards became very 
obfervable to us all. From this I was led to conclude that 
the contad did not happen till about 15 or 16 feconds af- 
terwards, when there was a large and evident impreffion 
made on the limb of the Sun; but as the precife moment 
of the external contad cannot be noted by an obfervcr, the 
body of Venus not yet being interpofed between the Sun's 
limb and the eye ; this contad muft have happened about the 
time that her atmofphere made the abovementioned obfcu- 
ration, and thereforelamof opinion that the true time of the 
contad Ihould be accounted at 2^ 13' . 48", or it may be 3 
or 4 feconds fooner, when nothing but the atmofphere of 
Venus, which preceded her body, appeared on the limb of 
the Sun. About the time that the center of Venus approach- 
ed the Sun's difk, I faw the whole body of Venus, hereaftern 
edge being furrounded with a faint light which was doubtlefs 
occafioned by her atmofphere refrading the Sun's rays. 
At 2\ 29' . II " mean time, or 2". 3 1 ' . 26" apparent time, I 
faw the internal contad, when the whole body of Venus 
was introduced within the difk of the Sun, and the thread 
of light had compleatly furrounded her, although not as 
bright as it became in two feconds afterv/ards. 

From what has been faid, it appears that the apparent 
times of the contads may be reprefented at one view in the 
following table, as they were noted by the different obfervers. 

ift Exeter. Contaifl. ift Inter. Contaft. Magnifying 

h. m. fee. h. m. fee. Powers. 

Jofiph Sf.>l/>pen, Efq. 2. 13- 47 Ap. T. 2. 31. 34 Ap. T. 80 times. 

Dr. IVilUunifoiiy 2. 13. 46 2. 31- '^5 to 27 yo times. 

Mr.Pearfo., 2. I3. 50 ' * !. " I 60 times. 

Mr. TLwmpfoii, " - . . - 5. 31. 26 to 303 

Mr. Prior, 2. 13. 4^ 2- 31- 38 ICO times. 

M-^filf, 2. 13. 48 2- 31- 2'5 joo times, 
A well-defined black ? -, x^ , 
dent in 0's limb, at 5 - •"*• -^ 

Vol. I. G After 



50 MATHEMATICAL and 

After the obfervation of the contadls, I applied myfelf 
to the micrometer to meafure the diameters of the Sun and 
Venus, and the diftance of their limbs at fundry times du- 
ring the tranfit. I had indeed frequently meafured the 
equatorial diameter of the Sun before the day of the tranfit, 
and always found it to be 6 feconds lefs than what is given 
in the nautical almanac. The mean of 6 meafures on that 
day is 31'. 31 ".6, which differs but ©",3 or three-tenths 
of a fecond from what is given in the faid almanac leflened 
as above. Therefore I have ftated it at 31'. 31^.3 in the 
following reductions and calculations. 

Six meafures of the diameter of Venus on the Sun made 
it 58 feconds. I attempted to meafure it both ways, with 
the beginning of the divifions of the vernier advanced on 
the fcale of the micrometer and the contrary, that the er- 
ror of adjuftment might have been thereby taken away. 
But the micrometer did not admit of it, the diameter of 
Venus being a fmall matter too large for this operation. 
However 1 took fome meafures this way, but they gave 
the diameter no more than SS'''^-^ which appearing too 
fmall were therefore rejected. 

About 20 minutes after the contacts, I began to mea- 
fure the neareft diRance of the limbs of Venus and the Sun, 
and continued untill the Sun was fo low, that the meafures 
could not be made vv-ith fufficient accuracy any longer. 
Some of the meafures appear to difagree too much with 
the others, and therefore fhould not be depended on; but 
I could not prevail upon myfelf to neglect the inl'erting of 
them ; leaft the unufual agreement among fo great a num- 
ber Ihould raife a fufpicion, in the minds of aftronomers, 
that they had not been honellly tranfcribed from our mi- 
nutes; efpecially as there are enough, to anf,ver all the 
purpofes dcfigned by them, which agree in giving the 
neareft didance of the centers with fufficient precifion. 
Although thefe meafures are fet down in the following ta- 
ble with the parts of a fecond, w^e would not therefore be 
fuppofcd to aife£t an impoffible accuracy in them ; but they 
are fuch as the micrometer has given them when properly 
reduced. Mean 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



51 



2 I M. Time. Ap. Time. 



O j 1769. 



. h. m. 
t _ 
I 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
II 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 

19 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 

39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 



3- 


5- 


3- 


II. 


3- 


14. 


3- 


22. 


3- 


25. 


3- 


27. 


3. 


44. 


4- 


2. 


4- 
4- 


3- 
8. 


4- 


10. 


4- 


14. 


4. 


22. 


4- 


25- 


4- 


29. 


4- 


41- 


4- 


44. 


4- 


51- 


4. 


';2. 


4. 


•53- 


4- 
4- 
4- 


54. 
56. 
58. 


5- 


I. 


5- 


9- 


5- 
5- 


II. 

18. 


5- 


20. 


5- 


24. 


5- 
5- 


25- 
28. 


5- 


33- 


5- 


35- 


5- 
6. 


43- 
I. 


6. 


2. 


6. 


8. 


6. 


10. 


6. 


18. 


6. 


ai. 


6. 


26. 


6, 
6. 


32- 
33- 


6. 
6. 


37. 
38. 


6. 
6. 
6. 
6. 
6. 


41. 

43- 
46. 
48. 
53- 


7- 


2. 


7- 


4. 


7- 


9- 



fee. 
43 
51 

32 
17 

7 
45 
37 
31 
31 
41 
39 

9 
33 

5 
37 
47 
57 

o 
18 
16 
27 
52 
30 
29 
35 
29 
52 
29 
29 
-'7 
59 
33 
39 
45 
17 
13 
39 

7 

4 
37 
49 
13 
18 

55 
29 
55 
39 
57 
25 



49 ; 6. 

17 : 6. 

ii7. 

33 I 7- 
26 7. 



m. fee. 

55- 59 

8. 7 

13. 48 

16. 33 
24. 23 

28. o 

29. 52 
46. 46 

4. 46 

5- 56 

10. 54 

12. 24 

17. 8 
24. 20 
27- 52 

32. 2 

44. 12 

46. 15 

53- 33 

54- 31 

55- 42 
57- 7 
58. 45 

o. 44 

3- 50 



20. 44 

22. 43 

26. 31 

28. 13 

30- 47 

35- 53 

37- 59 

45- 31 



27 
53 



12. 18 

20. 51 

24- 3 

28. 27 

34. 32 

36- 9 

39- 43 

41. 9 

43- 53 

46. II 

48. 39 

51- 3 

55- 31 

4- 15 

6. 47 

II. 40 



Nearell dif- 
tance of thi 
limbs of (£ 
and $ 



m. fee. 



8,46 

48,23 

4,49 
10,4 

24,77 
33.25 
38,46 
18,86 
53,64 
55,6 
8,54 

i;„85 
15,81 

22,10 

30,3'^ 
.35,92 
50,14 
51,96 
58,62 
1,23 

I>2.' 

3,1^ 

5,14 

6,44 

5,14 

5,79 

9>05 

12,96 

14,26 

14,26 

9,7 

8,4 

5,14 

1,88 

2,53 
50,79 
49,49 
44,27 
43,52 
30,5? 
24,06 
15,81 
1,46 
3,42 
58,2 
54,29 
49.73 
44,9- 
42,9? 

36,4' 

28,64 

9,oF 

4,52 

5,8: 



Nearcil dif- 
tance of 
their een- 
eers. 



fee. 

8,19 
57,42 
12,16 

6,25 
3307 
34,3 
29,09 

57,89 

23,01 

21,0? 

8,11 

2,8 

0,84 

53,55 

46,29 

40,73 
-6,51 
24,69 
18,03 
15.42 
15,42 
13.47 
11,51 
10,21 

11,51 

10,86 

7,6 

3,69 

2,39 

2,39 

6,95 

8,25 

11,51 

14,77 

14,12 

26,86 

27,16 

32,38 

33,13 

46,' 

52,5 

o, 

14 

13 

I 



1,07 



,84 



9 

I4 
9 
,23 



18,45 
22,36 
26, 
31 



.92 



67 

.19 
,01 

,57 
,13 

,83 



Pur. of 


Par, of 


2 in the 


J in her 


Vertical. 


Path. 


fee. 


fee. 


^3^95 


13,20 


14,60 


13,9 


14,9- 


14,20 


15,05 


14, 3 


15,50 


14,70 


15,70 


14,90 


15,75 


15,02 


16,5"? 


1^,80 


17,38 


16,56 


17,45 


16,62 


17.63 


16,64 


17.60 


16,80 


17,83 


17,01 


18,10 


17,20 


18,20 


17,30 


18,40 


17,50 


18,80 


17,90 


18,94 


17,98 


19,14 


18,10 


19,16 


18,16 


19,20 


18,20 


19,36 


18,26 


19,30 


18,50 


1^,36 


18,35 


19,44 


18,43 


I9..v^ 


18,52 


19,68 


18,74 


19,95 


18,85 


20,05 


18,90 


20,14 


18,98 


20,19 


18,99 


20,20 


19,01 


20,36 


19,08 


20,40 


19,10 


20,50 


19,18 


20,84 


19,34 


20,90 


19,38 


20,96 


19,42 


21,0 


19,44 


21,04 


19,46 


21,10 


19,48 


21,14 


19,50 


21,18 


19,50 


21,20 


19,46 


21,22 


19,43 


21,24 


19,40 


21,26 


19,36 


21,28 


19,34 


21,29 


19,31 


21,30 


19,29 


21,34 


19,26 


21,38 


19,24 


21,39 


19,20 


21,40 


19,10 



Par. of $ 
pcrpendic. 
to her path. 



fee. 
4,56 
4,64 
4,68 
A,ya 
4,78 
4,86 
4,90 
5,02 
5,30 
5,31 
5'3'i 
5,35 
5,44 
5,52 
5,5^ 
5,68 

5.90 
5,97 
6,06 
6,09 
6,12 

6,17 
6,20 
6,24 
6,30 
6,46 
6,50 
6,69 
6,76 
6,90 
6,91 
6,96 
7,08 
7,10 
7,28 
7,78 
7,88 

7,97 
8,00 
8,20 
8,32 
8,40 
8,60 
8,68 
8,76 
8,82 
8,92 
8,98 
9,02 
9,17 
9,21 
9,48 
9,56 
9,70 



The 



52 MATHEMATICAL and 

The foregoing neareft dlftances of their centers are de- 
duced from the meafured diftances of their limbs, taking 
their diameters as they are ftated above: And the paral- 
laxes are not computed, but meafured from a projec- 
tion of the difk of the earth as feen from the Sun, the pro- 
jedtion being 21 inches and an half in diameter. 

The latitude of our ofervatory in Philadelphia is deter- 
mined from the obfervations of Meflrs. Mafon and Dixon 
with the above mentioned feftor. From a mean of thirty 
obfervations of the pafTage of fome ftars over the meridian, 
they found the latitude of the moft fouthern point of the 
city of Philadelphia to be 39°. ^6' . 29'', 2. Our obferva- 
tory is north of this point, 26,2 feconds, and therefore its 
latitude is 39°. s^' 53" A- 

In order to determine the parallax of the Sun, from the 
foregoing obfervations, it is neceffary that our longitude 
from fome fixed meridian fhould be afcertained with the 
mod rigorous precifion. For this purpofe we have obfer- 
ved various eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites, that they might 
be compared with the correfpondent obfervations made at 
Greenwich and elfewhere, when we are furnifhed with 
them. 

r-rUpfes of JUPIIT-R's SATELLITES, obfcrved zt Philadelphia, with a two feet leflecftor. 

D. h. m. fee. 



D. h. m. fe 






Al>ril 3, 


7- 


II. 


23 Em 


2u'. 


May 30, 


10. 


i^, 


%2 Em 


I/- 


June 13, 


9- 


18. 


'6 Em. 


2d. 


Mar. I, 


9- 


46. 


49 Ini. 


I/- 


April 9, 


10. 


37- 


2 Em. 


I/- 


25, 


8. 


56. 


50 Em. 


I/?- 


May 12, 


10. 


33- 


9 Em 


Vl. 


Feb. 16, 


14. 


21. 


51 Im. 


^Ji- 


23, 


^5- 


42. 


I Im. 


2</. 


i3. 


16. 


16. 


21 Im. 


V'- 


Mar. 17, 


12. 


45- 


21 Im. 


2«/. 



J 767. April 3, 7. II, 23 Em. iJ. Ap. T 
1768. 

J 769. 



1769. April 3, 14- JO. 48 Im. i/7.Ap. T. 

11, 9. 49. 14 Im. zd. 

12, II. 15. 49 Im. I/?. 
May 5, II. 50. 28 Im. 1/?. 

With a four feet refledlor. 

June 7, 8. 44. 37 Em. 2'. 

22, 8. 27. IS Em. if}. 

29, 10. 21. 55 Em. y}. 

Aug. 23, I J. 15. 48 Em. I/?. 

Sept. II, 7. 44. 41 Em. 2d. 



Since the foregoing account has been drawn up, we have 
been furnifhed with fome obfervations of the eclipfes of 
Jupiter*s fatellites, made by the revd. Mr. Ma{kelyne,aftro- 
nomer royal, at Greenwich. By comparing thefe with 
the like obfervations made at Philadelphia and Norriton, we 
are enabled to fettle the longitudes of our obfervatories. 

But 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. ^;^ 

But as there are but two or three of them correfpondent 
with ours, we muft have recourfe to another method; which 
is firft to compare them with the calculations in the nau- 
tical almanac, which were made for the meridian of Green- 
wich, that the error of the tables may be difcovered by 
the mean of them; and then to compare ours with the 
fame calculations, applying the errors of the tables to the 
longitude deduced from this comparifon. We may depend 
upon the refult of this method with miich more confidence, 
than upon any fnigle obfervation. 

Here follow the Apparent Times of the Greenwich Obfervations compared with the calcula- 
tions of the Nautical Almanac. 



1769. D. h. m. fee. 

Mar. 2g, 12. 35. 7 Im. I/? obf. at Green. 
21), 12. 24. 26 Do. p. calc. of N. Al. 



41 Error Weii. 

Apr. II, 14. 50. 23 Im. 2a' obf. at Greenw. 
II, 14. 50. 4 Do. p. calc. of N. Al. 



19 Error Wefl, 

12, 16. 16. 13 Im. I/? obf. at Greenw. 
12, 16, 16, 13 Do. p. calc. of N. Al. 



9. 41. 16 Jim. yi obf. at Green. 
9. 41. 26 Do. p. calc. of N. Al. 



10 Error Eaft. 

15, II. 25- 33 ^"^- 1/^ obf. at Green. 
15, II, 34. 55 Do. p. calc. of N. Al. 



1769. D. h. m. fee, 

April 28, 14. Z5- 17 Im. 1/7 obf at Green. 
a8, 14. 36. 14 Do. p. calc. of N. Al. 

5 7 Error Eaft. 

May 6, II. 51. 3 Im. 2 /obf. at Greenw. 
6, II. 51. 45 Do. p. calc. of N. Al. 



43 Error Eaft. 

May 16, 9. 32. 15 Em. 17? obf. at Greenw. 
16, 9. 31. 7 Do. p. calc. of N. Al. 



I. 8 Error Weft. 

July I, 9. 50. 24 Em. I/? obf. at Greenw. 
I. 9- SO. 37 Do. p. calc. of N. Al. 



1^ Error Eaft. 



38 Error Weft. 

No w although the errors of the firft fatellite appear confi- 
derable, yet if we reject the obfervation of the i6th of May 
as being too near to the time of Jupiter's oppofition with 
the Sun; the mean of thofe, which give an eaftern meri- 
dian correfponding with the calculations of the nautical 
almanac, exadly counterbalances the mean of thofe which 
give a weftern meridian correfponding with them. There- 
fore we have nothing; to do but to reduce all our obferva- 
tions at Norriton and Philadelphia to the meridian of Phila- 
delphia, and then compare them with the calculations in 
the nautical almanac. 

The 



54 



MATHEMATICAL and 



The Non-Iton obfervatious of the eclipfes of Jupiter's firft Satellite are as follow, 

1769. D. h. m. fee. 

May 14, 10. 2. 14 Em. Jfc :!oulit/!iL 

21, II. S5. 13 Eir.. 1/?. 

Jam 6, 10. II. 22 En. jjr. 

7, 8. 43. 44 Em. 2d. 



13, 12. J. I Em. if. 



D. h. m. fee. 
1769. Fe!'. 16, 14- 21- 10 ^m- ''f- 

23, 16, 15. I Im. I/?. 
Aj>ri! 3, 14, 49- 2.<; Im. i//. 

10, 16. 46. o Im. 1/?. 

12, II. 14- 37 'rii- ¥• 
May 5, II. 29. 27 Im. iff. 

Now if we compare the correfpondent obfervations at 
Philadelphia and Norriton on the i6th of February, the 
1 2th of April, the 5th of May, and the 7th of June 1769, 
the difference of our meridians will be found from the 
mean of them to be 57 feconds of time. This is farther 
confirmed by the oblefvations we have made on the tran- 
fit of Mercury over the Sun, on the 9th of November, 
1769, which being compleated before thefe Iheets were 
printed off, we have judged proper to infert. 

Apparent Time. h. m. fee. 

The external conta6t was at 2. 36. y by the mean of 4 olrfcrvations at Philadelphia, 
And at 2. 35. 17 by the mean of 3 obfervations at Norriton. 

The difference is 52 

The internal contaA was at 2. 37. 34 by the mean of 4 obfervations at Philadelphia, 
And at - - - 2. 36. 34 by the mean of 3 obfervations at Norriton. 

The difference is i. o 

Therefore the mean of both thefe makes the difference 
of our meridians ^6 feconds of time, which muft certain- 
ly be more accurate than what is deduced from a few cor- 
refponding obfervations of the eclipfes of Jupiter's fatel- 
lites; both becaufe they afford 24 comparifons, all nearly 
agreeing among themfelves, and becauie thefe tranfits, in 
the judgment of moft aflronomers, afford the heft oppor- 
tunities of fettling the longitude of places. Hence if we 
add 56 feconds to the time of the Norriton obfervations of 
the eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites, they will be reduced to 
the meridian of our obfervatory in Philadelphia, and may 
be ufed in fixing our longitude from Greenwich, in the 
following manner. 



The 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



SS 



The calculated time per Nautical 


■rl, 


e obi'ervcd 


The Norriton ' 


The difference | 


Almanac. 




Time at 


obf. red 


. to the 


of merid. 


ofGr. 










Philadelphia. 


me rid. 


of Phil. 


and Philadel. | 


D. 


h. 


m 


fee. 


D. 


h. m. fee. 


D. h. 


m. fee. 


D. 


h. 


fee. 


1767. M.iy 30, 


15- 


16. 


10 Em. I/?. 


30, 


10. 15. 32 






5, 


0. 


38 






7""'^ 13, 


14. 


17- 


37 J'.m. 2i/. 


13, 


9. 18. 6 


. - . 


- - 


4, 


59- 


31 


lj6S.Mur. I, 


14. 


48. 


24 Im. jji. 


I, 


9. 46. 49 


. _ - 


- 


5. 


I. 


35 


A/>ril 9, 


15- 


36. 


34 Lm. i/f. 


9. 


10. 37. 2 


- . _ 


. - 


4, 


59- 


32 


25. 


13- 


57- 


46 Em. 1/7. 


25, 


8. j6. JO 


... 


- - 


5, 


0. 


56 


May 12. 


15- 


34- 


n Em. 2//. 


12, 


10. 33 9 






5, 


I, 


2 






1769. Fii. 16. 


19. 


22. 


29 Im. I/?. 


16, 


14. 21. ji 


... 


- - 


5, 


0, 


38 


16, 


19. 


22. 


29 Im. ly? 


- 


- - - 


16, 14. 


22. 6 


5, 


0. 


23 


20, 


2"?. 


42. 


55 Im. 2a'. 


20, 


15. 42. I 


... 


- - 


5, 


0. 


54 


23. 


21. 


16. 


35 I"'- I/. 


23, 


16. 16. 21 


... 


. . 


5, 


0. 


14 


23, 


21. 


16. 


35 Ini. I/?. 


- 


_ - - 


23, 16. 


15- 57 


5- 


0. 


38 


ikf^r. 17. 


17- 


46. 


4 Im. 2</. 


17, 


12. 45- 21 


... 




5- 


0. 


43 


A/>ril 3, 


19. 


51- 


24 Im. I/?. 


3, 


14- 50. 48 


... 


- - 


5. 


0. 


36 


3. 


19. 


51- 


24 Im. I/?. 


- 


- - - 


3. 14, 


50. 21 


5. 


I. 


3 


10, 


21, 


47- 


14 Im. I/?. 


- 


_ - - 


10, 16. 


46. 56 


5- 


0. 


18 


II. 


14. 


50. 


4 Im. 2;/. 


iij 


9, 49- 14 


- . _ 


- - 


5. 


0. 


50 


12, 


16. 


16. 


13 Im. I/?. 


12, 


II- 15. 49 


... 




5- 


0. 


24 




~ " 


12, 


16. 


16. 


13 Im. I/?. 


- 


- - - 


12. II. 


15. 33 


5, 





40 


il% 5, 


16. 


31- 


20 Im. 1/7. 


5, 


II, 30. 28 


- . _ 




5, 


0. 


52 


5, 


16. 


31- 


20 Tm. 1/?. 


- 


. _ _ 


5, II- 


30. 23 


5, 


0. 


57 


21, 


16. 


56. 


49 Em. I/?. 


- 


... 


21, II. 


56. 9 


5, 


0. 


40 


>»^ 6, 


15- 


12. 


59 Em. J/. 


- 


. . . 


6, 10. 


12. 28 


5- 


0. 


31 


7, 


13- 


45- 


13 Em. 2J. 


7» 


8. 44- 37 


... 


- - 


5, 


0. 


36 


7, 


13- 


45- 


13 Em. 2^. 


- 


- - . 


7, 8. 


44- 39 


5- 


0. 


34 


13, 


17- 


6. 


31 Em. If?. 


- 


- - - 


13. 12. 


5- 57 


5- 


0. 


34 


22, 


13- 


28. 


30 Em. I/?. 


22, 


8. 27. 35 


... 


- - 


5, 


0. 


55 


29> 


15- 


22. 


II Em. I/?. 


29, 


10, 21.55 






5- 


0. 


16 






-^■'«-- 23, 


12. 


15- 


49 Em, 1/7. 


23. 


7. 15. 48 






5- 


0. 


I 


... 


• " 


Sr-t:f. II, 


12. 


45- 


10 Em. 2;7. 


II, 


7. 44. 41 


- - - 


" - 


5, 


0. 


29 



Now if we take the mean of all the 2 1 foregoing deter- 
minations of our longitude from Greenwich, by the 
eclipfes of the firft farelliie, rejecting only thofe of March 
I ft, and April 9th, 1 76S, which differ moil from the others, 
the refult will be 5''. o'. 35" for the difference of our me- 
ridians. Thefe ought evidently to be rejected, as they dif- 
fer near twice as much, from the mean of the reft, as any 
other of the determinations do, yet the retaining of them 
will make no difference in the refult. If the mean deter- 
mination of the longitude be taken from the immerfions 
alone, rejecting that of the ift of March, 1768, it will be 
5\ o'. 1,6", and if from the emerfions alone, it will be 5''. 
o '. 34", when the obfervation of the 9th of April, 1768, is 
excluded. Therefore the mean of both, (which ftiould 
always be preferred,) is 5''. o' . 35''. 

As a farther confirmation of this conclufion; if this dif- 
ference of meridians be applied to the Greenwich obfer- 

vations 



56 



MATHEMATICAL and 



vations, of the firft fatellite, rejeding that of the i6th of 
May, to reduce them to the meridian of Philadelphia, and 
if they are then compared with the calculations in the nau- 
tical almanac; we ftiall have the fame refult from them 
alfo. 



The calculated time per Nautical Al- 



1769. D. 

Mar. 29, 

April 12, 

28, 

'^une 8, 
15, 
"July I , 
"April II, 
May 6, 



h. m. fee. 
12. 24. 26 Im. ift. 
16. 16. 13 Im. ift. 
14. 36. 14 Im. ift. 

9. 41. 26 Em. ift. 
II. 34. ^$ Em. ift, 

9. 50. 37 Em. ift. 
14. 50. 4 Im. 2d. 
II. 51. 45 Im. 2d. 



Greenw 


ich obfervations re- 


ducec 


to the nieridian ol 


Phila 


delphia. 


D 


h. m. fee. 


29. 


7. 24. 33 


li, 


II. Ij. 38 


28 


9. 34. 42 


8 


4. 40. 41 


15 


6, 34. 58 




4. 49. 49 


1 II 


9. 49. 48 


! ^ 


, 6. jc. 27 



Difference of 


meridian of 


Greenwich 


and Phila- 


delphia. 
h. m. 


fec. 


4- 


59- 


54 


5- 


0. 


35 


5- 


I. 


3^ 


J. 


0. 


45 


4- 


59- 
0. 


57 

48 


5- 


0. 


16 


5- 


I. 


18 



The mean of thefe determinations of the longitude, from 
the Greenwich obfervations of the firft fatellite, is j". o'. 
X^" , But farther if we take the mean of all the determina- 
tions, derived from the eclipfes of the fecond faiellite, it 
will be found to be f. o' . 37". And laftly, if the mean 
of all the determinations from the eclipfes or b'.ith firft and 
fecond fatellite be chofen, the deduced longitude will be 
5"* o' • 35''* ^^ ^^^^ ^^ "^'^y fafely conclude, that the dif- 
ference of meridians between Philadelphia and Greenwich, 
is J**, o'. 2^"] and that Norriton is 56" of time weft of 
Philadelphia, and its longitude is ^^. i' . 31". -a eft. Wiih 
this determination we muft be contented until farther ob- 
fervations are made, by which it may be confirmed, or ren- 
dered liable to exception. 

Thefe obfervations are fufficient to determine every thing 
relative to the theory of Venus, and the parallaxes of the 
Sun and planets, as may be feen by the annexed projec- 
tion of the tranfit, and the following calculations. Al- 
though the parallax of the Sun may be obtained from the 
obferved neareft diftance of the centers of the Sun and 
Venus, yet this method cannot be fo much depended on, 
as the comparifon of the contads of the limbs obferved in 
proper places, where the abfolute diff"erence of time is 
conliderable. Neverthelefs, as the public feem very impa- 
tient 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 57 

tient to know the refult of what was done In this place, I 
have endeavoured to deduce It from our oblervations alone ; 
and flatter myfelf, that in the conclufion It will be found 
pretty accurate; as it is nearly the fame with what 1 had 
before found It to be, by an hundred and forty determina- 
tions of it, from the obfervations of aftronomers on the 
tranfit of 1761; and alfo from another method, the in- 
vention of the celebrated Mr. Stuart, of Edinburgh; both 
which I have now annexed to the following calculation?. 

Having thus collected together all the elements neceffary 
for the enfuing calculation, before I proceed to It, I mull 
in juftice to Dr. Williamfon and Mr. Prior, obferve, that 
of the micrometer meafures, the 2d, 3d, 19th, 20th, 21ft, 
2 id, 23d, 24th, and 25th were made by Mr. Prior, and 
the 35th, 43d, 44th, and 54th by Dr. Williamfon, with the 
fame adjuftment of the focus, that I ufed in the others. 

I have taken the trouble of making above fifty determi- 
nations of the middle of the tranfit, and find from a mean 
of them, that the neareft approach of their centers was at 
5\ 21'. 27" mean time, or 5'. 23'. 4i\7 apparent time, 
which was haftened by parallax 4'. 48'' at Philadelphia; 
and therefore, that the central apparent time of the middle 
of the tranfit was ^^. 28' . 29",7, according to our meridian. 

By comparing together eighteen determinations of the 
neareft diftance of the center of the Sun and Venus, I find 
the mean of them to be 10'. 3'' ,^S, as feen in Philadelphia. 
But (he was then depreffed 6'',9i by parallax; and there- 
fore, the geocent. neareft diftance of the centers was 10'. 
I o" ,49 = 610" ,49. Therefore fay. 

As 72626 45 the diftance of $ from the : ioc,-j),^5 her diuance from : : 6lo',4^ : 
k^liocentric diftance of their centers. ^ 

4. 861,0949 
4. 460,5904 
2. 785,678,5 



7^46^2689 

^- 385, 1740=242", 758.5=4'. 2", 758.'? the heliocentric diflance of thc.T cent.irs. 
As r>, 3". 23.' 20II the inch of $ orbit to the eclip. : R : : S, 4'. 2",758 : Siiie of Q's dift.' 
from the node of J . 

8. 771,6803 
10. - - - 

7. 070,2506 

8. 291.5703 = 1°. <•'. 20' ,:> dift.froni the node of $ . 

Vol. I. H Now 



58 MATHEMATICAL and 

Now fuch is the peculiarity of the orbit of Venus and her horary motion at that time, that 
we may indifferently fay, . ,. , .^. , , -i u 

AsS, 1°. 8'. 2o".23 : Rad : : S, ic/. io",49 : S, of the angle of her vifiole path with the 

^'^Or'asT^ 4'. a". 758*3 : T, \d . io",49 = = S, 3°. 23'. ao" : S, of the angle of her vifible path= 

Or'laftly.'if'it fliould be deemed more eligible to deduce her horary motion from the foregoing 
meafures, and from a comparifon of it with die horary motion of the Sun, to deduce the angle 
of her vifible path, it may be done in the following manner, and will be found to be nearly the 

fame. r n ^ \ 

For let A B reprefent the horary motion of 0=z'.39a375 (fee fag. 2. pi. 4.) 
B A C=the inchnation of the orbit of $ with the ccHptic=3°. 23'. 20". 
^ C=the horary motion of $ =3'.952942, as it may be deduced from the faid meafures. 
Then the angle DBC will reprefent the vifible path of $ with the ecliptic, and may be found 

as follows : 

Let 2'.39237i=horary motion 

3. 922942=horary motion 5=237". l7652whofe Log. is 2. 375. 0716 

As 6. 3453l7=fum of their horary motions ----- 0.802,4534 
Isto l.560567=differencc of their horary motions - - - 0.193,2825 
So is cot. of half of 3°. 23'. 2o",orcot. 1°. 41'- 40" - - - 11.528,9451 



To T, of half the diff.ofthe angles at B&C=83^ 8'. a7".2=io. 919,774a 
Towhichadd halfthe fumof do. - - 88. 18. ao 

171. 26 47,2andthefupl; ofthisis 8° 33'. la'', 8 
=the angle of the vifible path of $ 
oi6,65=the difference of the femidiameters of and 5 
6io,49=the geo. neareft diftance of their centers. 



Sum, 1527,14=3. 183,8789 
Diff. 306,16=2. 485,9484 



2)5. 669,8273 the log. of the fquare of half the tranfit line between the in- 
ternal contads. 

2. 834,9i36=theIog. of half the tranfit line between int. cont.=683",776 
437" 17652=2. 375,o7i6=thelog. of J hor. mot. 

o. 459,8420=2h. 882982=2h.52'.58",7=thefemidu.betweenthein. cont. 

9y4j65=the fum of the femidiameters of and $ 
6io,49=the geo. nearell diftance of their centers. 



Sum, 1585,14 3- 200,0677 
Diff. 364,16 2. 561,2922 



3)5- 761,3599 
2. 88o,6799=the log. of half the tran. line between the cxt. co.= 759'',766 
2. 375,07l6^the log. of $ hor. mot. 



o. 505,6083= 3h. 20338=3h. 12'. I2",i68=:the femiduratlon between die 
external c©nta6ts. 

AsR : Sec. 8". 33'. ii",5 :: 6io",49 : geo. ladtude of ? 

10. - - - 
10. 004,857a 
4. 785,6785 



2- 790,5357=6l7",356=lo'. I7",336=the geo. lat. of $ 

/.s 72626,45 : 28879,55 ;: geocentric latitude : heliocentric latitude of $ 

4. 861,0949 
4. 460,5904 
a- 790.5357 



7. 251,1261 



2. 390.03 1 a=»45",488.f«=4'. 3",4885=the heliocentric latitude of $ 

6ic,49 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 

610,49 
617,356 



59 



1227,846 3. 089,1440 

96,866 o. 836,7038 



3. 925,8478 
I. 962,9139 

2- 375,07i6=the log. of hor. mot. of 9 



9. 587, 8523==oh. 387126=21'. I3'',6536=the time between Uic mid- 
dle and edip. conjundtion. 

From the apparent time of the middle of the tranfit, viz. 
j\ 28'. 29^,7 dedudt 23'. i3",65 and the apparent time- 
of the ecliptical conjundlion will be s*'' S' ' 16^,05, ^^^^i^ 
the Sun's place given in the nautical almanac was 
2*. 13*^. :27'.i8",7, making the difference of our meridian 
from Greenwich ^^. o' ^^"^ as found above. To his place 
in the ecliptic add his diftance from the node of Venus, 
found above, viz. i". 8'. 20^,23, and the fum gives the 
place of her afcending node, 2\ 14^ ^^' . 38^,9. 

From the middle of the tranfit, as feen at the center of the 
earth, viz. ^^. 28'. 29^,7, apparent time, dedudt the femi- 
duration between the internal contacts, viz. 2\ 52'. 58",7 
and there remains 2^. ^^' , 31", the apparent time of the 
firft internal contadt, without parallax. This I obferved 
at 2**. 31' 26" apparent time; the difference between thefe 
is the total effed of parallax in longitude and latitude, 
which is 4' . 5". But upon the fuppofition that the Sun's 
horizontal parallax, on the day of the tranfit, was 8^,5204, 
the total effect of parallax fhould have been 4' . 4". 
Therefore fay. 

As 4'. 4"-=244" ' r- 5"=245" : : 8^,5204 : S",SSS= 
the hor. par. of the Sun on June 3d, 1769. Then 

As iooooo=his mean dift. from the earth : 101506= 
his dift. on the day of the Tranfit, ; : 8^,555 : 8^6838 
his horizontal parallax at his mean diftance from the earth. 

This is nearly the fame, with what is deduced from the 
bed of the obfervations made on the tranfit of 1 761 : And 
according to this parallax of the Sun, the mean diftances 
of the planets from the Sun will be, as they are exhibited 

in 



Go MATHEMATICAL a ^^ d 

in the following table, taking a mean femidiameter of the 
earth 3985 Engliih miles. 

36693417 Mercury's 1 

68564850 Venus's I 

94790550 the Earth*s ' Mean diftance from the Sun, 
14443 14C0 Mars's in Englifli miles. 

493005300 Jupiter's 
904307200 Saturn's J 

On account of the difficulty of afcertaining the precife 
moment of the middle of the tranfit, from, the menfurations 
of the neareil dii^ances of the limbs of the Sun and Ve- 
nus, and the fmall difference of time between the contads 
happening, at the center of the earth, and at any particu- 
lar place on its furfacej aftronomers have generally pre- 
ferred the comparifon of twoobfervations at proper places, 
where the effe<3:s of parallax will be contrary to each other, 
retarding the contacts at one place and accelerating them 
at the other, for the purpofe of deducing the parallax and 
diftanceof theSun from them. We have an opportunity of 
confirming the former conclufions, by comparing our obfer- 
vations with thofe that have been made at the royal obferva- 
tory at Greenwich, as they have lately come to hand. They 
differ indeed confiderablyamongthemfelves, probably ow- 
ing to the various methods, which the obfervers took to 
judgeof thecontadls, the account of which is not yet arrived 
here; yet they give a mean parallax of the Sun nearly the 
fame that we have deduced from our own obfervations at 
Philadelphia. I have therefore inferted them in this ac- 
count of the tranlit, as they ferve to fhew that we have 
not lofl our labour and expence on this occafion. The 
method I have ufed is firft to reduce the Greenwich obfer- 
vations of the contads to the meridian of our obfervatory 
in Philadelphia, by dedud:ing from them the difference of 
longitude converted into time; and then to calculate the 
effecll of parallax for both places at the apparent times of 
the contacts, upon the fuppofition of the Sun's horizontal 

parallax 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 6i. 

parallax being 8", 5204 on the day of the tranfit. From 
this, the Sun*s horizontal parallax is found either greater 
or lefs, as the calculated efFed: of paralFax is greater or 
lefs, than what is obferved. 

The parallax of Venus i-n longitude at Greenwich, at 
the time of the firfl external contad: was 16", g, which haft- 
ened the contad; there 4'. 16", 5, and her parallax in lati- 
tude at the fame time was 12'', 97, which depreffed her on 
the difk of the Sun, lengthened her vifible path, and acce- 
lerated the contact 2' . 2)^"')S-> ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^°^^^ effed: of her 
parallax was to haften the contact 6' . 5 1 " of time. In like 
manner her parallax in longitude at the internal contact 
was 1 6", 6, which haftened it 4' . 12" of time; and her 
parallax in latitude being 1 3^542 at that time, for the fame 
realbn haftened the faid contadl 2'. 40"; and therefore the 
total efFed of parallax to accelerate the internal contad at. 
Greenwich is 6' . 52". 

At Philadelphia her parallax in longitude being 10^', 74 
at the external contad, haftened it 2' . 43"; and her paral- 
lax in latitude being 4"543» lengthened her vifible path on 
the Sun and haftened the contad 53'' of time; whence its 
total effed was 3' . 36" of time. In like manner her pa- 
rallax in. longitude at the internal contad being 11 ",95 
haftened it 3'. 1" of time, and her parallax in latitude be- 
ing 4">49 lengthened the tranfit line, and haftened the con- 
tad i'. 3"; and therefore the total efi^ed: of her parallax 
at that time to haften the internal contad was 4' . 4". 

Now as the total eft^ed of parallax both at Greenwich 
and at Philadelphia confpired to haften the contads at both 
thefe places, with refped to the center of the earth, their 
difi^erence is the whole eff'ed they have on abfolute time, 
viz. 3'. 15" at the external contad, and 2' . 48" at the 
internal contad. 

The contads were obferved at Greenwich at the appa- 
rent times mentioned in the following table, according to 
their meridian. 

External 



62 MATHEMATICAL and 

External Contad. Internal Contadt. 

h. m. fee. t- ni. fee. 

7. 10. 54 7. a8. 47 by Hitchin*. 

7. II. II - . - . Hirft. 

7. 10. 37 7- i9- 218 Dun. 

^. II, ip 7. 29. 20 DoUond. 

7. II. 30 7. 29. 20 Nairne. 

7. 10. 58 7- ^9- 23 Maikelyne. 

Thefe times are reduced to the meridian of Philadelphia, 
by fubftrading ^^.o' .^^ " from them in the following manner. 

External Cnntail. Internal Contaft. 

h. m. fee. h. m. fee. 

2. 10. 19 2. 28. 12 by Hitchins. 

2. 10. 36 .... Hirft. 

2. 10. 2 a- 28. 53 Dun. 

2. 10. 44 2» 28. -45 Dollond. 

2. 10. 55 2. 28. 45 Nairne. 

2. 10. 23 2. 28. 48 Maikelyne. 



M. of all is, 2. 10. 30» 2- 28. 40,6 

The mean of all the times of the external contacts at 
Philadelphia is 2\ 13 ^ 46",6, and of the internal con- 
tacts 2h. 31'. 28", as appears by page 49, and the diffe- 
rence between thefe means is the obferved effed of parallax. 

h. m. fee. h. m. fee. 

». 13. 46,6 2. 31. 28 at Philadelphia. 

2. 10. 30 a. 28. 40,6 at Greenwich. 

3. 16,6 2. 47,4 the obferved effeds of 

parallax, at the external and internal conta(£ls. Therefore fay, 

As 3' . 1 5 "=195" the calculated effed of parallax at the 
external contadt is to 3'. 16" ^6=ig6\6 : : So is the af- 
fumed horizontal parallax of the Sun on the day of the 
tranfit 8 ",5 2 04 : to his true parallax on that day. And 
in like manner, as 1' . 48"=i68" : 2' . ^j\/i^i6y",/] : ; 
8^,5204 : the Sun*s parallax on that day. 

2. 290,0346 2. 225,3093 

2- 293,5835 2. 223.7555 

o. 930,4600 o. 930,4600 

3. 224,04:,5 3- 154,2155 



o. 934,oo89=8",5903i © hor. par. o. 928,9o62=8",48997 hor. par. 
8",48997 



2) i7",o8o28 



8", 54014 the mean hor. par. of on the day of the tranfit. 

As 1 00000 : 101^06 : : 8",540i4 : the Sun's horizon- 
tal parallax at his mean diftance from the earth. 

5. 000,0000 
5. 006,4917 

o. 931,4650 

o. 9"7,9567=8"j66875 the Sun's hor. par. at his mean diflancefrom the earth. 

The 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 6;^ 

The parallax of the Sun being fixed by the mean of 
fuch comparifons as thefe, it is an eafy matter to af certain 
not only the diftances of the bodies, which compofe the 
folar fyftem, but allb their real diameters; that of the 
earth being previoufly known from the a6:ual menfuration 
of fome degrees on it's furface. For 

As the red:angle of the parallax of the Sun, and his- 
diftance from the earth, is to the real diameter of the earth ; 
fo is the rectangle of the parallax and diftance of any other 
planet from the Sun, to its real diameter^ 

As to my delineation of the tranftt^ I have taken the ele- 
ments of the project ion from our ouun obfervations on the 
i^dofjiine^ 1769. Plate ^^ fg, 2. 

I"' HE nearcft approach of the centers having been de- 
termined, from the mean of a great number of com- 
putations, and found to agree very nearly with the mea- 
fures that were actually made at the middle of the tranfit, 
it was accordingly fet off on th^ diameter of the Sun, and 
through this point a chord was drawn at right angles to 
the faid diameter for the central tranfit line. This was 
then divided carefully into hours and minutes, according 
to the horary motion of Venus, determined by the pre- 
ceding calculation, in fuch a manner, as that the exad: mo- 
ment of the middle of the tranfit, at the earth's center, 
fhould fall on the point of interfedion between the faid 
diameter of the Sun and tranfit line; this moment of time 
having been previoufly determined, by the mean of a fuf- 
ficient number of computations. 

The parallaxes of Venus, in longitude and latitude, as 
feen from Philadelphia, having been alfo adapted to the 
apparent times of the micrometer meafures, on the fuppo- 
fitionof the Sun's horizontal parallax being 8",5204 on the 
day of the tranfit, they were accordingly applied to the pro- 
jedtion, by which the places of her center were determined 
for the faid times. Round thefe, fmall circles were drawn, 
with the radius c^ 29 feconds, to reprefent the difk of 

Venus 



64 



MATHEMATICAL and 



Venus on the face of the Sun; andlines were drawn be- 
tween the Umhs, in the dire(?tion of their centers, of fuch 
a determined length, as the micrometer has given them. 
Many of the meafures were taken from the fartheft limb 
of the Sun, as well as from the neareft, to both limbs of 
Venus, and thefe meafures were afterwards reduced to the 
Tieareft diftance of the neareft limbs, as they are exhibited 
in the preceding table, ufing the diameters of the Sun and 
Venus, as they are ftated above. 

As a confirmation of the foregoing conclufions, I have 
fubjoined the obfervations of aftronomers, in different 
places, of the conta(5ts and durations of the tranfit of 1 76 1 , 
as they have fent them to the Royal Society, together with 
the longitudes and latitudes of the places of obfervation, 
on w^hich the following calculations depend. 



OBSERVATIONS 


on the Transit of VENUS over 


he SUN,I 




June 


6th, 1761, N. 


S. Apparent Time. 




i 


Nam.ofplaces. | 


iftEx.Con. 


ift In. Cont. 1 


ad In. Con. | 2d Ex. Cont. | 


Duration. | 




h. m. fee. 


h. m. lee. 


h. m. fee.; 


•1. m. fee. 


h. 


m. lee. 


Greenwich, 


. 


. 


8. 19. 


^- 37- 9 


_ 


. 


Shirburn Caftle, 


_ 


. 


8. 15. 12 


i- 33- 17 




. 


Saville Houfe, 


- 


- 


8. II. 22 




- 


^ 


Spittal Square, 


- 


- 


8. 18. 41 


. _ . - 




. 


Chclfea, 


- 


- 


8. iS. 4 


.... 


. 


. 


Leflcard, 




. 


8. 0. 21 


_ _ . _ 




. 


Paris, 




- 


8. 28. 27 


8. 46. 44 


- 


. 


Bolongna, 


- 


- 


9- 4. 51 


9- 23. o7 
to 75 




- 


Rome, 




. 


9. 9. 36 




" 


* 


Drontheim, 


- 


- 


9. I. 49 


- . . - 




- - - 


Upfal, 


3. 20. 45 


3- 37- 437 

to 56V- 

3- 38. sS 


9. 28. 6 


9. 46. 13? 

to 305 


5- 


SO sl 
to 265 


Stockholm, 


3- ai- 37 


3. 39- 231029 


9. 30. 10 


- . - . 


5- 


50. 41 to 47 


Heruofand, 


3. 20. 40 


3. 38. 26 to 35 


9. 28. 52 


9. 46. 43 


5- 


50. 17 to 26 


Calmar, 


_ 


3- 23- I 


9. 23. 40 


. . . - 


5- 


5<- 39 


Abo, 


- 


3- 35- 50 


9- 45- 59 


10. 4. 42 


5- 


50, 9 


Tornea, 


3- 45- 44? 
to 515 


4. 4. 


9- 54. 8? 

to 225 


ro. 12. i§to22 


5- 


50. 9 to 21 


Cajaneburg, 


- 


4- 19- S 


10. 8. 59 


- . . . 


S. 


49 54 


Tobollki, 


- 


7. 0. 21 


12. 49. 204 


13- 7- Z9\ 


5- 


48. 50 


Cap*; G. Hope, 


- 


- 


9- 39- 50' 








Rodrigues, 


- 


- 


12- 25- 47 


12. sz. 18 




- 


Calcutta, 


- 


8. 20. 58 


14. II. 34 


14- 37- 38 


5- 


50. 36 


Madrafs, 


7- 31- 10 


7- 47- 55 


13- 39- 38 


13- 55- 44 


5- 


51- 43 


Tranquebar, 


- 


- 






5- 


51- 2,Z 


!')rear Mrmnt. 


- 


- 


- 


.... 


5- 


51. 20 



N. of 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



JN. ot l^iaces 



JLaticudc. 



Longitude 
fr. Grcenwicli 



N. of Places. 



Latitude. 



i-OllglLUUC 

fr.Oret-iiwich 



Greenwich, 51. 28. 
Shirb.CalHe, 51. 39. 
Sav. Houfe, 
pit. Square, 
Chelfca, 



37N. 

2Z N 



Leikard, 
Paris, 
Bologna, 
Rome, 



50. 26. 

48. 50. 

44. 29. 

41- 5.V 



Dronthcim, \6^. 36. 
Upfal, 59. 51. 

Stockholm, ijp. 20. 



55 No. 18. 
14 Njo. 9. 
36 NiO. 45. 
54 N|o. 49- 
10 N|0. 44. 
50 N I. 10. 
30 Njr. 12. 



Icc. 









I VV. 




31 w. 




l6iW. 




40 VV. 




32 w. 




16 E. 




21. E. 




S3 E. 




3 E. 




26. E. 




26 E. 





Hcrnofand, 

Calmar, 

Abo, 

Tornca, 

Cajaneburg, 

Tobolfki, 

CapeG. Hope, 

Rodrigues, 

Calcutta, 

Madras, 

Tranquehar, 

Great Mount, 



,60. 38. 
'56. 40. 
60. 27. 
^65. 50, 
64 X3. 
58. 12. 
33- 55- 
19. 40. 
22. 30. 
13- 8. 
10. j6. 



oN 
30 N. 

oN. 
50 N. 
30 N 
22 N. 
42 S. 
40 S. 

oN. 

o N. 

o N. 



m. Itc. 
ir. 28 E 

5- 39 E 
38. 33 E 
36. 48 E 
51. 50 E. 

52 E. 

35 E, 

34 E. 

44 E. 

10 E. 
8 E. 



32. 
13- 
12. 

53- 

20. 



Tif Parallax of the SUN, deduced from the %d Internal Cxntad of the Limbs of the SUN and 
VENUS, in the Tranft of 1761. 



Cafe »f Good Hope & Lejhard. 
Parali 
h. m. fee. ' " 

9. 39. 50 Cupe, 6 8 

1. 32. 7 Diff. Longitude. 

8r~T.'l3 

8. O. 21 LefkarJ, Jt 4_ 

7. 22 7 12 

As 7.12 : 7.22 : : 8",5 
G's Par. 8",69 



Cape & SavilU Houfe. 
9- 39- so 6 

I. 14. 5 



a5- 
18. 



45 

22 Saville, 



7- 23 ^ 7- 

Sun's Par. 8,57 



19 



C<7/e & Paris 
9. 39. 50 
I. 4- 19 



31 

27 



54 



7- 4 
Sun's Par. 



8.54 



Cape & i?owf . 
9. 39. 50 6. 

o. 23._4Z 
9ri6. 8^ 
9. 9. 36 o. 



Cape & Sherburne Caflle. 

Parali 
h. m. fee. ' '/ 

9- 39- SO 6. 8 

I- 17. 36 diff". longitude. 



22. 
15- 



14 

1 2 Sherborne 



7. 2 7. 

Sun's Par. 8", 15 



(7iZ/i« & Spittat Square. 

9. 39- JO 6. 

I- 13- 51 



59 

41 Spit.Sq. I. 



Cape & Chelfca, 



m. fee. 

59- 50 

14. 15 



Parali, 
/ // 

6. 8 



Chelfci. 



25- 34 
i8. 4 

7- 30 7 

Sun's Par. 8", 73 



I. ir 



7- 18 7- 

Sun's Par. 8,47 



19 



Cape & Drontheim. 
39- 50 6. 

29. 32 



18 

49 



2. 38 



>. 29 
Sun's Par. 8,23 



8. 46 



Ca^tf & Calmar. 
39. 50 6. 

7- 56 



13 



6. 32 6 

Sun's Par. 8,74 



54 
40 



59 



Cape & HernofinJ. 



9- 39- 



50 

7 



6. 8 9- 



«. 14 s. 

Sun's Par. 8,62_ 
Cape &Z Sioekbolm. 

39. 50 6. 

I. 9 



9- 37- 43 
9- 28. 52 



26 



Sun's Par. 8,78 



34 



38. 41 

30. 10 

" 8. 31' 

Sun's Par. 



8,5? 



Cafe & ToriKa. 

59. 50 6. 

3- 13 






Cape & Cajaneburg. 
39. 50 6. 

38. 15 



3- 

54. 



10. 
10. 



8. 55 9- 

Sun's Par. 8,22 



13 



5 
6 



9. o 9. 

Sun'? Pnr. 8,49 



• 15 7- 

Sun's Par. 8,42 



CaySif &: Bo!$gna. 



39- 50 
28. 14 



II. 36 
4-57 _£ 

6. 39 6 

Sun's Par. 8,54 



Cape & f///a/. 
39- SO 6 

^3i_9 
36. 41 
28. 6 a. 

8- 35 "87 

Sun's Par. 8,60 



9- 
+0. 

9- 

9- 



Ca^,? & Abo. 
SO 
58 



Sun's Par. 8,68 



Cape & Tabolp. 

39- 50 ' 

19. 17 



59- 07 
49. 20 

9- 47 

Sun's Par 



19 



CajSi? & Greenivich. 
39- 50 6. 8 

13- 35 
26. 15 
19. O Greeniv. I. II 



19 



29 



37 



38 



35 



43 



Vol. I. 



Capi 



66 



MATHEMATICAL and 



Cajie iST Madrafs 



h. m. fee. 

9- 39- 50 
4- 6. 35 



Parall. 



46. 25 
13- 39- 38 



6. 47 6. 

Sun's Par 8", 74 



Cape & Calcutta 



h. m. fee. 

9- 39- 50 
4. 4C'. 9 



Parall. 
6. 8 



14. 19. 59 
14. II. 34 



8. 25 
Sun's Par. 8",55 



a. 14 

8. 22 



L'a^ff £c Rodriguts. 



h. m. fee. 

9- 39- JO 
2. 58. 59 



12. 38. 49 



Parall. 

I II 

6, 8 

3- 7 



3- a 3-1 

Sun's Par. 8",54 



Rodrigues l^ Lejkard. 
11- IS- 47 3- 7 

4. 31. 6 



Rodriguss & Sherburn cajile. 
12. 35- 47 3- 7 

4- 16. 2,5 



Rodrigues & Chelfea. 
12- 35- 47 3- 

4- 13- 14 



4. 41 
o. 21 



I. 



8. 19. 12 
8. 15. 12 



12 



8. 22. 2>2, 
8. 18. 4 



4. 20 4- II 

Sun's Par. 8,80 



Rodriguts \^ Saviili; buiij'e. 
12. 35. 47 3- 7 

4. 13- 4 



8. 22. 43 
8. 18. fa 



1. II 

4. 21 4. 18 
Sun's Par. 8,60 



4. o 4. 
Sun's Par. 8,00 



19 



4. 29 4. 
Sun's Par. 8,86 



Rodrigues & Spittalfquare. 
12. 35- 47 3- 7 

4. 12. 50 



Rodrigues & Greenixich. 
la. 35- 47 3- 7 

4. 12. 34 



8. 22. 57 

8. 18. 41 



II 



4- 16 4. 18 

Sun's Par. 8,44 



Rodrigues 13' Paris. 
7>S- 47 3- 

3- 18 



32. 29 
28. 27 



o. 54 J 



Rodrigues & Drontheim. 

7>S^ 47 3. 7 
28. 31 



7. 16 
I. 45 



4- 2 4- 
Sun's Par. 8,53 



5- 27 5. 45 
Sun's Par. 8,05 



8. 23. 13 
8. 19. o 



I. II 



4- 13 4- 
Sun's Par. 8,33 



Rodrigues & Bologna. 
12. ZS- 47 3-7 

3- 27. 13 



9- 8. 34 
9. 4. 57 



29 



3- 37 3- 36 

Sun's Par. 8,54 



Rodriguts 5if Rome. 



12. 


35- 


47 


3- 


22. 


41 


9- 


13- 


6 


9- 


9- 


36 



13 



Rodrigues & Calmar. 
I*. 35- 47 3- 7 

3. 6. 55 
9. 28. 52 
9. 23. 40 I. S<) 



3. 30 3- 20 

Sun's Par. 8,92 



5- 12 5- 

Sun's Par. 8,67 



Rodrigues \^ Hcrnofand. 




26 



Rodrigues tJ" Stockholm. 
12. 35- 47 3. 7 

3. o. 8^ 

9- Z5- '39 
9. 30. 10 



5. 33 



Sun's Par. 8,90 
Rodrigues \3' Tornea. 



35- 
7,5- 



47 
46 



o. 
54. 



5- 53 6, 

Sun's Par, 8,07 



12 



Rodrigues & Calcutta. 

.i5- 47 3- 7 
41. 10 

16. 57 

II. 34 a. 14 

"~T~23" 5- 21 

.Sun's Par. 8,55 



5. 29 5. 

Sun's Par. 8,51 



18^ 

25 



Rodrigues & Cajaneburg. 

■ 35- 47 3- 7 

. 20. 44 



IS 3 
8. 59 



a. 59 



6. 4 6. 6 

S un's Par. 8,45 
~Rodrigues &. Madrcifs. 
35- 47 3- 7 

7- 36 



Rodrigues & Upfal. 

iS' 47 3- 7 

a. 8 



iZ- 39 
28. 6 



5- 33 5. 28 

Sun's Par. 8,62 



Rodrigues & ^^0. 

35. 47 3. 
4 4- I 
51. 46 

_45j_59 *• 

5. 47 '5. 

Sun'»Par. 8,75 



30 
37 



12. 

+ 0. 

12. 
12. 



Rodrigues & Toboljki. 

IS- 47 3. 7 
20. 18 



56. 5 
49. 20 



6. 45 

Sun's Par. 8,56 



3 - 35 
6. 42 



13- 43- 23 

13. 39. 38_ o. 36 

3- 45 3- 43 

1 Sun's Par. 8,58 



tobolfii & Lejkard. 
49- *o 3- 35 

51. 24 



57- 56 
o. ai 



2. 25 2. 31 

Sun's Par. 8,16 



Toboljki 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



67 



•Tubotjhi &. Sfittal Square. 

Parall. 
h. m. fee. ' " 

12. 49. 20 5. 35 

4- 33- 9 
8. 16. II 
8. 18. 41 I. II 



roboljhi ^ Chelfca. 

Parall. 



h. m. fee. 
13. 49. ao 

4- 33- 31 



3- 35 



8. 15. 4S 
8. 18. 4 



2. 16 a. Z4 

Sun's Par. 8'',oa 



Toboljii Is' Greenivich. 

12. 49- 20 3. 3 J 
£_32-_5a_ 
8. 16. 28" 

8. i9^_o^ I- " 

2. 52 2. 24 

Sun's Par. 8.Q7 



'Toboljhi & Hat/i/ic houfe. 

Parall. 
h. m. fee. ' " 

12. 49- 20 3. 35 

4. Zy 22 



8- 15- j8 
8. 18. 2* 



2. 34 2. 24 

Sun's Par. 8^99^^^ 



Tobo'.p & i'.zr//. 
12. 49. 20 3. 35 

4- 23 . 36 
8. 25. 44 
8. 28. 27 o. 54 



2. 30 2. 24 

Sun's Par. 8",85 



2. 43 2. 41 

Sun's Par. 8,60 



Toboljki Ur Rome. 
12. 49. 20 3 Z5 

3. 42. 59 




13 



Sun's Par. 8,20 



Toboljhi IS' Stockholm. 
12. 49. 20 3. Z5 

3. 20. 26 



9. 28. 54 
9. 30. 10 



18 



I. 16 I. 17 

Sun's Par. 8,39 



Ldjaneburg \ji Saiiilk boufc. 



10. 8. 59 
I. 52. 20 



8. 16. 39 
S. 18. 22 



I- 43 
Sun's Par. 



2- 59 



1. II 

1. 48 
.11 



Tobolfei & Calmar. 
12 49- 20 3. ZS 

3- 2 7- 13 

9. 22. 7 

9. 23. 40 I- 59 



I. -Si I. 36 

Sun's Par. 8,23 



Toboljki & Cakutta. 
12. 49. 20 3. 35 

I. 20. 52 



10. 12 

11. 34 



2. 14 



I. 22 I- 21 

Sun's Par. 8,61 



Cajenburg l:f Sfittal Jquare. 

10. 8. 59 a. 59 

52- 7 



8. 16. 52 
8. 18. 41 



I. 49 
Sun's Par. 8,58 



I . II 

1.^18 



Cajanenurg ^ i'aris. 

10. 8. 59 2. 59 

I. 42._ 34 
8. 26. 25 
8. 28. 27 o. 54 

2. 2 2-5 

Sun's Par. S.-io 



Cajaneburg U" Rome. 
10. 8. 59 . ^- -59 

I. 2. 7 
9r~67~5a 
9. 9. 36 



2. 44 
Sun's Par. 8,33 



0;_I3 

2. 46 



Cajahcburg \S luaaraji. 

10. 8. 59 *• -59 

3. 28. 20 



13- 37- 19 
13- 39- 38 



a. 19 
Sun's Far. 8.27 



o. 36 

2.~^ 



Stockholm 'O' J'aris. 




. 28. 27 



I. 27 
Suns Par. ?,! 



Stockholm Iff Spittul Jquare. 

9. 30. 10 a iS 

I- 1 2. 43 

8. 17- 37 
I. 18. 41 



I. 4 
Sun's Par. 8,12 



I. II 

1-^7 



Stockholm ^ Bologna. 
9. 30. ID *• 18 

o. 27. 5 
9. 3. 5 

9- 4- 57 o- 29 

I. 52 I. 49 

Sun's Par. 8.73 



Toboljki & Bologna. 
49- 20 3. 35 

47- 31 



I. 49 
4-_57_ 
3- 



29 



3- 



Sun's Par. 8,59 



Toboljhi & Ufjal. 
49- 20 3. 35 

22. 26 



26. 54 
28. 6 



I. 12 I. 14 

Sun's Par. 8,27 



Toboljki & Madrafs. 
49- 20 3. 35 

47- 18 



36. 38 
39. 38 



a 36 



Sun's Par. 8*55 



2- 59 



Cajaneburg \S Greenivich. 
10. 8. 59 2. 59 

I. 51- 50 



17. 9 

19. o 

X- 51 
Sun's Par. 8,74 



I- II 

i7^8 



Cajaneburg \y Bologna. 

8- 59 2- 59 

6. 29 



2. 30 

4. ^7 



o. 29 



2. 27 2. 30 

Sun's Par. 8, ■31. 



Stockholm Is' Greenivich. 
. 30. 10 2. 18 

. 12. 20 

• I7~50~ 

• 19. O^ 1 II 

I. 10 T. J 

Sun's Par. 8,88 



Stockholm Is" Rome. 

50- 10 a. iS 

22. 33 



7- 37 
9- 36 



o. 13 



I. 59 2- 

Sun's Par. 8,09 



Stockholm. 



6S 



MATHEMATICAL and 



Stockholm \^ Madras. 

P 

h. m. fee. ' 

9. 30. lo 2 

4. 7. 44 


arall. 
18 

36 
42 


h. 

9- 
I. 


(T/i/i/ SS* Lejhard. 

m. fee. ' 
28. 6 2. 
28. 58 


aral! 
// 

21 
4 


6'>/ai W 6aviue JrlouJ 
P 
h. m. fee. ' 
9. 28. 6 a. 
I. 10. 56 


arall. 
21 

II 


13- 37- 54 

13. 39. 38 0. 

I. 44 I. 
Sun's Par. 8",67 


7- 
8. 


59- 8 
0. 21 I 


8. 17. 10 

8. i8. 22 I. 

I. 12 I. 

Sun's Par. 8", 74 




I. 13 !• 

Sun's Par. 8",o6 


17 


10 


Upfal tS" Paris. 

9. 28. 6 a. 
I. I. 10 


21 

54 

27 


9- 
0. 


Upfal Is' Bologna. 
28 6 2. 
25- 5 


21 
29 


Upfal is" Rome. 
9. 28. 6 a. 
e. 20. 33 

9- 7- 33 

9. 9. 36 c. 


ai 
13 


8. 26. j6 

8. 28. 27 0. 


9- 
_9i 


3- I 

4. 57 _P- 


I. 31 I- 

Sun's Par. 8,89 


I. 56 I- 
Sun's Par. 8,0 


53 


2. 3 2. 

Sun's Par. 8,17 


6 


Upfal ISf Aladras. 

9. 28. 6 2. 
4. 9. 44 


21 

36 
45 


Calcutta and Saville Hon 
14. II. 34 2- 
5- 54. 14 


A- 
14 

II 

3 


Calcutta & Paris. 
14. II. 34 2. 
5. 44. 28 


14 

.54 
20 


r3- 37- je 

13- 39- 38 , 0. 

I. 48 I. 

Sun's Par. 8,74. 


8. 
8. 


17. 20 

18. 22 I- 
1. 2 I- 

Sun's Par. 8,37 


8. 27. 6 

8. 28. 27 0. 

I. 21 I. 
Sun's Par. 8,61 


Calcutta & Bologna. 
14. II. 34 2. 
5- 8. 23 
9. 3. II 
9- 4. 57 0- 


14 

29 

45 


14. 

0. 


Calcutta &. Madras. 
II. 34 2- 

33. 34 


14 
36 


Abo & Lejkard. 

9- 45- 59 a- 
I- 47. 5 


30 

4 
26 


13. 
13- 


38. 

39- 38 o- 


7- 58. 54 

8. 0. 21 I, 


I. 46 I 
Sun's Par. 8,58 




I. 38 I. 
Sun's Par. 8,50 


38 


1- 27 I. 

Sun's Par. 8,60 


.^io & Rome. 
9- 45- 59 2. 
0. 38. 40 


30 
17 


9- 

0. 


Hernofand & Rome. 
a8. 52 2- 
21. 35 


26 
13 


Calmar & Madras. 

9- 23- 40 I. 
4- 14- 31 


59 

23 


9. 7. 19 

9. 9. 36 0. 


9- 
9- 


7. 17 

9. 36 0. 


13- 38- II 

13- 39- 38 0. 

1- 27 I. 
Sun's Par. 8,91 


a. 17 2. 
Sun's Par. 8,50 




2. 19 2. 

Sun's Par. 8,88. 


13 


Sherburne & Tornea. 

8. 15. 12 I. 
I. 40. 49 


12 

_5 

53 


8. 

0. 


Greenivich & Paris, 
19. I. 
9. 16 


II 

54 


Greenivich & Leikara 

8. 19. -^ I. 

0. 18. ja 

8. 0. 28 

8. 0. 21 I. 

7 
Sun's Par. 5?,(;o 


II 

A 

7 


9. 56. I 

9. 54. 8 3. 

I. 53 „ I 
Sun's Par. 8.50 


8 
8. 


. 28.16 

28. 27 c. 




17 
Sun's Par. 8,50 


17 



The parallax of the Sun may alfo be deduced from the 
total duration of the tranfit, as obferved in different places, 
in the following manner. 



'Iranqucbar &. Calmar. 

Parall. 
h. m. fee. ' " 

5- 51- 33 6. 24 

_5l^50^39. .7- 21 

54' 57 

Sun's Par. 8", 05 



Tranquebar & Upfal. 

Parrall. 
h. m. fee. ' " 

5- 51- :->i 6. 24 

5- 50. 26 7. T,s 



I. 7 I. 9 

Sun's Par. %" ,%$ 



Tranquebar & Abo. 

, Parall. 

n. m. fee. / // 

5- 51. ZZ 6 24 

.5- 50. 9_ 7- 46 

I. 24 



Sun's Par. 8". 71 



22 



Tranquebar 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



69 



'Tranquebar & dijaneburg. 

Parall. 
h. m. fee. ' " 
5- 51- 33 6. 24 
5- 49- 54 8. 5 


Tranquebar ii<. •loboijki. 

Parall. 
h. m. fee. ' " 
5- 51- 12, 6. 24 
5- 48. 50 9. 3 

2. 43 2. 39 
Sun's Par. 8",67 


Madras &. Hlockbalin. 1 
Parall.' 
/ // 

5. 51. 43 6. 7,7, 
S- SO. 42 7- 34 


I. 39 I- 41 
Sun's Par. 8", 3 3 


II *• I j 

Sun's Par. 8",5o 


Madras & tornea. 
5. 51. 43 6. 33 
5- SO. 9 8. 7 

I. 34 I- 34 
Sun's Par. 8,50 


Great Mount & .<4io. 
5. 51. 20 6. 33 
5. 50. 9 7. 46 

I. II I. 13 
Sun's Par. 8,26 


Grfa/ Mow t & Toboljki. 
5- 51- 20 ^ 33 

5. 48. JO 9. 3 


2- 30 2. 30 

Sun's Par. 8,50 

Toboljhi \:f Ab:,. 
S- 48. so 9. 3 
5- SO. 9 7. 46 


Cajaneburg & Upfal, 
S- 49- 54 8. 5 
5- 50- 26 7. 33 


Cajaneburg & Calmar. 

S- 49- 54 8. 5 
5. 50. 39 7- 21 


3» 32 
Sun's Par. 8,50 


9- 4J „ „ 44 
Sun sPar. 8,70 


I- 19 I. 17 
Sun's Par. 8,72 



The parallax of the Sun may alfo be determiaed, by- 
comparing the times of the internal contadts, as obferved 
in various places, with the time of their happening as ob- 
ferved at the center of the earth. For this purpofe the 
following elements are ufed, as they were calculated by 
Mr. Short, from the meafures made at the tranfit in 1761, 
viz. the diameter of the Sun 31'. ^i", the diameter of 
Venus 59", her horary motion 3', 59",8, the angle of 
her path 8'. 30". 10, the neareft diftance of their centers 
9'. 32", and the difference of their horizontal parallaxes 
2I'^35. Hence the apparent time of the ift and 2d in- 
ternal contacts was 2"* 22'. 3'', and 8". 20'. 4'', reckoned 
by the meridian of Greenwich, without parallax, and the 
central duration was ^^. 58'. i". 



Central 'rinni cSc Up/li! 

h. m. kc. ' 

2. 22. 3 0. 
I. 10. 26 

3. 32. 29 

3- 37- S(> 5- 


rail 

// 


12 


Central 'I'inie d<. U-Jal. 

' Para . 

3. 23. 3 CO 
I. ID. 26 

3:"72.~29 

3- 37- 43 5. 13 


Paral: 
1 ,1 

-• 23. 3 0. 
r. IT. 28 

3- Zo' 31 

3- 38. 15 <;. 10 
5- 4 
Sun's Par. 8", 3 3 


s- 37 

Sun's Par. 8'',9i 


5- 14 
Sun's Par. 8",55 

Central time <Sc Cuja.iebur^. 

3. 22. 3 0. 0. 

_i^_5l^ SO_ 

4. 13- SS 

4- 19- 5 5-6 

5- 12 
Sun's Par. 8,66 


Central Time 6c Hcrtiaf.,. 
2. 22. 3 o. 
I. II. 28 

3- li- 31 

3- 38. 26 5. 


d. 


10 


Central Time & StoUbola:. 

2- 22. 3 0. 
I. 12. 26 

3- 34- 29 

3- 39- 29 5. 16 

5- 
Svp'^ Par. J?. 0-7 


4. 55 
Sun's Par. 8,09 



Vol. I. 



K 



Central 



70 



MATHEMATICAL and 



Central Time & Aro 



Parall. 



Central 'I'inie & Tornea. 

Parall. 



2. 


22. 


3 


I. 


28. 




3- 


50. 


3?) 


3- 


55- 


50 



16 



2. 
I. 


22. 3 
36. 4>^' 


3- 
4- 


J8- it 
4. 



i- 14 

Sun's Par. 



8,44 



5- 9 
Sun's Par. 



8,69 



Central Time & Toioljhi. 



2. 22. 

4- 32. 



54- 



5- 28 



Central lime <& Madras. 

2. 22. 3 o. O 

5. 20. 10 

T-"T2^"li3 

7- 47- 55 5- 57 



5- 33_ 
Sun's Par. 



8,6i 



5- 42 
Sun's Par. 



8,14 



Central Time & Calmar. 

Parall, 



5- 
8,52 



2. 22. 
I. 5. 


3 
30 


3. 2a. 

3- 2,1- 


42 
5 



5- 23 
Sun's Par. 



Central Time & Calcutta. 
2. 22. 3 0.0 

5- 53- 44 



15- 47 
20. 58 



16 



5- II 
Sun's Par. 8,36 



The Sun's parallax deduced from the obferved and calculated times of the 
2d internal contaft. 



Jcntral Time & Spittal Square. 
Parall. 
1 II 

8. 20. 4 0. 

0. 0. 17 

8. 19. 48 

8. 18. 41 !• II 


Central Time & SavilleHc 
Pa 
h. m. fee. ' 
8. 20. 4 0. 
0. 0. 30 


ufc. 

rail. 

// 


II 


Central Time & Farh. j 
Parall.' 
h. m. fee. ' •'' 
8. 20. 4 0, 
0. 9. 16 
8. 29. 20 
8. 28. 27 0. <^A 

52, 
Sun's Par. 8,34 


8. 19. 34 

8. 18. 22 I. 


I- 7 
Sun's Par. 8,01 


I. 12 
Sun's Par. 8,6a 


Central Time 3c Bologna. 
8. 23. 4 o» 
0. 45. 21 


Central Time & Cafe. 

8. ao. 4 0. 
I. 13. ^5 

9- 2,i- 39 

9. 39. 50 6. 



8 


Central Time & Upfal. 
8. 20. 4 0. 
I. 10. 26 
9- 30. 30 

9- 28. g a. 21 
2. 21 
Sun's Par. 8,50 


9- 5- 25 

9. 4- 57 0. 29 


28 
Sun's Par. 8,21 


6. II 
Sun's Par- 8,58 


Central Time &. Uffal. 
8. 20. 4 0. 
I. 10. 26 


Central Time & Upfal 
8. 20. 4 0. 
I. 10. 26 




21 


Cc.tral 'lime & Stockholm. 

8. 20. 4 0. 
I. 12. 26 

9- 32. 30 

9. 30. ir 2. 18 

2. 19 
Sun's Par. 8,56 


9. 30. 30 

9. 28. 7 2. 21 


9- 30. 30. 

9- 28. 3 a. 
2. 27 
Sun's Par. 8,86 


2. 23 

Sun's Par. 8,62 


Central Time & Stockholm. 

8- 20. 4 0. 
I. 12. 26 

9- 32. 30 

9- 30. 8 2. 18 


Central lime & Abo 
8. 20. 4 0. 
I. 28. 33 



30 


Central lime & Cajaaeburg. 

8. 20. 4 0. 

I- 51- 50 
10. II. 54 
10. 8. 50 a. 59 


9- 48. 37 

9- 45- 59 2. 


2. 55 
Sun's Par. 8,31 


2. 22 
Sun's Par. 8,7V 


2. 38 
Sun's Par. 8,95 


Central Time & Toboljii. 

8. 20. 4 0. 

4. 32. 52 
12. i2. 56 
r2. 49- 20 3. 35 


Central Time & Calmar. 

8. 20. 4 0. 
I- 5- 39 

9- 25- 43 

9. 23. 40 I. 59 

a- 3 
Sun's Par. 8,78 


Central I'mie & Rodrigucs. 

8. 20. 4 O" 

4. 12. 34 
12. 32. 38 
12. 2,5- 47 3- 7 


3- 36 
Sun's Par. 8,54 


^•9 
Sun's Par. 8,59 

The 


Central Time Ik. Calcutta. 
8. 20. 4 0. 
5. 53. 44 
4. 13. 48 
*. II- 34 2. 14 


2. 14 
Snn's Par. 8,50 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS 71 

The Sun*s parallax is alfo found, by comparing the to- 
tal duration between the internal contafts, as it was ob- 
ferved in different places, with the duration at the center 
of the earth, viz. ^^. ^S' . i". 



Cent. Duration & at Upfai. 
Parall. 
h. m. fee. ' " 

5- 58. I 
5- 50. 7 



o 
33 



7- 54 
Sun's Par. 8,5 



Cent. Dur. &. at Upfal. 

Parall, 
h. m. fee. ' /' 

5- 58. I 0.0 

5- 50- a6 7, 



33 



Cent. Duration & at Calmar. 
5. 58, I 0.0 

5. 49. 54 8. 5. 



7- 35 
Sun's Par. 8,54 



Sun's Par. 8,53 



Cent. Dur. & at Stockholm. 

5. 58. I 00 

5^i0^45 7- 3'" 

7. 16 

Sun's Par. 8,16 



Cent. Duration & at Upfal. 
5- 58. I 0. o 

S- 5°: a 

7- 



I Cent. Dur. & at Hemofand. 
I 5. 58. I 0.0 

' S- 50. I? 7- 36 

i 7- 44 

! Sun^sJPai\_8,6T 

j Cent. Duration & at Abo." 

I 5. 58. I 0. o 

-^- 50- 9 7. 46 

I 7- ja 

Sun's Pa r. g,6i 



Cent. Duration & at Tornsa 
Parall 
h. m. fee. ' " 

5- 58. I 0.0 

5- 50- 15 8. 7 



'. 46 
Sun's Par. 8,13 



Cent, duration & at Toboljhl 

5. 58. I 0.0 

5- 48. 50 9- 3 

9. II 

Sun's Par. 8,63 



Cent . Duration & at Calcutta 
5- 58. I 0.0 

5- 50. 36 7- 30 



7- 59 
Sun's Par. 8, 



33 



Cent. Dur. & at Hirmfand. 
5- 58. I 0.0 

5- 50- a6 7. 36 



7. j,$ 
Sun's Par. 8,48 



Cent. Dur. & at Stockholm. 
5. 58. I. o. o 

5. 50. 4* 7- 34 



7. 19 
Sun's Par. 8,az 



Cent. Durat. & at Cajantbur^. 
5. 58. 1 o. o 

5- 4% 54 8. 5 

8. 7 
Sun's Par. 8,53 



Cent. Duration & at Madras. 

5- 58. I 0.0 

5. J I. 43 6. 23 



6. 18 
Sun's Par. 8,17 



7- 25 
Sun's Par. 8,40 



Cent. Dur. & at Timtquebar, 
5. 58. 1 0. o. 

5- 5t- .VI 6. Z4 



6. a8 
Sun's Par. 8,59 



Cent. Dur. &at Great Mount. 
5- 58. I 0.0 

Jj5l. 20 6, 33 



6. 41 
Sun's Par. 8,67 



The mean of all the preceding determinations of the 
Sun's parallax is 8^52 on the day of the tranfit, in June, 
1 76 1, which gives S"6^ for his horizontal parallax at his 
mean diftance from the earth. 

Mr. Stuart of Edinburgh, whom I mentioned before, 
deduces the parallax and diftances of the bodies that com- 
pofe the folar fyftem, from the Newtonian theory of gra- 
vitation, and the periodical times of the Sun and Moon. 
As he proceeds upon the fuppofition that the diftance of 
the Sun from the earth is very great, it would therefore 
feem, that the conclufion Ihould be accurate, in propor- 
tion to the greatnefs of that diftance. His method de- 
pends 



72 MATHEMATICAL and 

pends upon a fer'ies of propofitions, with long and difRcult 
dcmonftrations; fo that the rules of calculation are not 
very obvious, without a confiderable knowledge of geo- 
metry, in general, and a particular acquaintance with his 
very ufeful and ingenious treatife. I was defirous of fee- 
ing what agreement there was between the refult of his 
method of calculation, and the obfervations made on the 
tranfit of Venus; and therefore amufed myfelf in a leifure 
hour with the comparifon. As it may be agreeable tofome, 
who have not time io read over the book, and to others, 
whofe acquaintance with the mathematics will not admit 
of it, to have the practical rules of computation deduced 
from his propofitions; 1 fhall annex them to the foregoing 
calculations, together with the determination of the Sun's 
parallax and diftance derived from them. 

jii Calculation of the horizontal Parallax and diflance of the Sun, according to Mr, Stuari's method from 
the principles of gravitation. -p. 

Let i'=the periodical time of the earth round the Sun==365. 256417824 
/>=the periodical time of the Moon round the earth=- a/. 32162036 
a=her revolution from apogee to apogee in time, *7' 5J4535 

w=her mean dift. from the earth, in femidi. of the earth = 60. 24 
/=the tangent of the Sun's horizontal Parallax, at his mean diftance. 
5=the diitancc of the Sun from the earth. 

i> 2 c| — .^1 2-\/l-9'»*^2 

Then according to Mr. Stuart's method, -l X" 



'\ 



/- * 5'^|--3/'t I ^m'^t}'^ l-^m^t^ 



f^ 5«|-3/'T 3''X2-f-I.5<: 

l<[ovv if X ^^i^; t^ien 5= — — nearly 

^^ '^f— /I 2y/ i-.5cXi->fic 

3^V3-t-f Nearly. 5 is greater than the firft, and lefs than the leaft 

And 6= -r^=:__ in thefe theorems. 

2 V'i-.5'^^2+i-5' 
But the parallax and diftance of the Sun, may be found nearly, in a fhorter method, by the 
following rules, derived from the foregoing; by faying, 

I. As the cube root of the fquare of the Moon's periodic revolution round? J- 

the Earth, viz. 3 27,32162036^ 

Is to the cube root of the fquare of her revolution from apogee to? ^ 

apogee, viz. 5 27,5545351 

So is I to a fourth number, which call A=l.oo56748l64. 

2. As 5 A — 3 : A I : : I : a fourth number, which c;ill B.=:.002797833=thc mean difturb- 
ing force of the Sun; the 3's force=I. 

3. As tlie retftaiigle of B and the fquare of the periodic time of the Earth? a 

round the Sun, viz. 3 3X365,2564! 
Is to the fquare of the periodic time of the moon round the Earth,? ^ 2 

viz. 5 27,32162036! 
So is I, to a fourth number, which call 0=1,999840899. 
2 

4. As C — 1\ : 12 : : C : to a fourth number; to which add i, and from the fquare root of 
that fum fubtrad i, and multiply the remainder by the half of C— I, or 0,4999204495, and 
call that produtft D=l, 9999715505. 5. Subtrad 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



17> 



5. SubtraA D from a, multiply the remainder by D, and call the fquare root of the pro- 

(Ii;(ft E.=.cx)7543o89. 

6. As three times the Moon's mean diftance from the Earth, in feciidiameters of the Earth 
is to K, fo is R, to the tang, of the Sun's horary parallax, at his mean di(bnce,=8",6 •;. 

7. As E : J : : the Moon's mean diftance in miles: the Sur/s mean diftance in"miles= 
04,902^600. 

In determining the parallax of the Sun, from the ob- 
fervation made in our obfervatory on the 3d of June, 1760, 
I have only made ufe of the time of the internal contact, 
as I noted it on that day, together with fome of my own 
micrometer obfervations, without attending to thofe of the 
other gentlemen who obferved with me. But as the So- 
ciety has a right to expedt a full account of the refult of 
the other obfervations, which were made on that occafion; 
and as fuch account may tend to corroborate the foregoing 
calculations, I have, with Dr. Williamfon's permiffion, 
fubjoined a calculation of his, founded entirely on his own 
obfervation, which being veryfhort, I have inferted entire 
in his own words, except what refers to the manner in 
which he judged of the contads, &c. which I have tran- 
fcribed in another place, (fee page 46 ) From this, which 
is very fimilar to the obfervations made by the other gen- 
tlemen on that committee, the Society will perceive, that 
our obfervations muft have been made with confiderable 
accuracy, as the refult of the calculation is nearly the fame. 

Dr. WILLIAMSON'S Determination of the Parallax 

of the SUN, from his Obfervation of the Transit of 
VENUS, at Philadelphia^ funen^d^ ^1^9- 



w 



ITH a refrading telefcope, 24 feet long, which 
magnified near 100 times, I obferved. 

The external contad at 2''. 1 1'. '?i" ") , , _. 
Internal do. at 2. 20. 10 \ ^^^" ^''^^' 



29. 

" With a micrometer of Dollond's conftrudtion, fitted 
to a Gregorian refledor, which magnified 100 times, I 
meafured the diftance of Venus from the limb of the Sun j 
alfo the diameters of the Sun and Venus, as follows : 

Mean 



74 

Mean Time. 

h. m. fee. 

At 5. 43- 17 

6. 3a. 18 

6. 33- S5 

7. 9. 36 



MATHEMATICAL and 



Neareft Diftancc of the Center 
of and $ . 
m. fee 

10. 14,1a 

11. 14,19 
II- 13,^3 

12. 11,83 



Neareft Diftance of the Limb* 
of O and $ . 
m. fee. 
5- 2.53 
4. 1,46 
4. 3,4a 
3' 5»8a 



" I meafured the dlam. of Venus on the Sun, and found 
it to be 55 '',42. I alfo frequently meafured the diam. of 
the Sun, on the day of obfervation, and the next day, and 
found it to be 31'. 3i"»3o. 

" From thefe data, I Ihall attempt to deduce the Sun's 
par. except that I fhall make no ufe of the meafure at 6\ 
32' . 18", which I fufpeded was not accurate at the inftant 
it was made, wherefore I immediately made another mea- 
fure, viz. at 6\ 33' -SS"' 

" The neareft dift. of the limb of the Sun from that of 

. , 3 • ^^ • / V mean time compared toerether, 
And at 6 33. 53 5 ^ ^ ^ ' 

give the apparent neareft dift. of their centers 10'. 3'', 7, or 

603^,7, and the parallax of Venus was at that time fouth 

6", 9 1 nearly. Therefore, the geocent. neareft dift. of 

their centers was 6io'',6i. Then, 

" As 72626,3 the relative neareft dift. of Venus from 
the Sun, 

" Is to 28894,9 her dift. from the earth. 

" So is 6 10", 6 1 the geocent. neareft dift. of the cent, 
of the Sun and Venus, 

" To 242", 936^:4'. 2", 936, the heliocent. dift. of 
their centers at the neareft approach. 

" As Sine 3°. 23'. 20" the given inclin. of Venus's or- 
bit to the ecliptic: Is to Radius, 

" So is S, 242'', 936, the heliocent. dift. of the cent, of 
the Sun from Venus, at the middle of the tranfit, 

" To the Sine of 4io",5=i°. 8'. 25", the Sun's difk, 
from the node of Venus at the ecliptical conjundion. 

" As S, of 1°. 8'. 25", the Sun's dift. from the node 
of Venus, 

" Is to 10'. io",6i, the geocent. neareft dift. of their 
centers " So 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 75 

" So is Rad : to the S, of 8°. 32'. 57",6, the angle of 
Venus's vifible path with the ecliptic. 

" From 8". 32' . S7"^'> the angle of Venus's vifible path, 

" Subt. 3. 23. 20, the inclination of Venus's orbit 
with the eclipt. and the remainder is 5^. 9' • 37")6. Then 

" As S, 5°. 9' . 2>7''^^ the diff. of the angle of Venus's 
vifible path and the inclin. of her orbit, &c. 

" Is to S, 8°. 32'. 57",6 the angle of Venus's vifible 
path with the eclipt. 

" So is 2^,392375 the given hor. motion of the Sun. 

" To 3', 954 12 the hor. motion of Venus. 

" As Rad. Is to T, 8^ 32', S7"'>^ the angle of Ve- 
nus's vifible path. 

" So is S, 1°. 8'. 25'' the Sun's dift. from the node of 
Venus. 

" To T, 10'. 1 7^,2 Venus's geocent. latitude. 

" As 72626,3 the relative dift. of Venus from the Sun, 

" Is to 28894,9 her diftance from the earth. 

" So is 61 7^,2 her geocent. latitude. 

*' To 245", 56 her heliocent. latitude. 

" From 15'. 45^,65 the femid. of the Sun, 

" Take 2 7", 71 the femid. of Venus, and the diffe- 
rence is 15'. 1 7", 94., the dift. of the center of the Sun 
from the center of Venus at the inter, contact. But the 
geocent. neareft dift. of their centers was found 6io",6i. 
From thefe (b. Euc. i. 47) the length of half the tranfit 
line between the int. contad:s is found to be 685^,397 
which divided by the hor. motion of Venus gives the fe- 
miduration of the tranfit between the two internal contadts 
2 .Si .20 ,2. 

" In the fame manner, from the geocent. lat. of Venus, 
and the neareft dift. of her center from the center of the 
Sun, we find the time of Venus pafling from the eclipt. 
conjundlion to the middle of the tranfit 22'. 44", 9. Then 
from 5\ 28' 47", which I find to be the central time of 
the middle of the tranfit, dedud: 22'. 44"59, and the re- 
mainder, viz. 5\ 6^'. 2", I, will be the apparent time of the 

ecliptical 



76 MATHEMATICAL and 

ecliptlcal conjundion when the Sun's place was 2^ 13*. 
27''. 20", 5, as calculated by the aftronomer royal, on the 
fuppofition that our obfervatory is weft of Greenwich 5**. 

o' . ^^", To the Sun's place in the eclipt. add his dift. 

from the node of Venus 1°. 8'. 25". The fum is 2*. 14°. 
35' • 45 ''5' ^^^^ place of Venus's afcending node. 

" From the micrometer meafures above given, it ap- 
pears that the center of Venus was at her neareft approach 
to the center of the Sun at ^^, 21'. 44" mean time, or 5"". 
23'', 59" appar. time. But on account of the parallax of 
Venus, the appar. time at the center of the Earth was 4'. 
48" later, which brings it to ^^. 28' . 47" as I have menti- 
oned. From this dedudl the femidurat. 2\ ^^' . 20, and 
the remainder 2". ^^' . 27" is the time of the internal con- 
tad; at the center of the earth. This contad 1 obferved as 
above, at 2". 29'. 10" mean time, or 2\ 31'. 25" ap- 
parent time. This difference, therefore, viz. 4'. 2", is 
the obferved effeds of Venus's parallax both in latitude 
and longitude. 

" But on the fuppofition that the Sun's horizontal pa- 
rallax, at her mean dift. from the earth was 8 ",05, as 
Mr. Short has ftated it at the former tranfit, then his ho- 
rizontal parallax, on the 3d of June, the day of the tran- 
fit, would have been 8^^,5204, in which cafe the total effed 
of her parallax, to haften the internal contad at Philadel- 
phia, fhould be 4'. i". Therefore, 

" As 4'. i" is to 4'. "2, fo is 8^,5204 to 8^^556, the 
Sun's horizontal parallax on the day of the ti'anfit, accord- 
ing to the foregoing obfervations. 

" Hence we have 8", 685, the Sun's horizontal parallax 
at his mean diftance from the earth. Then fay, 

" As the Tang, of the Sun's horizontal parallax; is to 
the femidiameter of the earth, 

'* So is Rad. to the diftance of the earth from the Sun, 
viz. 94791 100 Englilli miles, taking the earth's mean 
femidiameter at 3985.4 miles. 

Jn 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 77 

An Account of the Tranftt o/M E R C U R Y over the S U N, 
on November 9^/?, 1769. N, S. 

IN the judgment of mod aftronom.ers, the tranfits of 
Mercury and Venus over the Sun afford the beft op- 
portunities, for fettling the longitudes of places on the 
earth, even preferable to that derived from the eclipfes of 
Jupiter's fatellitea, when the parallax of the Sun is pre- 
vioufly known. Thofe of Mercury happen frequently, 
and although they are of but little importance in deter- 
mining the parallax of the Sun and the dimenfions of the 
folar fyflem, by reafon of his great diftance from the earth, 
and the difference of their parallaxes being lefs than that 
of the Sun; yet they have been carefully obferved, for the 
purpofe of fettling his theory, and the longitudes of the 
places of obfervation. The fociety therefore feniible of the 
importance of this phoenomenon, both to the perfection of 
aftronomy in general, and particularly for completing the 
purpofes defigned to be anfwered by the obfervation of 
the tranfit of Venus, have appointed the fame committee, 
with the addition of two other gentlemen, to obferve the 
tranfit of Mercury on the 9th of November, 1769, in Phi- 
ladelphia, that had been before appointed to obferve that 
of Venus. 

Having flill the fame inftruments in our obfervatory, 
which we ufed on the former occafion, together with a 
new time-piece made by Mr. Duffield of this city, with 
an ingenious contrivance of his, in the conftrud:ion of the 
pendulum, to remedy the irregularities arifmg from heat 
and cold; we paid the utmoft attention to the going of 
the clock both before and after the tranfit. From com- 
paring a fufHcient number of correfponding altitudes of the 
Sun's limbs, we found that our clock was too flowfor mean 
time i'. 20" and the equation of time being 15'. 49^,6 or 
to avoid fractions 15'. 50'^; 17^. 10" were added to the 
times of all our obfervations, as they were written down in 
the obfervatory, to reduce them to apparent time. In this 

L manner 



78 



MATHEMATICAL and 



manner we obtained the time of the fubfequent obfervati- 
ons. Dr. Williamfon, Mr. Shippen and myfelf ufed the 
fame telefcopes, wc had ufed before in obferving the tranfit 
of Venus ; excepting that on this occafion I chofe that 
power of the telefcope which magnifies the diameters of 
objeds an hundred times. Mr. tvans ufed the refle<Sting 
telefcope formerly ufed by Mr. Biddle at the Capes. 

On the day of the tranfit, we aflembled together at the 
obfervatory, adjufted our telefcopes to diftind vifion, ap- 
pointed an afliftant to count the clock with an audible voice, 
and agreed that no other perfon fhould fpeak, nor move 
from his telefcope, until both contads were over; but 
write down his own obfervation feparately by himfelf, that 
it might be compared with the others. The fky being 
very ferene, and the limb of the Sun well defined in our 
telefcopes, we obferved the contads, as they are exhibited 
in the following table, 



Obfervers. 



Dr. JVilliamfony 
^Ir. Shippen, 
J[Ir. Evans, 
Myfelf. 



External Cont. 

h. m. fee 
4. 36. jAp.T. 
%. 36. la 
^. 36. 9 
2. 36. 9 



Int. Cont. 


Par. in 


Par. p. 




Vert. 


to his P. 


h. m. fee. 


II 


II 


a- 37. 30 


3.74 


3.44 


a. 37. 40 






i. i1' 38 


3.745 


3.44 


2. 37. 30 







Par. in hit 

Path. 
II 

1.48 at the External 
Contadl. 

1.49 at the Internal 
Contasft. 



I happened to have that part of the limb of the Sun, on 
which Mercury entered, in the middle of the field of my 
telefcope, with my eye intent upon it ; fo that I am cer- 
tain, that there was not the leaft impreflion on the Sun*s 
limb, perceptible by my telefcope, a fingle fecond of time 
before I discovered it. So that I am not furprized that 
Dr. Halley, who had obferved a tranfit of Mercury in the 
Ifland of St. Helena, concluding that, that of Venus would 
be equally inftantaneous, expected, that the contact of 
her limb with the Sun might be determined to a fingle 
fecond of time. The atmofphere of Venus renders it 
quite otherwife, and produces an uncertainty of 5 or 6 
feconds of time, in judging of the contads; whereas no 
fuch thing was perceptible in Mercury. The firft appear- 
ance of Mercury, on the Sun*s limb, was a fteady fmall 

fpeck, 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 79 

fpeck, black, well-defined, and not larger in my telefcope 
than the dot of a pen. But that of Venus was tremulous, ob- 
fcure, and ill-defined, growing gradually darker as fhe ad- 
vanced on the Sun. If Mercury has an atmofphere, it 
muft be fo rare and low, that his diftance from us renders 
. it abfolutely imperceptible with the telefcopes that we 
ufed. At the internal contact, the crefcent of light round 
the body of Mercury clofed inftantaneoufly, fo that it 
might be judged of with more precifion than that of Ve- 
nus; his atmofphere giving us no diilurbance in this cafe. 
We could not have a fairer opportunity, for afcertaining 
the truth of thefe conclufions; as our telefcopes were in 
good order, and well adjufted,. and thefky was remarka- 
bly ckar and ferene, on both of thefe days. On the firft 
of them, not a cloud appeared from morning till evening, 
and on the latter, none till about four o'clock, when the 
Sun was very low; and both the tranfits began betweea 
two and three o'clock, in the afternoon. 

About three o'clock, I applied myfelf to the micrometer,. 
to meafure the diameters of the Sun and Mercury, and the 
neareft diftance of their limbs ; while Dr. WiUiamJon read 
off the divifions of the micrometer, and a third perfon 
wrote them down, with the times of making them. Thefe 
meafures make the diameter of the Sun on the 9th of No- 
vember 1769, 32^ 2o",2 or his femidiameter 970% i fe- 
conds, and the femidiameter of Mercury 4",238. The 
meafures of the leaft diftances of their limbs reduced to 
minutes and feconds of a degree, with the parallaxes of 
Mercury adapted to the apparent times of theobfervations, 
as they are determined from a very large projedion of two 
inches to a fecond of his hor. parallax, are fet down in 
the following table. 



Apparent 



8o 



MATHEMATICAL and 



Apparent Time. 


Ncarell diltarice ot 


Parrallax of § 


Par. per. to his 


Parallax in hi? 




limbs of & 5 


in the vert-. 


path. 


path. 


h. m. fee. 










2. 59- 40 


l'.54",I 


3;'8l 


3",4 


l",725 


3 


I. 


2. 0,62 


3,81 


3.396 


1,73 


3 


a- 35 


2. 8,284 


3,8» 


3,393 


1.745 


3 


4. 30 


a. 20,832 


3,8*5 


3,39 


1,765 


3 


6. 10 


2. 26,048 


3,826 


3,386 


1,78 


3 


lo- 33 


2. 48,216 


3,835 


3,38 


1.83 


3 


12. 6 


2. J7,244 


3,841 


3.379 


1,84 


3 


12. 56 


3- 2.56 


3,844 


3,376 


1,85 


3 


15- 4 


3- 13,744 


3,850 


3,375 


1, 86 J 


3 


18. 4 


3. 26,032 


3.8j6 


3,369 


J,87 


3 


19. 18 


3- 30>59<> 


3,86 


3,366 


1,888 


3 


. ai. 30 


3. 41,68 


3,864 


3,363 


1,915 


3 


24. 


3- 51,684 


3,875 


3,36 


1,95 


3 


30. 


4. ao,8 


3,895 


3,34 


2,0 


3 


35- 30 


4. 35,144 


3,90 


3,338 


a,oa 


3 


36. 43 


4-51,444 


3,905 


3,334 


4,04 


3 


37- 40? 
39- ^5 5 










3 


5. a,2oz 


3,915 


3,33 


2,065 


3 


. 41. 10? 

42. 50S 


5. ai,4o6 


3,930 


3,3^5 


2,09 


3 


46. 5« 


5. 37,184 


3,935 


3,32 


2,145 


3 


55- 3 J 


6. 8,48 


3,96 


3,30 


2,2 


3 


59- 10 


6. 26,084 


3,97 


3,29 


2,24 


4 


28. 50 


7- 54,756 


4,0 


3,22 


2,42 


4 


47- 50 


8. 35,18 


4,02 


3,J5 


2,51 



N. B. la the above table, the meafure at 2^-37'. 40'' 
was taken between the neareft limb of the Sun and the in- 
terior limb of Mercury neareft to the Sun*s center, and is 
5'. 2^202, the fame with the diftance of their neareft 
limbs at 3''- 39'. 25"; So alfo the diftance between the 
neareft limb of the Sun, and the Interior limb of Mer- 
cury, at 3^- 41'. 10", was the fame with the diftance of 
their neareft limbs at 3'"- 42'. 50", viz. 5'. 21 ",406. The 
fame Is to be faid of the laft meafure, which was taken 
from the neareft limb of the Sun to the limb of Mercury 
neareft to the Sun*s center. 

If a computation be made from the above meafures, the 
apparent neareft diftance of their centers wilt be found to 
be 45 1 '',9 14. But Mercurv was then deprefted by paral- 
lax 3", 1 1 ; fo that the geocentric neareft approach of their 
centers was 455", 024, which happened at 5''- i'. 15" ap- 
parent time, when his par. in the vert, was 4^^,042, and in 
his path 2", 53, and perpend, to his path 3",ii. 

The horary motion of Mercury as feen from the Earth 
is alfo determined from the above meafures to be 

5' 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. St^ 

5'. 5'6",94i=5",94856, which is nearly the fame -with 
what is given by Dr. Halley's tables of Mercury. On 
the day of the tranfit, he moves, by them, at the rate of 
I5"»334 P^^ hour. The Sun's horary motion on that day 
isftated in the nautical almanac at 2",5i6, and their dif- 
ference, viz. I2-S8i8 is his horary motion from the Sun, 
as feen at that diftance. Then fay. 

As the diftance of ^ from Q, is to his diftance from 0, 80 U this horary motion to hu ho- 
rary motion from ©, as feen from @. 

4. 830,2920=Iog. of 67653.8 
4- 4y5.3305=log. of 31284.6 
I. io7,8203==log. ia.8i8 

5. 603,1508 



o. 772,8588=5'. 92733=3'. J5",6398 § hor.mot. from ©, ai feen fromQ. 
15- 334=horary motion § . 
a. 5l6=horary motion 0. 



As 17. 850=1. 251, 6382=the fum of horary motions© and M. 

Is to 12. 818=1. 107, 8203=their difference. 
So Is cot. 3°. 29'. 40"=ii. 214,2067=7 the log. cot. of half the incl. of a "g orbit with th« 

5 ecliptic=i 6°. 59'. 20". 

12. 322,0270 

To Log. Tang. 11, 070,3888=85°. 8'. 22". 

86. 30. 20=ifup. of 6°. 59'. ac/'. 

Sum=i7i. 38. 42 
The fupplement whereof is 8. 31. i8=the angle of § 's vifible path with the- 
ecliptic. 

As Rad : Sec. 8°. 21'. 18" : : geo. nearcft dift. : the geo. lat. of ^ . 
ic. ooo,ooco 
10. 004,6342 
a. 658,0343=455",o24=geo.nearefl diftance. 

a. 662,6685=:459",905=geo. lat. of 5=7'- 39"i90S 

A» dift. of 5 from : his dift. from : : geo. lat. : his hcliocent. latitud«. 

4. 493.3305 

4. 830,2920 

a. 662,6685 

7. 492.9'5o5 

a. 997,6300=994",558 the hel. lat. of g =16'. 34",558 

As T, 6°. 59'. 20" : R : : T, 16'. 34",558 : Sine of 0's dift. from the node of 8 . 
9. 088,4133 
10. - - - 

7. 683,0140 

8. 594,6007=2". 15'. I2",a=©'8 difl. from the node of 5. 

459'905=geo<^ent. lat. ^ . 

455,024=geocent. nearcft dift. of© and ^. 
S\im=9i4, 929=2. 961,3873 
Dlir.= 4,881=0. 688,5088 

a)3. 649.89^1 I. S24,94»oj 



8a MATHEMATICAL and 

I, 814,94805 =66", 8464=^ the length of part of the tranlit line between 
a. jj 1,0104 5 hor. motion > the middle of thetranflt and the cdipt. con- 
. in fcconds. j junftion. 

—I. a73,9376=oh. i87aoj=oh, 11'. i6",458=the time ketween the middle 
and eeliptical conjun^ion. 

g74,338=the fum of the femidiameters of and ^ • 
455,oa4=ithe geo. neareft dift. of their centers. 



Sum=i429,362=3- I55.i4a» 
Diff.= 519,314=2. 715.4300 

a)5- 870,5722 

oic o^ ti .t, ? half the length of the tranfit line from the 
2. 935,286i=86l",56l J external contadl. 
4. 55i,ci04=the horary motion of J^ on 0, at fcen from @. 

o. 384,475 7=ah. 444567=2h. 424567=>4h. 45'. 4l",a4 the fcmidura- 
lion from the external contaft. 

965,86a the diff. of the femidiameters of and 5« 
455,024 the geo. nearefl diftaoce of their centeri. 

Sum=i42o, 886=3. 152,5691 
Diff.=5io, 738=2. 708,2833 

a ) 5. 860,8524 
————— ? 85l,974=the length of half the tranfit line fr»m the 
a. 930,4262=5 internal contadl. 
4. 55 1, oi04=:hor. mot. of §. 



o. 379.4i58=ah. 3956i=2h. 43'. ^il'a^d 
Now to 2h. 36'. 19" the time of the external conta<ft, 

Add 2. 25. 21 the femidur. between the external contadls. 



The Sum, 


5- 


I. 


To this add, 




II, 


The fum. 


,^- 


12. 


To this add, 


.?• 


r.. 


The fum. 


10. 


13. 



30 ii the time of the neareft approach x>f their centers. 
16,5 the time from the middle to the eel. conjunAion. 

46.5 is the apparent time of the eel. conjundion at Philadelphia. 
35 the difF. of meridiani between Greenwich and Philadelphia. 

21.6 is the time of the eel. conjunAion at Greenwich, when the 
Sun's place, according to the Nautical Almanac, is 7s. 17° 50'. 41", and that of Mercury is 
H. 17°. 50/. 41", by Dr. Halley's tables. From this fubtracft 2". 15'. 12", the Sun's diftance 
from the node of Mercury, and the remainder is. 15°. is'' 29", is the place of his node at that 
time. 

The Projection (//^^ Transit ©/"MERCURY, PL V. 

THE following projedion of the tranfit of Mercury 
over the Sun, on the 9th of November, 1769, was made 
from the foregoing meafures and calculations, on the fup- 
pofition that the Sun's horizontal parallax, at his mean dif- 
tance is 8", 65, and therefore, 8^,7437 on the day of the 
tranfit. In this cafe, the horizontal parallax of Mercury, 
at his mean diftance, will be 14",! 132, and on the day 
of the tranfit I2"7856, and therefore his horizontal pa- 
rallax from the Sun on that day is 4^,041 9, being the dif- 
ference of their parallaxes. 

The delineation was made in the fame manner as that of 
the tranfit of Venus. The elements for it were colledcd 

from 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 83 

from the preceding calculation, and the parallaxes of Mer- 
cury were meafured upon a very large projedion, for that 
purpofe, adapted to the apparent times of the micrometer 
meafures, and applied to the projedtion. By thefe, the 
apparent places of Mercury were determined, as feen at 
Philadelphia; and fmall circles were drawn round them, 
with the radius 4",238, to reprefent his difk on the face 
of the Sun. From the limbs of the Sun and Mercury, 
lines were drawn in the direction of their centers, of the 
precife length exhibited in the foregoing table of mea- 
fures. 

Upon the whole, I have given a full and faithful account 
of our obfervations of the tranfits of Venus and Mercury, 
in the foregoing fheets; and if they fhould be found, in 
the conclufion, to contribute any thing to the advancement 
of aftronomical knowledge, it muft refledt an honor on our 
new obfervatory, and give pleafure to all the lovers of 
fcience, as well as to, 

Gentlemen, 

Your moft obedient 

And very humble fervant, 
Philadelphiay July igth, 1769. JOHN EWING. 

An Account of the Tranfit of Venus, over the Sun* s Di/k^ 
as obferved near Cape Henlopen, on Delaivare Bay, 
June 3d, 1 769. By Owen Biddle, Joel Bailey, and 

Draijun up By Owen Biddle. 

AGREEABLE to the appointment of the ^/7/<fr/c^« 
Philofophical Society, to obferve the tranfit of Venus 
at the light-houfe, near Cape-Henlopen, I fet out by wa- 
ter from Philadelphia, accompanied by Joel Bailey, and 
Richard Thomas, the latter of whom had offered to accom- 
pany us at his own expence, and proved very ferviceable 
in the afliftance he gave us. 

On the 26th of the 5th month (May) we arrived at Leives^ 
Tozvn, and immediately endeavoured to gain fuch informa- 
tion 



84 MATHEMATICAL and 

lion as might enable us to determinethe beft place for our 
obfervations; and, on mature deliberation, we fixed on a 
place about one quater of a mile S. W. of the town oi Le- 
ives, where a convenient houfe was to be had, in a retired 
fituation, and having an open view of the fky. 

We found on our firft landing on the beach, that neither 
the Light'Hoiife, nor any place near the fea-ihore, would 
be fuitable for our obfervations; as it would be difficult to 
keep our inftruments fteady, or defend either the glafles 
of the telefcopes, or the eyes of the cbfervers, from receiv- 
ing injury by the fand which is wafted about by the wind. 
Having chofen our place, we fixt up our inftruments 
on the 27th of the month,and hadfome good correfpond- 
ing altitudes of the Sun that day by which wefetour clock, 
and took fome equal altitudes of fixt fiars in the evening. 
The four following days continued cloudy, with frequent 
rains. But that we might not be idle in the mean time, 
and have it in our power to afcertain our latitude and lon- 
gitude, in cafe we (hould be difappointed of celeftial obfer- 
vations for that purpofe; Joel Bailey and Richard Thomas, 
went to take the courfes anddiftances from our obfervatory, 
to the provincial weft: line, which was run from Fenwick's 
Ifland to the middle point of the peninfiila; fo that our ob^ 
fewatory might thereby be connected with Mefl'rs. Mafon 
and Dixon's meridian line. 

The I ft: of the 6th month (June) my aftbciates returned 
from this fervice; and by their care and {kill, I make no 
doubt, they performed it with the necelfary precifion. 

We had concluded that it would be a more expeditious 
way to take the courfes, &c. from our obfervatory to the 
weft line, rather along the neareft public road than to run 
in one direct courfe through the woods ; as by this laft me- 
thod, both the expence and delay of opening a vifta, would 
have been necefl'ary. 

As the fixing the latitude and longitude of our obferva- 
tory muft depend chiefly on this part of the work, I fliall 
here infert the field notes, before I proceed to draw the 

conclufions 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS 8s 

conclufions from them. And I think it the more neceflary 
to be particular in this rcqueft, that I may comply with 
the defire of the aftronomer royal, exprefled in hts note 
to Dr. Franklin, as follows, viz. 

Greenwich, December ii, 1769. 

" Mr. Mafkelyne prefents his compliments to Dr, Franklin 
(indjhall he obliged to him-, ^uuhen he "writes to Philadel" 
phia-ifor enquiring of Mr. OivenBiddle, *what is the bear' 
ing and ivhat the abfolute dijlance of Lewes toivn from the 
Jlone on Fenivick^s Jjle in EngliJJo miles ; or elfe ivhat is the 
differenceof latitude and departure inEnglifh miles ? He may 
aTfo, ifhepleafes acquaint Mr , Biddle^that the latitude of the 
Middle Point between Fenivick^s Ifle and Chefapeak Bay^ 
as found by Mejfrs. Mafon and Dixon, is 38^ 27'. 34"; 
ajid the length of a degree of latitude -^ as meafured by them, 
is 6S,Sg6Jlatute ?mles. 

" Mr. Mafkelyne would alfo recommend it to Dr. Sm'ithi 
and the other Norriton-obfervers, to fettle the bearing and 
difance in Englifh miles betiveen Norriton and the fouther^ 
mojl poijit of the city of Philadelphiay or elfe the State 
Houfe fquare ; as this ivill flill further confirm thefttuation 
of the Norriton-obfervatoryt by conneSling it ivith Meffrs, 
Mafon and DixoiCs meridian line. 

" Mr. Mafkelyne hopes^ the Pennfylvanla-obfervers will 
hefo kind as to fend us their obfervations of the Tranfit of 
Mercury, ivhich happened November gth, if they nverefor^ 
tunate enough to fee it ; and any other obfervations, they 
have made, ivhich have not yet beenfent here^ tending to 
eflablifh the difference of longitudes.''^ 



The 
Vol. I. M 



86 



MATHEMATICAL and 



The COURSES an 


i DISTANCES from the Olf-rma 


tory n:ar Leiveitoivn, to the Fiijvincial IVijl 


L 


Lie, L-tivciii Feii-^uUk's JJle anj Chefapeak-Bay,ari asfolloius: J 


CouiTcs. 


Diftauce 


Courfes. 


Diilance 


Courfes. 


Diflance 




in 




in 




in 


o ' 


Perches. 


' 


Perches. 


' 


Perches. 


S. 43- 5 W. 


A95 


S. 27. 15 W. 


171 


S. 10. W. 


56 


S. 7. 30 K. 


51 


S. 43. w. 


^i 


S. 14. E. 


111 


S. 45. Z7 W. 


446 


S. 64. w. 


58 


S. 23. E. 


54 


.S. 74. 'W'. 


70 


S. 50. w. 


26 


S. 75. E. 


25 


S. 68. li W. 


44 


S. 20. 40 \v\ 


78 


S. 64. E. 


65 


■ S. 45. W. 


31 


S. 30. w. 


41 


S. 29. E. 


22 


S. 35. 30 w. 


5J 


S 39. E. 


74 


S. 13. ID E. 


81 


S. 28, w. 


32 


S. 44. w. 


5a 


S. 39. E. 


61 


S. 82. 15 vv. 


56 


S. 21. 30 W. 


"^ 


S. 9. W. 


24 


N. 76. o\V. 
S. 42. 5 \V. 


33 
103 


Acrols In- 
dian Ri- 


(■69,67 


S. 6. E. 
S. 25. W. 


36 
04 


S. 27. w. 


5 7 


ver. 


J 


S. 21. 30 E. 


40 


S. 64. W. 


33 


S. 65. W. 


131 


S. 40. E. 


57 


S. 44. -w. 


46 


S. 64. W. 


78 


S. 18. E. 


26 


S. 2. W. 


45 


S. 79. w. 


76 


S. 12. E. 


78 


S. 10. w. 


138 


N. 80. W. 


5a 


S. 40. W. 


96 


S. 30. 30 w. 


ai6 


S. 85. 30 w. 


4a 


S. 10. 50 W. 


86 


S. 28. 40 w. 


76 


N. 76. oW. 


63 


S. 13. E. 


56 


S. 25. w. 


104 


S. 86. W. 


70 


S. 28. W. 


70 


South. - - 


55 


S. 65. W. 


66 


S. 16. 10 E. 


48 


S. 8. W. 


96 


S. 24. W. 


50 


S. 6. E. 


26 


S. 19. 5 W. 


5^ 


S. 18. 45 w. 


73 


S. 8. W. 


59 


S. 26. W. 


80 


S. 12. E. 


24 


S. 22- E. 


46 


S. 27. 30 w. 


159 


S. 6. E. 


48 


S. 2. W. 


ao 


S. 8. W. 


270 


S. II. E. 


174 


S. 42. E. 


4a 


S. 29. W. 


58 


S. 6. E. 


73 


S. 22. E. 


30 


S. II. 20 E. 


164 


S. 10. W. 


38 


S. 48. W. 


46 


S. 25. E. 


44 


S. 11. E. 


iia 


S. 14. E. 


21 


S. 28. 30 E. 


58 


S. 6. E. 


i5 


1 S. 18. E. 


48 


S. 40. 30 E. 


200 


S. 19. W. 


16 


i S. 12. 30 E. 


5* 


S. 30. 5 E- 


45 


S. 13. W. 


22 


t S. 42. E. 


49 


S. 40. 5 E. 


76 


S. 29. W. 


46 


i S. 40. E. 


44 


S. 58. E. 


44 


S. 50. E. 


145 


i S. 14. E. 


110 


S. 10. W. 


58 


S. 61. E. 


48 


i South - - 


31 


S. 18, E. 


42 


S. 10. E. 


36 


S. 40. E. 


26 


S. 12. E. 


84 


S. 21. 30 W. 


no 


S. 14. E. 


22 


S. 14. E. 


178 


S. 10. W. 


56 ■ 


S. 22. w. 


27 


S. 10. E. 


44 


S. 8. 30 E. 


55 


Here the line from Fen- 


S. 5. 30 E. 


^6 


S. 27. 30 E. 


34 


wick's Ifle to the A'liddle 


S. 21. E. 


60 


S. 12. E. 


38 


Point was interfered at 


S. 41. w. 


6a 


s. 10. w; 


30 


9 miles 86 perches, from 


S. 21. W. 


40 


S. 28. w. 


30 


the ftone in Fenwick's 


S. 5. w. 


18 


S. iR. W. 


75 


Ifle. 



The needle, v/ith which thcfe courfes were taken, being compared with our meridian line, 
and alfo with the Prov. W. line, was found to have 3°. 53'. variation W. which was allowed 
for in reducing the work. 

Hence, from the above work, we get the obfervatory 
near LewestOvN n, 

Weft of the Stone on Fenwick's Ifle 1895,5 pcrches,=5 miles 295,5 perches. 
Eafl: of the middle ]H)int, - - 9286,3 perches,=29 miles 6,3 perches. 
North of the middle Point, - - 7007,5 perches,=i9 miles 4,3 perches. 
The latitude of the middle point is - - - 38°. 27'. 34" 



The fum is the latitude of the oLfervatory 



38. 4<'>. 38,3 



Thus 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



87 



Thus the latitude of the obiervatory was fixed, and fo 
would its longitude have been fixed by the above work 
alio, if we had known either the longitude of the middle 
point, or of the ftone on Fenwick's Ifle. But this not 
appearing from any part of the work of MeiTrs, Mafon 
and Dixon, left among their public papers in this province, 
the American Philofophical Society ordered us in the 5th 
Month, (May,) 1770, to take the courfes and dirtances 
from New-Caftle Court-Houfe, to the obfervatory in the 
iState-Houfe fquare, by which means the middle point, 
and confequently our obfervatory at Lewes might be con- 
ned;ed with the Philadelphia and Norrlton obtervatories, 
and fo the longitude of the two latter being known, the 
longitude of the former would be known alfo. Our work 
is as follows. 



Co'JRJEb. 


Diftancc 


Begun at 


the cen- 


in 


tcr of Newcaftlc 


perches, 


Court-Houie. 




N. 39°- 


dW. 


3'52 


N. 32. 


40 E. 


40 


N. 42- 


CO E. 


50 


N. 6. 


?o E. 


80 


N. I. 


50 W. 


153 


N. 19. 


E. 


739 


N. 16. 


30 E, 


328 


N. 12, 


30 E. 


66 


N. 7- 


E. 


19a 


N. 42. 


E. 


5O 


N. 19- 


W. 


50,%2 


North . 


- 


89 


N. 2. 


w. 


181 


N. 7. 


E. 


56 


N. 25- 


E. 


30 


N. 59- 


5S t.. 


944 


N. 41. 


50 E. 


87 


N. J I. 


30 E. 


276 


N. 49. 


E. 


48 




urlfs. 


f^TQhii. 


© E. 


180 


c E. 


u(, 


40 11. 


4.-58 


C. 


406 


^S E. 


120 


40 I. 


66 


J? E. 


4* 


SO E. 


33 


30 £. 


.17 


40 E. 


163 


30 E, 


AS 


$0 K. 


79s 


IS E. 


ioo 


50 E, 


1S9 


c II, 


104 


E. 


433 


40 t. 


.■52.?»3 


' ' 


J 3 


s center of 


the obfsr* 


in the 6t 


atc-Houfe 



N. B. The variation efthe needle by wliich thefc couifos wgrc t.vkcii was 3'. Ij' Well, which 
was allowed for in reducing the work 

Thus by the above work %vc sift— Perches. 

>3ew-Caftkcourt-houfc weft of Philadelphia obfervatory . . - 7'^i^,S 

Middlepointof Peninfula well of New-Callle court- houfe • - • 22X:,s 

Their fum gives the middle point weft of Philadelphia obfervatory ■ - 9213,7 

But (p. 86.) the middle point is weft of the Lewes obfervatory - - 9286,3 

Their difference gives the Lewes obfervatory eaft of the Philadc'lphia obf€^^'atory 62,6 

This cUfierence of fixty-two pcrchesdoes not give quite a fecond of time difference of longitude. 

Aad 



88 MATHEMATICAL and 

And as, both by the Pliiladclphia and Norriton obfcrvations, the longitude of the Philadel 
nhia obfervatory, wefi of Gre.n.vich, is _ - -- jh. d. 25"' 

■]"he longitude of Lewis oblervatory Weft of Greenwich- is in time J. O. 34 

Or, in degrees and parts of the equator the longitude of Lewis obferva- 

t'ory weft of Greenwich is - - - - 15^- 8/30" 

And its latitude as above - - - - 38. 46. 38,3 North. 

For the advantage of navig^ation, we alfo took the courfes and diftances from our obfervatory 
to the Provincial liy;ht-houle neiir the Cape; and on reducing the work, we find the light-houfe 
north ofourobfervatory 182,83 perchcs,=29", 8; and eaft of the fame 944 perches=3'. 16'', 8. 

— Whence 

The latitude of the light-houfe, is - - 38». 4.7'. 8",! North. 

Anditslongitude, weft of Greenwich - -■ 75. 5- 13>* 

1 now proceed to give an account of the remainder of 
our obfervations. The 2d of the month we had feveral 
good correfponding altitudes of the Sun for fetting'our 
time-piece. 

The 3d being the tranfit-day, was as fine in every re- 
fped for our obfervation, as we could deli re; the air calm,, 
and not a cloud in view. We had a feries of good corref- 
ponding altitudes of the Sun, taken in feafon, not to in- 
terrupt the obfervation of the tranfit. 

About 1 2 o'clock we direded our telefcopes to the Sun, 
determined to keep it conftantly in the field, till the con- 
tads fhould be paft ; and in the mean time we fet our boys 
(whom we had tutored for that purpofe) to count the fe- 
conds by the clock, each boy counting one minute alter- 
nately, leaft they fhould be wearied, and not perform it 
with fufficient exadnefs. During the whole a perfon was 
{landing by to overlook them, calling out each minute as 
it elapfed, and noting it down. 

We had agreed with each other to attend to our tele- 
fcopes one minute by turns, until about 7 or 8 minutes, 
before the expeded time, leaft by too fteady attention, we 
fhould impair our fight, and difable ourfelvcs from dif- 
cerning the contadt clearly. I had left my telefcope the 
minute preceding the contad, intending to apply myfelf 
fleadily to it before the minute was fully elapfed; and not 
to quit it again until the contad occurred. When the 
48th fecond was called, I applied myfelf to the telefcope, 
and by the time three feconds more were elapfed, I per- 
ceived on that part of the Sun's limb, where 1 had expeded 

the 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 89 

the conta(St to take place, a fmall imprcffion, which prov- 
ed to be the limb of Venus in contad with the Sun. All 
the limb of the Sun which appeared at that time in the 
field of the telefcope had a fmall undulatory motion, w^hich 
I apprehended was occafioned by the afcent of denfe va- 
pours at this place (being near the fea). On the firfl: ap- 
pearance of Venus, it was like one of thefe fmall waves 
on the limb of the Sun, enlarged in fo fmall a proportion, 
that I remained doubtful for feveral feconds, whether it 
was any thing befides. It continued making a deeper im- 
prefTion with that tremulous motion for about 10 feconds, 
when the tremor difappeared where Venus was in conta(St, 
and the indenture became truly circular with an even ter- 
mination. 

My abfence from my telefcope, juft before the contact- 
occurred, deprived me of the opportunity of judging 
whether there was any appearance of an atmofphere pre- 
ceding the weftern limb of Venus as it came in contad; 
but when Venus had entered near one half her diameter 
on the difk of the Sun, my companion and 1 both faw a 
luminous crefcent, which enlightened that part of Venus*s 
circumference which was off the Sun, fo that the whole 
of her circumference w^as vifible; but it did not continue 
fb, until the firft internal contadt took place. 

At the time of the internal contadl, agreeable to what 
was noted by fome of the obfervers at the tranfit 1761; 
"the eaftern limb of Venus feemed to be united to the 
limb of the Sun by a black protuberance or ligament, 
which was not broke by the entrance of the thread of 
light," until 4 feconds after the regular circumference of 
Venus feemed to coincide with the Sun's. 

For this obfervation I ufed a refleding telefcope, mag- 
nifying about 150 times, which was in exceeding good or- 
der at the time, and defined the limb of the Sun, andfpots 
on its dilk, very nicely. I had applied a polar axis to it, 
and had altered the rack work, by which I could keep the 
fame part of the limb in the field with eafe. 

My 



90 MATHEMATICAL and 

My companion Joel Bailey was not fo well provided 
w^ith a teleicope. He had one oi DoUoiidh double objed: 
lens refra(fi;ing glafles of about four and an half feet length. 
This, with a ball and ibcket, was fixed to a poft, which 
made it very convenient for obfervation. Thus furniihed 
we found the contads take place as follows. 

Joel Bailey's external contad was loft by an accident, but 
feen by him after it had taken place, at 2\i4'.3o"ap. t. 

The internal contact, by do. 2. 32. 8 

External contad, as feen by Owen "? ^ , , 
Biddle, - - - ^ ' 

The internal contadl by do. 2. 32, 8 

Thefe obfervations are reduced to appar. time. And it 
muft be noted, that the tim.e of the internal contad, as 
given by Owen Biddle, is 4 feconds before the thread of 
light had broke the dark ligament by which Venus's limb 
was united to the limb of the Sun, that being the time he 
eftimated the two limbs to be in contadl. Alio, that as the 
external contadl occurred fpeedily after he went to his te- 
lefcope, he will not prefume to aflert that he has the time to 
a fmgle fecond, yet he conceives he has given the exa£t 
time of that contad, as he is not fenfible of any error 
therein. 

The foregoing being an exa£t diary of our tranfadtions, 
we fubmit the fame to the fociety, and hope for their ap- 
probation. OWEN BIDDLE. 

r. S. Since the foregoing was drawn up, 1 received from Dr. Smith the following note; 
which gives me plcajure to find lb little differcntc between the ref'ult of Charles Mafon and 
Jeremiah Dixon's meafurtment and our own. 
Dear Sir, 

SINCE you finiflied your meafuremcnt from Newcaftle Court-Houfe to the Philadelphia 
©bfervatory in the Statc-Houfe Square, the 58th volume of PhiloibphicalTranfa(51:ions has come 
to haiiil, containing the whole work of MefiTrs. IVIafon and Dixon in meafuring wdi-greeoflat:- 
tilde- and it is with great ]ileafure 1 find, that the longitude of the middle point of the pcnin- 
fula (and confequcntly of your obfirvatory at Lewes) in refpe<?l to Philadelphia, will come out 
almofl entirely the fame from their work as from yours, although obtained by diiTerent routs*. 

LONGITUDE 

• The refult by Mr. Biddle's rout is got, by going from the State-Houfe obfervatory to 
NewcalUc Court-flloufe, agreeable to his meafuremcnt; thence by the 12 m. radius and tan- 
gent line to the middle point. The refult by MeflVs. Mafon and Dixon's work is got, by be- 
ginning at the fouth point of the city of Philadelphia, (or the place of their obfervatory,) on 
the north fideof Codar-ftreef , between Front-ftreectand Delaware; thenceto their obfervatory in 
the Forks of Brandywine, which is 31 miles Vv'clT:, and lo",5 South of the fouthermoll point 
of the city; thence by the other lines of latitude awd departure, wherewith they connect the 
obfervator)' in the Forks of Brandywine, with the middle point of the Peninfula. See their 
■work in the volume of Tranfactions, quoted above. 



28. 


74- 


51 


o. 


28. 


75 


28. 


45- 


76 


=29. 


I. 


57 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 91 

LONGI'i'UDE of the MUdle Point, and of the Ltives O'ferimtnry Wejl of the Philadelphia Ohfcr- 
tury, itgrceabU to the lines ifMeJfrs. Mafon andViwoil. 

Obfervatory in the Forks of Brandyvvine Weft of the South point of the city mil. cli. lin. 

of Philadelphia, 31. 00. oo 

Middle point of the Pcninfula Eall of obfervatory in the Forks, 2. 5. 49 

The difT, gives the middle point of Peninfula W. of S. point of Philadelphia, 28. 74. 51 
But S. point of Philadelphia is E. of obfervatory in State-Houfe Square, o. 28. 75 

The diiT. gives t\\c middle point of Peninfula Weft of State-Houfe obfervatory, 
But by your work the middle point is W. of the Lewes obf. ya86,3 pcri-hes,: 

The difference gives Lewes obfervatory Eaft of the State-Houfe obfervatory, 

from Mulon and Dixon's lines, o. ^^. 81 

But by your meafure to Newcaftle the Lewes obfervatory was Eaft of the 

State-Houfe obfervatory 62,6 perches, = O. ic. 6j 

Sio that Mafon and Dixon's lines give your obfervatory more Eaft than your 

own work, only O. 20. 16 • 

Thus, by their work, we get your obfervatory not quite 2", and by your own not quite I* 
Eaft of the obfervatory in the State-Houfe Square. Wherefore l" being taken as a mean, and 
applied to5h. o'. 35" the longitude of the State-Houfe obfervatory Weft of Greenwich; the 
longitude of the Lewes obfervatory maybe well depended on as ftated from your own work, 
to be in time Weft of Greenwich, jh. d. 34". 

N. B. As Britifti mariners generally take their departure from the Land's end of England, 
as by Mr. Bradley's obfervations of the late tranfit of Venus, the longitude of the Lizard'Point 
is now determined to be 5°. 15' W. of Greenwich, if that be fubtracfted from 75°. 5'. 13", 2, 
it will give the longitude of the Provincial Light-Houfe near the Capes W. of Lizard Point, 
69^.50'. 13', 2 

If you think the above can be of any ufe, you may add it to the end of your account. I 
think there is no miftake in bringing out the different refults; but if I can find leifure I will re- 
examine the work before the ftieet is ftruck off. I am, with great regard, your's, &c. 

Philcd. July 23, 1 7 70. W I L L I A M S M I T H. 

To Air. Ow£N BiDDLE. 

An Ahftraa of Mr. BENJAMIN WEST'j- Account of 
the tranfit of Venus ^ as ohferved at Providence, in Neiv- 
England^ June 'i,d, 1769. 

A S it appears by fomc letters of the afironomer ro^al, which have 
ff\^ been communicated to this Society ^ that moji of the Northern 
tihferverSy both in Rujfta and Siueden, were greatly difappointed, by 
the unfavourable fate of the weather^ in their noble and public fpirited 
endeavours to obfcrve the late tranfit ; the American obfervations have 
become of the greater importance^ in order to a comparifon with thtfe- 
of Greenwich J and therefore the Society think it very material to pre- 
fervc in their traifa^ions, fuch of the obfervations made on this conti- 
nent as they have been favoured with. The account of the Providence 
obfervations, drawn up by Mr. "West, was tranfnitted by Mr. 
Joseph Brown, and being laid before the Society by Dr. Smith j 
the following ab/lra6l thereof was ordered to be publified at a meeting. 
May i'6ih, 1770. 

WHEN 



()2 MATHEMATICAL and 

^'W THEN it became more generally known that 
W there would be a tranfit of Venus in 1769, and 
the advantages which were like to accrue to aftronomy, 
and coniequently to navigation and chronology, from pro- 
per obfervations of it, Mr. Joseph Brown*, a very re- 
fpcaable merchant of Providence, being very defirous, if 
poffible, to obtain an obfervation of it, was pleafed to ad- 
vife with me, concerning an apparatus fuitable for fuch 
an obfervation, and to know if we fhould be able to obfervc 
the tranfit with the neceflary precifion for anfwering the 
important defign ? My anfwer gave him fo much fatisfac- 
tion in the matter, that he immediately fent his orders to 
his correfpondent in London, to procure the inftruments. 
His orders were accordingly executed with fidelity and 
difpatch; and the inftruments arrived in Providence about 
one month before the tranfit. Our apparatus was made 
by Meffieurs Watkins and Smith, London; it confifted of 
a three feet refleding telefcope, with horizontal and ver- 
tical wires for taking differences of altitude and azimuths, 
adjufted with fpirit-levels at right angles, and a divided 
arch for taking altitudes; a curious heliofcope, together 
with a micrometer of a new and elegant conftrudion, with 
rack motions, and fitted to the telefcope. Befides the be- 
fore mentioned inftruments, we had a fextant belonging 
to the government, made in Newport, by Mr. Benjamin 
King, under the diredion of Jofeph Harrifon, Efq. now 
coUedor of his Majefty's Cuftoms for the port of Bofton; 
its limb was divided to five miles, and by a vernier index 
to five fecondst- We had two good clocks, one of which 
w^as made in Providence, by Mr. Edward Spalding." 

" We 

» Readinjr Mr. Winthrop's account of the tranfit in 1761, was what firft occafioned Mr. 
BROWN to fend for a telefcope, fitted in the manner Mr. Winthrop there defcrlbes; after- 
wards, taking notice of the application of the American Philofophical Society to the AlTembly 
of Pennfylvania, for an apparatus for obfcrving the tranfit of Venus, he found the orders he 
had fent were incomplete : He then advifed with the author, as mentioned above, and there- 
upon ordered a micrometer to be added. Mr. Brown's expence, in this laudable undertak- 
ing, was little lefi> than one hundred pounds fterliug, befides near a month's time of himfclf 
and fervants, in making the neceflury previous experimeRts and preparations. 

+ And here we mufl not forget the Hon. Abraham Redwood, Efq of Newport, who, in 
order that Newport and Providence might both be fuppHed with a fextant, for this fingular 
occafion, ordered one made at his own coft, for the ufeof the Revd. Dr. Stiles. I am fenfible 
Mr. Redwood, for fo publicl'pirited an adion, will receive the thanks of every well-wilhcr 
to fcicnce. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 93 

" We had nothing to learn refpeding the apparatus, 
excepting our new catadioptric micrometer, which, I have 
lately learned, is of Dollond's conftrudion ; not having any 
author by us, from which we could get the ufe of that 
curious inftrument, we were obliged to have recourfe to 
experiments. When the micrometer was fixed upon the 
teleicope, it was found by trial, that objects could not be 
feen with the fame focal diftance as when it was off, and 
we were obliged to fcrew up the fmall fpeculum nearer to 
the eye; for which there is an optical reafon. From 
whence it was concluded, that obje<fts Ihould always be ob- 
ferved in the mofl diftindt point of view, the fame with 
the micrometer on, as when it was off. The next thing 
to be done was to find the apparent diameter of an objecS 
(or the angle fubtended at the eye by two objeds) by this 
inftrument. In order to this, we ftretched a cord, as 
ftraight as poffible, one thoufand feet in length; which 
was meafured feveral times over, in order to avoid mi (lake. 
At the end of the cord was fet two circular objeds, made 
of white paper, in a line perpendicular to the cord, and ex- 
adly ten feet apart; ftanding at the other end of the cord, 
and by opening the micrometer, we could bring the two 
images into an exad coincidence, or could make one of 
the images appear like two, and by bringing their limbs 
into contad, the diftance of their centers was fhewn on the 
fcale, to the five hundredth part of an inch. Now from the 
rules of trigonometry, the angular diftance of the two ob- 
jeds was 34'. 22^,58; from thence it was known, how 
many inches and parts of an inch were anfwerable to that 
angle. Thefe experiments were repeated every fair day 
(for no other was fultable for thefe obfervations) till we 
could many times going find the diameter of a body to a 
fecond of a degree. From thefe obfervations we were en- 
abled to make a table for the micrometer, as far as the 
fcale extended. Thefe experiments yvere carried yet far- 
ther; for, by looking at two bodies whofe diftance from 
each other was known, we could tell their diftance from the 
Vol. I. N place 



94 MATHEMATICAL and 

place of obfervation, to a critical exai^nefs; and this was 
proved by accurate menfuration. Thefe were certainly very 
diverting experiments to an inquifitive mind! The gen- 
tlemen who affifted us through thefe experiments, and like- 
wife in the reft of our work, were the Hon. Stephen 
Hopkins, Efq. Mr. Mofes Brown, Dr. Jabez Bowen, Jo- 
feph Nafh, Efq. and Capt. John Burrough. 

" The regulation of our clocks, being of the utmoft 
confequence in this affair, was what next commanded our 
attention. In this part of the work we endeavoured to 
arrive at as great a degree of certainty as the nature of the 
cafe would admit. — Several workmen were employed in 
laying a platform of feafoned pine plank, as fmooth and le- 
vel as art could make it: This was fecured from rain^, 
or other moifture, that It might not warp when expofed to 
the Sun. We examined this platform three times a day 
(when the weather would admit of it) with a very long 
level. On the fouth fide of the platform, and exactly per- 
pendicular to it, we ered:ed a ftile ten feet high; this was 
likewife examined three times a day. We next perfor- 
ated a piece of board, into which was fixed the glafs of a 
fcioptric ball, fo that the center of the glafs was exadlly in 
the center of the perforation ; this board was fo cut, and 
let in at the top of the ftile, that it turned upon an axis, 
in fuch a manner, that the center of the glafs did not alter 
its pofition. The Sun's rays were tranfmitted through 
the lens upon the platform, where they were formed into 
a bright fpot, and very difl:ind:ly defined. From the cen- 
ter of the lens was let fall a perpendicular upon the plat- 
form; from that point, as a center, was drawn a great 
number of concentric circles, for taking correfpondent 
fhades, in order to trace a meridian line; and, as our 
wifhes would have it, the weather proved favorable for 
this work. When the line was drawn*, I found from cal- 
culation, it declined j" in time, eaft of the true meridian ; 

this 

• The inapnetlc needle, being placed on his exad meridian line, vras found to differ from 
i t 6'^ i wellward. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 95 

this error arofe from the increafe of the Sun's decimation, 
between the times of forenoon and afternoon fhades; this 
fmall equation of 3" was allowed for in regulating the 
clocks. 

" As we were willing to have every corroborating cir- 
cumftance to prove our work, we made ufe of the method 
of corrcfponding altitudes of the Sun, forenoon and after- 
noon. The fextant and refled;or were both employed in 
this bufmefs for feveral days preceding the tranfit (and the 
day following) in order to afcertain the going of the clocks. 
In the lafl: method (as in that of corrcfponding fhades) the 
equation of time, anfwerable to the increafe of declination, 
ought by no means to be negleded. The whole procefs 
was conduced with the utmoft caution, that no errors 
might efcape our notice. We found upon the whole, a 
furprifmg agreement in thefe two methods of regulating 
clocks; they were feldom found to differ a fmgle fecond. 

" Being in this readinefs, the morning of the third of 
June was ufhered in with that ferenity the bufmefs of the 
day required; all was calm, and not a cloud to be feen. 
The gentlemen concerned in the bufmefs convened very 
early at the place of obfervation, to fee that every thing 
was in order; and at the fight of fuch a morning, the 
gladnefs of their hearts was vifibly expreffed, by the plea- 
fure of their countenance. 

" At noon we examined the going of the clocks, as 
the Sun pafled the meridian, and found them very regular. 

" We began to look for the firft contad: of Venus with 
the Sun, at leafl: 15 minutes before the time given by cal- 
culation, to get as early a fight of it as poffible. Venus 
was firft perceived, by making a dent upon the fuperior 
limb of the Sun, at 2^- 29'. 43". P. M. apparent time. 
But, as it is likely the exterior contacts will be given dif- 
ferent, by different obfervers, they can be of but little con- 
fequcnce in this affair. The greateft attention was given 
to the interior contad; this was at 2^' 46'. ^^," apparent 

time*. 



96 



MATHEMATICAL and 



time*. From a mean of a number of good obfervations, 
the apparent diameter of the Sun was 31'. 40", 66, and 
that of Venus 58'', 66; though I could not make it myfelf 
more than 58", which was the fame we found it about a 
fortnight before the tranfit. The proportion of their dia- 
meters was nearly as i to 33. The neareft approach of 
their centers, at the middle of the tranfit, was taken with 
the micrometer, and found to be 10' . 5". 

" The proportion of the diftances of the Sun and 
Venus from the earth, at that time, was as 3,5143 to i ; 
then (allowing the Sun's parallax at his mean dirtance to 
be 8", 68 the fame it was found the 6th of June, 1761) the 
parallax of Venus was 30", 04; the difference of their 
parallaxes 21 ",49 is the parallax of Venus from the Sun, 
The angle between the vifible way of Venus and the eclip- 
tic, 8°. 34'. 17"; and the angle made by the axis of the 
ecliptic and equator, 7°. 3'. 7"; their fum, 15°. 37'. 24", 
was the angle between the axis of the vifible way of Venus, 
and the Earth's axis. The tranfit line, from total ingrefs 
to the middle of the tranfit (meafured in time by the vi- 
fible motion of Venus) was 2''- ^^' . ^6"; but Venus was 
more accelerated in her orbit (by parallax in longitude) at 
the middle of the tranfit, than at total ingrefs; this dif- 
ference of acceleration was i ' . ^^" ; therefore from the to- 
tal ingrefs to the middle of the tranfit was 2^' 54'. 3". 

Thence I conclude, that the- 
"fFirft contad: was at - - - 

But feen by us, as above, at 2. 29. 43 S ap. time. 

Interior contact. 

Middle of the tranfit, - - 5- 40. 38 

" Venus*s 

• At the moment of interior contaft, the Sun's altitude was taken witli the fextant, by 
Mr. Mofes Brnvvn, and ty the ftilc by Captain John Burrough ; and both gave tlic time with 
the rloclvS within two f'cconds. The total ingreis was not fo inftantaneous as I did exped it 
would be, but the briglit cufps of tiie Sun, as they cncompaffed Venus, were much more ob- 
tufc, and there feemcd to he a faint jiindion of their limbs for at leaft 4 feconds; the moment 
this penumbial ligament broke, 1 proclaimed the time ; at firft 1 fufpeded the telefcope was 
not adjiiftcd to a proper focus; but afterwards, by looking at the foJar fpots, &c. I v/as con- 
vinced of the contrary. During the time we faw Venus upon the Sun, Ihe appeared to be 
furrounded by a ring of a yellowifh colour; its width was about one tenth of the diameter of 
Vcnu^. We faw nothing that might be taken for a fatellitc. 

■f When I calculated this traniit, I fuppofed the longitude of our place to be much Icfs than 
we have finte found i: by obfervation. By correding that error, the error in calculation will 
appear to be incoiifiderablc. 




ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 97 

" Venus*s parallax in longitude, at the middle of the 
tranfit, was iS'Sy; this was pafled over by Venus's vifible 
motion in 4' . 44"; fo that the middle of the tranfit, as 
feen from the center of the earth, was at 5^- 43' . 6" mean 
time. The true conjunction was 23' 21" before the 
middle of the tranfit, as feen from the earth's center; con- 
fequently the true conjunction was at 5^- 19'. 45", mean 
time. At which time, the place of the Sun and planet 
was Gemmi 13*^. 27^3"; and the geocentric latitude of 
Venus 10' 1 9", S north. But her heliocentric latitude was 
4' . ()",5' I ; and by the rules of fpherical trigonometry, the 
afcending nodeof Venus was i^. 9'. 23",5 in confequence 
of the Sun, or in Gemini 14^. ifi' . 26",^. 

" From the foregoing calculation it appears, that the 
mean motion of Venus is 37" forward of what it ftands 
in Dr. Halley's tables, and her afcending node 2' . 41". 

" It is probable Dr. Halley's folar numbers need fome 
correction likewife; the following may not be far from 
truth, viz. add to Dr. Halley's mean motion of the Sun, 
for any year of the chriftian sera, 25", and to the apogee 
6'. 18" ; for each century after 1700 add I4",666 to the 
mean motion, and to the apogee 3'. 53" ; then by ma- 
king ufeof the Parifian* equation of the Sun's center, his 
place may be had within a fmall matter of truth. 

" By taking the mean of a number of obfervations, the 
latitude of our obfervatory was found to be 41^ 50' - 4.1" 
northf. The longitude was obtained by obferving the 
emerfions of Jupiter's fatellites, compared with the corref- 
ponding obfervations made at Cambridge, in New-Eng- 
land, by Mr, Winthrop, which he was fo kind as to fa- 
vour 

• According; to the Parifian hypothefis, the eccentrity of the earth's orb is 1680 parts of 
which the niean diflance of thce;irth from the Sun is 100,000. 

f The latitude of the place being- of great confequence, and the fextant and flile not ffivir? 
it exactly alike, the perfeveringMr. Brown contrived to make ufe of the micrometer as a lens 
wliich he placed on his houfe, twenty feven feet high, and exa(ftly perpendicular to a center 
on a horizontal platform below, on which was drawn a meridian line; the Sun's image on 
this platform was feen to move very fenCbly. By this the latitude was finally determined. 
The Sun's meridian altitude, being taken for feveral days by this long ftile, the latitudes thence 
found did not diifer from each other more than 15 feconds. At the time this was done we 
had feen no acconnt that a glafs had been made ufe of, as here defcribed ; but Cince this went 
to the prefs, we learn from Dr. Long's aftronomy, that he found the latitude of Cambridge, in 
England, by the fame method. 



98 MATHEMATICAL and 

voilr us with; and for which we return him our fincere 
thanks. Providence was found to be i6' in longitude 
weft from Cambridge. Mr. Winthrop has hitherto found 
the longitude of Cambridge to be 71°. weft from the royal 
obfervatory at Greenwich ; fo that the longitude of Provi- 
dence is about 71^ 16' from the royal obfervatory. 

" I Ihall now give the reader a fhort account of the parallax 
herein mentioned, and how the planets are afFed:ed thereby. 

" The horizontal parallax of the Sun is that angle at 
the Sun's center, which is included between two lines fup- 
pofed to be drawn, one from the Sun's center to the cen- 
ter of the earth, the other from the Sun's center to the furface 
of the earth. Or, in other words, it is the angle, under which 
thefemidiametcr of the earth would appear to an eye, at the 
center of the Sun. The way that parallax affe^is the Sun 
and planets is, it makes them appear below their true pla- 
ces in the heavens, except they be in the zenith of the ob- 
ferver; in that cafe parallax hath no eff^e(3: at all; and the 
reafon is, becaufe the obferver is in that right line which 
joins the centers of the earth and planet. Parallax may af- 
fedt the planets places feveralways; as if the obferver fhould 
vicw^ the planet upon a vertical, cutting the ecliptic at right 
angles; in this cafe, parallax will affeO. its place in refpedtto 
latitude only ; but if the obferver be fituated in the plane of 
the ecliptic, it will then alter its place, inrefpe£tto longitude 
only ; and if the planet be viewed in an oblique pofition, with 
refpedt to the ecliptic, parallax will afi^eO: its place both 
in longitude and latitude. The horizontal parallaxes of the 
planets are to each other in a reciprocal proportion to their 
diftances; that is, the planets which are neareft have the 
greateft parallax, andthofe which are moft remote, theleaft. 
Thence it follows, if two planets are viewed together, that 
which is neareft will appear juft fo much below the other, 
as what the difi'erence of their parallaxes is. The nearer a 
planet is to the horizon of the obferver, the greater is its 
parallax, and in the horizon it is the greateft pofTible; and 
is then called the horizontal parallax. 

" Hence 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 99 

" Hence comes the method of inveftigating the Sun's 
parallax, from obfervations of Venus on his difk. At the 
time of the tranfit, the third day of June, Venus was much 
nearer to the earth than the Sun was, and, of confequence, 
was much more affedled by parallax. This effedl was pro- 
duced in a twofold manner, in refpedl to us in the nor- 
thern regions of our earth. Firft, Venus was depreffed 
upon the Sun, by parallax in longitude, bringing her to a 
conjundlion with the Sun fooner to our point of view, thaa 
to a fpedtator at the center of the earth. In the fecond 
place, (he was carried nearer to the center of the Sun, by 
parallax in latitude, thereby lengthening the tranfit-line; 
both which efFeds confpired to accelerate the time of firft 
interior contad:. Now to an obferver in Great-Britain, 
parallax had a ftill greater effed;, by what is faid before : 
That is, fome minutes pafled after the conta(ft was formed 
to the obferver there, before it was fee n by us. Now the 
difference of longitude, between the two places of obfer- 
vation, being accurately known, the effect of parallax, 
between the two places, is likewife known; for the dif- 
ference of longitude, by thefe obfervations, will be con- 
fiderably lefs than the true difference. 

" The method of calculating the Sun's parallax, from- 
thefe obfervations, is by trial; the parallax will be fup- 
pofed of that quantity, which the obfervations found it in 
1761 ; hence the total effecSl of parallax, at each place of 
obfervation, muft be computed; and if it fliould be the 
fame as given by obfervation, it will prove the alTump- 
tion to be jufl; but if, by obfervation, it fhould be greater 
or lefs than by calculation, tHe Sun's parallax will turn 
out to be greater or lefs in the fame proportion. — When 
the Sun's parallax is known, the diftance of the earth, 
and of all the planets, from the Sun, will be known like- 
wife." 



OBSERVATIONS 



loo MATHEMATICAL and 

OBSERVATIONS of the Transit of VENUS 
over the SUN, and the Eclipse of //jeSUN, on 
June 2^cU 1769? made at //?<? Royal observatory, 
Greenwich. By the Re-ud. NEVIL MASKELYNE, 
B, D. F. R. S. and Aftronomer Royal. 

Conwiunicated to the Society by Dr, Smith, and ordered to 
publi/hed at a meetings May iSth, 1770. 

TH E weather, which had been cloudy or rainy here, 
with a fouth wind, for the greateft part of the day, 
began to clear up at four o'clock in the afternoon, the 
wind having returned to the weft, the fame quarter in 
which it had been the afternoon before, which was re- 
markably fine and ferene, though it changed early in the 
morning preceding the tranfit. Towards the approach of 
Venus's ingrefs on the Sun, the fky was become again 
very ferene, and fo continued all the evening, which af- 
forded as favourable an obfervation of the tranfit here as 
could well be expeded, confidering that the Sun was 
only 7^. 3' high at the external, and 4°- 33' at the inter- 
nal contad:. I obferved the external contact of Venus at 
7". io\ 58' apparent time, with an uncertainty feemingly 
not exceeding 5"; and the internal conta6t, by which I 
mean the completion of the thread of light between the 
circumferences of the Sun and Venus, at y^- 29'. 23" ap- 
parent time, with a feeming uncertainty of only 3"; for 
fo long was the thread of light in forming, or the Sun*s 
light in flowing round and filling up that part of his cir- 
cumference, which was obfcured by Venus's exterior limb. 
Neverthelefs, I would not hence infer, that obfervations 
made by aftronomers in diftant places fhould agree together 
within fuch narrow limits; for I know they will not even 
in the fame place, and that a difl^erence in the fkill or 
judgment of the obfervers, in the telefcopes, and perhaps 
in fome other little circumftances, not eafily diftinguifhed, 
may produce much greater difagreements, efpecially if the 
Sun be low, as it was here; in like manner as in ob- 

ferving 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. loi 

ferving the eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites, the immerfion 
or emerfion fhall often feem inftantaneous, or nearly fo, 
equally to two obfervers in diftant places, and yet the ab- 
folute times of the obfervations may differ a minute of time 
or more from each other, owing to the difference of tele- 
fcopes, weather, or other circum fiances. Indeed, in the 
prefent cafe, the limit of differences is certainly much nar- 
rower; but what it is I Ihall not at prefent venture to {wj- 
geft, as that may better be done, when all the obfer- 
vations that fhall have been made of the tranfit are col- 
ledted together. The telefcope which I ufed, was an ex- 
cellent refle6ting one of two feet focus, made by the late 
ingenious Mr. Short, and is the fame with w^hich the lad 
tranfit was obferved here by Mr. Charles Green. I applied 
the magnifying power of 140 times, and ufed fmoaked 
glaffes to defend the fight, which are muclj preferable to 
black or red glaffes, as fhewing the objects more diftindl, 
and being much more pleafant to the eye. 

I fhall now endeavour to defcribe, as accuratelyasi can, 
fome other phoenomena which I noted during the immer- 
fion of Venus, and to mention fome others, which by 
fome ingenious perfons were expected to have been feen, 
but which I could not difcover. 

It had been thought by fome, that Venus's circumfer- 
ence might probably be feen, in part at leaft, before fhe 
entered at all upon the Sun, by means of the il- 
lumination of her atmofphere by the Sun; I therefore 
looked out diligently for fuch an appearance, but could 
fee no fuch thing. 

I was alfo attentive to fee if any penumbra or dufky 
fhade preceded Venus's firft imprellion on the Sun at the 
external contact, fuch a phoenomenon having been obferv- 
ed by the Rev. Mr. Hirft, F. R. S at the former tranfit of 
Venus, in 1761, which he obferved with much care and 
diligence at Madrafs, in the Eaft-Indies; but I Cviuld not 
difcern the leaft appearance of that kind. I would not, 
how^ever, be therefore thought to call in queftion either 
Vol. I. O Mr. 



102 MATHEMATICAL and 

Mr. Hlrft's difcernment or fidelity; as 1 am fenfible that 
the tremors of the limbs of the Sun and Venus, occafioned 
by the vapours at the altitude of 7°, might eafily obfcure 
a faint objedt. 

When Venus was a little more than half immerged in- 
to the Sun's difk, I faw her whole circumference complet- 
ed, by means of a vivid, but narrow and ill-defined border 
of light, which illuminated that part of her circumference 
which was off^ the Sun, and would otherwife have been invi- 
fible. This I might, probably, have feen fooner, if I had at- 
tended to it. I continued to fee it till within a few minutes of 
the internal contact, and grew apprehenfive that it would 
prevent the appearance of the thread of light, when it came 
to be formed ; but it difappeared about two or three mi- 
nutes before, as well as I can remember: After which the 
regularity of Venus's circular figure was difturbed towards 
the place where the internal contact fhould happen, by the 
addition of a protuberance, dark like Venus, and projed- 
ing outwards, which occupied a fpace upon the Sun's cir- 
cumference, which bore a confiderable proportion to the 
diameter of Venus. Fifty-two feconds before the thread 
of light was formed, Venus's regular circumference, fup- 
pofed to be continued as it would have been without the 
protuberance, feemed to be in contad: with the Sun's cir- 
cumference, fuppofed alfo completed. Accordingly, from 
this time, Venus's regular circumference, fuppofed defined 
in the manner jufl: defcribed, appeared wholly within the 
Sun's circumference; and it feemed, therefore, wonderful 
that the thread of light fhould be fo long before it appear- 
ed, and the protuberance appearing in its ftead. 

At length, when a conliderable part of the Sun's cir- 
cumference, equal to one third or one fourth of the dia- 
meter of Venus, remained ftill obfcured by the protube- 
rance, a fine fiream of light flowed gently round it from 
each fide, and completed the fame in the fpace of three 
feconds of time, from 7\ 29' . 20'' to 7''. 29' . 2%" apparent 
time; and Venus appeared wholly within the Sun's lucid 

circumference- 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



lo 



circumference; but the protuberance, though diminifhed, 
was not taken away till about 20" more, when, after be- 
ing gradually reduced, it difappeared, and Venus's circu- 
lar figure was reftored. 

An ingenious gentleman of my acquaintance having 
defired me to examine if there was any protuberance of 
the Sun's circumference about the point of the internal 
contact, as he fuppofed fuch an appearance ought to arife 
from the refraction of the Sun*s rays through Venus's at- 
mofphere, if fhe had one; I carefully looked out for fuch 
a circumftance, but could fee no fuch thing; neither could 
I fee any ring of light round Venus, a little after (he was 
got wholly within the Sun : But, I confefs, I did not re- 
examine this latter point afterwards, when fhe was further 
advanced upon the Sun, at which time other perfons at 
the obfervatory faw fuch an appearance. 

How far from the ring of light, which I faw round that 
part of Venus's circumference which was off the Sun, dur- 
ing the immerfion, may deferve to be conlidered as an in- 
dication of an atmofphere about Venus, I fhall not at prcr- 
fent inquire; but I think it very probable, that the protu- 
berance, which difturbed Venus's circular figure at the in- 
ternal contact, was owing to the enlargement of the dia- 
meter of the Sun, and the contradion of that of Venus 
produced by the irregular refradtion of the rays of light 
through our atmofphere, and the confequent undulation of 
the limbs of the two planets; the altitude of Venus being 
only 4° 48^ , though the Sun's limb was more diftindt and 
fteady than ufual at that altitude. This conjecture feems 
corroborated by two circumftances : one is, that Venus's 
limb, from its firft appearance to the total immerfion, as 
well as afterwards, was very ill defined, and undulated 
very much; the other is, that her horizontal diameter, 
which I meafured foon after the internal contad with an 
excellent achromatic objed glafs micrometer, fitted to the 
two feet refledting telefcope, was only fifty-five and three 
fourths of a fecond, by a mean of eight trials, or about 3" 

left 



104 MATHEMATICAL and 

lefs than it fliould have been, from the obfervations made, 
with the Hke inftrument, at the tranfit of Venus, in 1761, 
by Mr. Short, Mr. Canton, Mr. Haydon, and Mr Mafon, 
when the Sun was at a confiderable aUitude; and moft 
hkelv the Sun's diameter was enlarged in proportion, 
though it might have been difficult to have afccrtained it 
by adual meafure, had time allowed me to make the ex- 
periment with the fame micrometer before the Sun entered 
into a black cloud near the horizon. 

Six other perfons alfo obferved the contacts of Venua 
here, and noted fome other phoenomena. Their names 
are, the Rev. Malachy Hitchins, a gentleman well ac- 
quainted with aftronomy and aftronomical calculations, 
who has made and examined many belonging to the nau- 
tical almanac, and has been fo obliging as to come here 
and affift me in making aftronomical obfervations, during 
the abfence of my afliftant, Mr. William Bayley, who is 
gone to the North Cape, by appointment of the Royal 
Society, to obferve the tranfit of Venus there. The others 
are, the Rev. William Hirft, who obferved the former 
tranfit of Venus, in 1 761, at Madras; John Horfley, 
Efq. a gentleman whom I had the pleafure of firft com- 
mencing an acquaintance with during my voyage from St. 
Helena to England, in the Warwick Eaft-India fhip, and 
who then, and in feveral voyages fince to the Eaft-Indies 
and home again, obferved and calculated the longitude 
from diftances of the Moon from the Sun and fixed ftars 
with the greateft accuracy; Mr. Samuel Dunn, who has 
had a good deal of pradiice in making; aftronomical obfer- 
vations, and who carefully obferved the former tranfit of 
Venus, in 1761, at Chelfea; Mr. Peter DoUond, whofe 
great fkill in conftruding achromatic and reflecting tele- 
fcopes; and Mr. Edward Nairne, whofe fklU likewife in 
the fame way, and in making all kinds of mathematical 
and philofophical inftruments, are fufficiently known to 
the public. 

Mr, 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS 105 

Mr. Horfley and Mr. Dunn obferved with me in the 
great room; Mr. Hitchins and Mr. Hirft, in the eaftern 
fummer-houfe ; and Mr. Dollond and Mr. Nairne in the 
weftern fummer-houfe; by three clocks placed in the re- 
fpedive rooms, which were compared with the clock in 
the tranfit room, before the external contact, and again 
after the internal contact was paft; whence the times of the 
obfervations, as noted by the clocks, were reduced to the 
time of the tranfit clock, and thence to apparent time. 

Their obfervations, together with my own, are given- 
in the following table, as reduced to apparent time. 







Regular cir- 


Threadoflight 




Magni- 




External 


cumferences in 


compleated, 


Telcfcopes made ufe of. 


fying 




contacfl. 


contaift. 


or, the inter- 




power. 








nal contadl. 






h. m, lee. 


h. m. fee. 


h. m. fee. 






N. Maflcelyne 


7 10 58 


7 ^8 31 


7 29 23 


2 feet refledor. 


140 


M. Hitchins 


7 10 54 


7 28 47 


7 38 57 


6 feet reflecSor. 


90 


\V. Hirll 


7 II II 


— 


7 29 18 


2 feet refleftor. 


55 


J. Horfley 


7 10 44 


7 28 15 


7 29 28 


10 feet achromatic. 


50 


ti. Dunn 


7 10 37 


7 39 28 


7 29 48 


3^ feet achromatic. 


140 


P. Dollond 


7 I- 19 




7 29 20 


3-^ feet achromatic. 


150 


Z. Nainie 


7 II 30 




7- 29 20 


2 feet refledlor. 






120 



Mr. Dollond and Mr. Nairne ufed telefcopes of their 
own conftrudion ; but they did not wait 'till the thread of 
light was formed at the internal contad, but noted the 
time, when they judged it was juft ready to be formed. The 
three and an half achromatic telefcopes were thofe made 
with three object glafles. 

The differences between the different obfervations feem 
pretty confiderable, and greater than I expeded, confidc- 
ring that all the telefcopes may be reckoned pretty nearly 
equal excepting the fix feet refledor, which is much fupe- 
rior to them all ; and to its greater excellence and diftind- 
nefs I principally attribute the difference of 26'', by which 
Mr. Hitchins faw the internal contad before me; as I can 
depend upon his obfervations. Polfibly the greatnefs of 
the differences might arife from the low altitude of the 
Sun and Venus; and then the like differences would not 
be fo much to be feared in places where the obfervation 

may 



io6 MATHEMATICAL and 

may be made at higher altitudes; otherwlfe the Sun*s pa- 
rallax will not be deducible from the tranfit of Venus with 
that accuracy which has been expected. 

The other appearances about Venus, noted by the fix 
obfervers, which they have communicated to me are as 
follows : 

Mr. Hitchins remarks, that, at the firft contad, though 
there was a tremulous motion in the Sun's limb, yet that 
part of it which the planet entered was very well defined, 
and the firft impreffion of Venus appeared to be inftantane- 
ous, and as a black, iharp point. At the internal coincidence 
of circumferences, the fluctuation of the Sun's limb was 
increafed, and the limb of Venus being afFeded in like man- 
ner, there was an uncertainty of about lo'' in eftimating 
the faid coincidence; but at the breaking in of the thread 
of light between the limbs, there was not a greater uncer- 
tainty than a fecond and a half of time. At the internal 
coincidence of circumferences, the limb of Venus next to 
that of the Sun being protuberant, her vertical diameter 
appeared to be longer than the horizontal one; but when 
the Sun approached the horizon, and was fcarce above a de- 
gree high, Venus's horizontal diameter appeared to be fen- 
fibly longer than the vertical, which was, probably, owing 
to refradlion. After the internal, contadl, there appeared 
a luminous ring round the body of Venus, about the thick- 
nefs of half her femidiameter; it was brighteft towards 
Venus's body, and gradually diminifhed in fplendor at 
greater diftances, but the whole was exccffive white and 
faint. This radiancy round the planet feemed to him to 
be greater in Mr. Nairne's two feet telefcope than in the 
fix feet Newtonian refledor. 

After the fecond or internal contadl, Mr. Hirft left off 
obferving with Mr. Dunn's two feet refledior, and had a 
fight of Venus in the fix feet Newtonian reflector, in which 
he thought he preceived a glimmering of light about the 
upper part of the circumference of Venus, or that part of 
the planet which entered laft into the folar difk. 

After 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS, 107 

After Venus was got within the Sun's difk, a light a 
little weaker than that of the Sun, of a purplifh colour, 
appeared to Mr. Horfley, to the left hand of Venus, which 
is really totheright, the telefcope inverting obje(Sts. This 
light he faw for fix or feven minutes. 

From 7" 28' 26" to y^ 28^ 30" apparent time, Mr. Dunn 
faw a very faint rim of light at Venus's exterior limbi 
After Venus was wholly on the Sun, he faw a faint ring 
of light furrounding her, both with the three and a half 
feet telefcope, and Mr. Nairne's two feet reflector. 

When one third of Venus's diameter was entered upon 
the Sun, Mr. Dollond firft faw a light about the exterior 
limb of the planet; This light, during all the time of its 
continuance, appeared rather reddifh, and in all refpedts 
like irregular refracted light. After Venus was wholly 
entered upon the Sun, he faw a faint ring furrounding 
her. 

After Venus was wholly entered upon the Sun, and her 
exterior limb was near one of her femidiameters diftant 
from the Sun's circumference, Mr. Nairne faw a faint light 
round the planet, rather brighter and whiter than the bo- 
dy of the Sun. 

Fortunately, the weather was as favourable for the ob* 
fervation of the eclipfe of the Sun, the next morning, as 
it had been the evening before for that of the ingrefs of 
Venus upon the Sun; which is of the moreconfequence, as 
the comparifon of it with the obfervations which may be 
made of it in the northern and eaftern parts of the world, 
will ferve to fettle the longitudes of thofe places, and con- 
fequently render the obfervations which may be made there 
of the tranfit more ufeful and valuable. 

I obferved the beginning of the eclipfe at iS*". 38'. 54'', 
and the end at 20''- 23''. 30" apparent time, with the two 
feet refledtor, ufing the magnifying power 90 times. And 
at 19 • 29'. 31" apparent time, I obferved the greateft 
eclipfe, at which time I found the remaining lucid parts of 
the Sun 15'. 15", with DoUond's micrometer, ailuming 

the 



io8 MATHEMATICAL and 

the horizontal diameter of the Sun 31'. 31^', whence the 
value of the fcale of the micrometer was determined for 
the prefent purpofe. Hence the eclipfed parts of the Sun 
were 16' . 16"-, or 6 dig. 11 ',62 on the northern part of 
his difk. 

Mr. Hitchins obferved the beginning of the eclipfe with 
a three and an half achromatic telefcope magnifying 150 
times (the fame with which Mr. Dollond obferved the con- 
tads of Venus) at 1 8''- 38' . 59", and the end of the eclipfe 
with the fix feet refledor with the magnifying power 90, 
at 2o''' 23'. ^^" apparent time. And Mr. Samuel Dunn 
obferved the beginning of the eclipfe at i 8^- 39'. g", and 
the end at 20''- 23'. ^7^" with the other three and an half 
feet achromatic telefcope, magnifying 140 times, the fame 
with which he obferved the contads of Venus. Several 
inequalities in the Moon's circumference, feen upon the 
Sun's difk during the eclipfe, were diftindly difcerned by 
all of us, the air being very clear, and the objeds fteady. 

The whole I'eries of meafures of the lucid parts, which I took with the achromatic objedl 
glafs micrometer applied to the two feet telefcope, was as follows. 



Appa 


rent time, 


h. 


m. 


fee. 


19 


22 


13 




24 


21 




26 


9 




28 


26 




30 


14 




31 


44 




3* 


30 




33 


^? 




34 


28 




36 


19 




37 


56 



Lucid 


parts. 


m. 


fee. 


15 


40,5 


15 


36,5 


15 


20,9 


15 


15,6 


15 


14,5 


15 


16,4 


15 


16,4 


15 


19,8 


15 


^5.4 


15 


35,9 


15 


49.1 



Some Account of the Transit o/" Venus, and Eclipse 
of the Sun, as ohfewed at the Lizard Point, 'June 3^, 
1769. By Mr. John Bradley. 

MR. Mafkelyne, the aftronomer-royal, who has 
drawn up this fhort account, mentions that 
having had fome doubts that neither the latitude nor lon- 
gitude of the Lizard Point were duly fixed, " he had pro- 
pofed thofe doubts to the Board of Longitude, who being 
fenfible of the importance of determining the pofition of 

a place 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 109' 

place of fo much confequence in the Brltifh navigation, 
refolved that proper aftronomical obfervations fhould be 
made at the Lizard for that purpofe ; and the tranfit of 
Venus appeared a convenient opportunity, itfelf affording 
one of the beft means of determining the longitude of 
places; and the eclipfe of the Sun which was to happen 
the morning after, affording another of determining the 
fame. 

" Accordingly Mr. John Bradley, nephew of the late 
Dr. Bradley, and formerly his affiftant at the royal obfer- 
vatory, was appointed to make thefe obfervations. The 
mftrum'ents whieh' he was provided with, were an equals- 
altitude and tranfit inftrument in one, an aftronomical 
quadrant, and a refleffcing telefcope of two feet focus, all 
made by Mr. Bird; and an aftronomical clock, with a 
gridiron pendulum, made by Mr. Shelton. 

" Mr. Bradley ftaid at the Lizard 51 days, viz. from 
May rjth to July 3d, during which time he was lucky 
enough to make a great many ufeful obfervations ; fome 
of the principal of which were the following, viz. — 

Several meridian altitudes of the Sun and pole ftar ; by 
which the latitude of the Lizard Point was determined to 

The tranfit of Venus and eclipfe of the Sun viz.— •• 

1769 Apparent time. 

June 3d. 6^ 50'. 7",4 Externalcontad of Venus and the 

Sun^ very exad, the eye be- 
ing fixed on the place. 
7. 8. 25 Internal contadt; doubtful to 4 or 
5", a cloud having hid Venus 
fo Ibng; and at the cloud's go- 
ing off, 2" after the time fet 
4own, a thread of light appear- 
ed very diftindt between the 
circumferences of the Sun and 
Venus. 

18. 14. 54 Begin, ofthe eclipfe of the SunlB"'!^ 

19. 57. 17 End of the eclipfe. jgSod 
Vol. I. P •» Thefe 



no MATHEMATICAL and 

" Thefe obfervatlons were made with the 2 feet refle<St- 
or, and the magnifying power 120. 

D. h. m. fee. 
June 8. 9. 20. 14 Em. I ft fat. of Jupiter. Jupiter had 

not been from under the clouds 10" 
when he faw the fatellite, yet he 
reckons the obfervation good. 
June I ^. II. 13. 46 Em. i ft fat. A thin haze about Ju- 
piter, but the obfervation pretty 
good. Thefe emerfions were ob- 
ferved with the fame telefcope, but 
with the magnifying power 100. 

Comparing the obfervation of the contads of Venus at 
the Lizard with his own at Greenwich, making a fmall 
allowance for the diff"erence arifmg from the eff^e£t of par- 
allax at the two places, Mr. Mafkelyne makes the differ- 
ence of meridians of Greenwich and the Lizard. — 
By the external contad of Venus 20'. S3"1 ff- 
By the internal contad: of ditto 21 01 3 

The mean by the contads 20 57 

By the two emerfions, making a fmall allowance for the 

difference of brightnefs of the telefcopes, he makes the 

difference of meridians as follows, viz. 

By the firft emerfion - 21'. oy" 

By the fecond emerfion - 21. 52 

The mean of thefe is - - 21. 29,5 
The mean by the contads - 20. 57 



Mean of the two means - 21. i3>25 

But Mr. Ma{kelyne, till he has time to compare the o- 
ther obfervations, fixes on 21'. o" of time=5°. 15'. of the 
equator, for the difference of longitude of the Lizard weft 
of Greenwich. 

The above is taken from the nautical almanac for 
1771; and it was thought might be a proper addition to 
the foregoing account of the tranfit of Venus, atGreenwich, 
.drawn up by the Aftronomer Royal. A LEISTER 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. in 

A LETTER from the Revd. Nevll Matolync, B. D, 
F, R. S. AJlronomer Rvyal, to the Rtvd. William Smith, 
D. D. Pronjojl of the College of Philadelphia; achiozv- 
ledglng the receipt of the Norriton Objer'uatlons of the 
Tranfit of Venus, and gliniig fome account of the Hud- 
fon's-Bay and other Northern Ob/'eri>atlons ofthejame. 
Read at a meeting of the American Fhilofophical Society j 
May iSth, 1770. 

Greenwich, Dec. 26, 1769, 
Revd. SIR, 

**T RETURN you many thanks for the account of the 1^^^ 
J[ /;/<r/^/d'obfervations of the late tranfit of Venus, made at 
Norriton by yourfelf and two other gentlemen which I have 
communicated to the royal fociety. It is ordered to be 
printed in the volume of their tranfacSions for this year, 
and 1 will take care to fee that it is printed corred:Iy. 

" Ifent to the Honourable Mr. Penn, a good while 
ago, my obfervations of the eclipfes of Jupiter's firft fateU 
lite made this year, defiring that he would communicate 
them to you, and i hope you * have received them. 

" By a mean of your five firft /;;/w^r//o«j- (rejecting that 
of May 5th as too near the oppofitionto theSun) compared 
with the nautical almanac, the difference of our meridians 
is ^. 1' . 32". But by a meanof my two firft immerfionsi 
the correction of the nautical almanac fora 2 feet refledor 
of Short's is + 20'',5 which applied to j"". i'. 32'' gives 
5*^. i^. 52",5forthe difference of the meridians of Green- 
wich and Norriton by the Immer/ions. 

" By a mean of your emer/ions, June 6th and 13th,. 
compared with the nautical almanac, the diff. of our me- 
ridians is 5^. i^ 28", 5 ; and by a mean my of two emer- 
fions June 8th and July ift the correction of the nautical 
almanac is — n'^St w'hich applied to 5 ''. i'.28'',5 gives 
5''. I ' . I y" for the difference of our meridians by the emer- 
Jtons\ but, by the immerftons it was found above, 5**. i'. 
52^',5. The mean of thefe two refults is 5". i' . 34"57 for 

the 

• They are inferted above p. 19^ 



112 MATHEMATICAL and 

the true difference of our meridians ^ which happens to agree 
to afecond with what you deduced from a comparifon of 
all the obfervations with the almanac alone. 

" If any further obfervations of the eclipfes of Jupiter's 
fatellites (hall be made the enfuing feafon, I fhall be obli- 
ged to you for a communication of them j which will ferve 
further to confirm the difference of our meridians. 

" The many curious optical phaenomena noted in your 
account [of the Norriton obfervations] cannot but be very 
acceptable to philofophical readers. The Sun was too 
low here to give mean opportunity to obferve the firft im- 
preffion of Venus (perhaps I ought to fay of her atmofphere) 
in the fame manner you faw it. Mr. Hirft's account of 
his obfervation of the former tranfit 1 761, at Madras, feems 
to have a great refemblance to yours. But I have feen no 
fimilar * account with refpedt to the prefent tranfit. Per- 
haps none of the obfervers had the Sun fo bright and clear 
as you had. 

" Your meafures of the neareft diftances of the limbs of 
the Sun and Venus determine very well the neareft ap- 
proach of Venus to the Sun*s center, which was a very 
important obfervation, and could not be made here. If 
the appulfes of the limbs of the Sun, and Venus's center, 
to the hairs of the equal altitude inftrument fhould f arrive 
in time, I will take care that they be inferted in the place 
left for them. 

" I fee Mr. Rittenhoufe, in making his projection, af- 
fumed 8 '',65 for the Sun's horizontal parallax at the mean 
diftance; but, by the obfervations of the tranfit in 1761, 
Mr. Short % and myfelf both found that to be the parallax 

on 

* All the obfervers in this province noted much the fame phxnomena as thofe referred to in 
this letter. 

+ They were not inferted in our own printed account, for the reafons given in p. 2ii- 

\ Mr. Rittenhoufe affumed the parallax 8",65 from Mr. Short's paper in Phil. Tranf. 

vol. 52, part 2d. page 621", where the parallax of the Sun on the tranfit day, 1761, is certainly 

made by Mr. Short 8", 5 2 and the mean horizontal parallax 8'', 65 as taken in our projedion. 

Mr. Short's words are very clear. After pjoing through his laborious and accurate calculations, 

from the different obfervations of the tranfit 1761, he concludes asfollows " The parallax 

of the Sun being thus found, by the obfervations of the internal contadl at the egrefs = g",52, 
on the Jay of the tranfit, the MiiAN horizontal parallax of the Sun is 8", 65." We prefumc 
then there mufl be fome fubfcquent paper of Mr. Short's, and the aflronomer myal, (which vi'ehavc 
not yetfeen) that makes the parallax of the Sun 8",65 on the day of the tranfit 1761. However 
the fmall difference of lefs than two-tenths of a fccond will not materially affcdl the projedion 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 113 

on the day of the tranfit; whence the Sun's mean horizon- 
tal parallax Ihould be 8", 84. But what it will be as refult- 
ing from the obfervations of the late tranfit, cannot be 
known without a number of laborious calculations, which 
1 have undertaken. 

" The Swedes and Ruffians were very unfuccefsful. No 
complete and thorough good obfervation of the total dura- 
tion is come to hand from the north. Our obfervers at 
the North Cape faw the ingrefs only, and that in a very 
bad ftate of air. 

" The Hud/oji's'Bayohkrvers, Meflrs. Dymond and Wales, 
had better luck, and obferved all the contads, and nearell 
approach of the centers, as follows, 

I ft External contact o^ 57'. 4'^5 ") 

I ft Internal contact I. 15. 23 t ah 

2d Internal contaa 7. o, 47,5 f ^" ^ppar.time. 

2d External contact 7. 19. 21 J Th^ laft very haz/. 

" At 4\ 5'. 30', apparent time, was the neareft ap- 
roach of Venus to the Sun*s center; when the diftance of 
her interior limb from the Sun*s limb was 6' . 22". The 
diameter of Venus was 59^,5 and the Sun,s horizontal dia- 
meter 31'. 32",4. Hence the neareft approach of Venus 
to the Sun's center was about 9' . 54'', or y" lefs than by 
your obfervations; undoubtedly owing to a greater parallax. 
Their latitude is 58^47' 30" north. They could only ob- 
ferve five occultations of ftars by the moon to determine 
their longitude, and I have not yet found any obfervations 
made in Europe, or elfewhere, correi'ponding to them. 

<* I could wifh that the difference of meridians of Norriton 
and Philadelphia, could be determined by fome meafures 
and bearings, within one-fiftieth or one-hundredth part of 
the whole; in order to conned your obfervations withthofe 
made at Philadelphia and the Capes of Delaware, as alfo 
to conne(ft your obfervations of the longitude o£ Norriton 
with thofe made by Mefirs. Mafon and Dixon, in the 
courfe of meafuring the degree of latitude. I hope to be 

favoured 



114 MATHEMATICAL and 

favoured with an account of your obfervatlons of the late 
tranjtt of Mercury^ if you made any, and of the late eclipfe 
of the moon. I fhallbe obliged to you for the continuance 
of your correfpondence, and am, 

Sir, yours, &c, 

NEVIL MASKELYNE. 

Account of the terreflrial mcajurement of the difference of 
longitude and latitude^ betiveenthe obfervatories of Nor- 
riton and Philadelphia. 

Tb//?^ American Philosophical Society, &c. 

GENTLEMEN, 

AGREEABLE to the appointment you made (at 
the requeft of the aftronomer royal) Mr, Lukensr 
Mr. Rittenhoufe, and myfelf, furnifhed with proper in- 
ftruments, met at Norriton early on Monday, July 2d, 
for the above fervice ; and took to our afliftance two able 
and experienced furveyors, viz. Mr. Archibald M'-Clean^ 
and Mr. Jeffi Lukens. The firft thing we did, was accu- 
rately to afcertain the variation of our compafs, which we 
found 3°. 8', by Mr. Rittenhoufe^ s meridian line. We 
then carefully meafured our chain, and adjufted it to the 
exad flandard of 66 feet. In the execution of the work, 
whenever the inftrument was duly fet, each courfe was 
taken off, and entered down feparately, by three different 
perfons, who likewife kept feparate accounts of all the 
diftances, and fuperintended the ftretching of every chain, 
and the levelling and plumbing it, whenever there was 
any afcent or defcent in the road. 

July 4th. We finifhed the furvey ; and Mr. M^Clean, Mr. 
JeJJe Lukens and myfelf, then agreed to bring out the dif- 
ference of latitude and departure feparately on each courfe 
and diftance to four or five decimal places; and there was 
fo great an agreement in this part of the work, wlien exe- 
cuted, that we had all the fame refults to a few links, and 
the whole was at laft brought to a^ree in every figure, by 

comparing 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 115 

comparing the few places where there was any difference, 
which fcarce ever went farther than the laft decimal place. 
Mr. M'-Clean and Mr. Lukens took the trouble to bring out 
their work by multiplying each diftance by the natural Sine 
of the courfe, to the radius unity, for the departure; and 
by the cofine for the latitude. Mine was done by Ro- 
bertfon's tables. The whole follows, and we think it may 
be depended on for corre<Stnefs. 

Courfes and Dlflances from Norriton obfervatory to the ob- 
fervatory in the State-Houfe Square, Philadelphia., and 
from thence to the obfervatory of Mejfrs. Mafon and 
Dixon, at the fouth point of the city of Philadelphia; 
taken July 3 J and /^th, 1 770 ; With the differences of 
longitude and latitude, hetiveen the faid obfervatories, 
thence deduced. 



Magnetic 
Courfes. 



iS. %^° 
a's. 68. 
3JN. 89. 
48. 66. 
5S. 80. 
6|S. 70. 



7,5. 

8S. 

95. 

10 S. 



68. 

72. 
70. 
50. 



od W, 
00 E. 
00 E. 
00 E. 
00 E. 
ao E. 
30 E. 
10 E. 
00 E. 
00 E. 



Diflances 
chains, links 

13,00 

11,00 

8.29 

17,77 
10,00 

22,00 
60,00 
26,00 
69,00 
20,22 



*Northing. 



00,1447 



Southing. 

11,5831 
4,iao7 

7,2277 
1,7365 
7,4040 
21,9900 
7,9624 

»3,5993 
12,9971 



EaAing. 



10,1990 
8,2887 
i6.»337 
9,8481 
20,7166 
55.8250 
aj,7jQ7 
64,8388 
15,4894 



Wcfting. 
5,9018 



Sumsin 20courfes.| 257,28 | 00,1447 | 98,6208 



U.S. 42. 

12 S. 45. 
13'S. 60. 
I4S. 27. 

15 s. 15. 

i6,S. 34. 



17S. 
i8!s. 
198. 
20 S. 



49. 

42. 

22. 

2. 



00 E. 
00 E. 
00 E. 
30 E. 
30 W. 
30 E. 
00 E. 
i$ E. 
00 E. 
30 E. 



12,00 
40,00 
8,87 
24,14 
11,00 

44,50 
19,00 
19,00 
26,80 



Sumsin 20 courfes.) 472,09 \ 00,1447 



8,9177 
28,2843 

4r4350 
21,4124 
10,5999 

7,829a 
29,1946 

13.9511 
7.6165 

26,7745 



267,6370 



226,1900 



8,0296 
28,2843 

7,6816 
11,1466 

5,3809 
33.5848 
12,897a 

7,1175 
1,1670 



5.9018 



2,9396 



341.4815 I 8,8414 



No. 

*The Northing Southing, Eafting and Wefting, are in chains and decimals of a chain 
to tlie ten thoufandth part ; or may be read chams and links, calling the two left hand fieure= 
•t the decunal, links, and the two other figures hundredth parts of links. 



ii6 



MATHEMATICAL and 



1 

o 

r 

o 


Magnetic Diftances. 
Courfes. chains, links 


Northing. 


Southing. 


Eafting. 


WcftJng. 


c 
2 


Sums in lO C. | 


472,09 1 


00,1447 


267,6370 


341,4815 1 


8,8414 


n 


brought over. 






\ 




a 


3. 10*^. od W. 4,00 


- - - . 


Z^9i9^ 


. - . - 


0,6946 


a 


I S. io. 30 E. ! 54,j6 


.... 


51,1048 


19,1073 


.... 


2 


\ S. jj. 15 E. 31,80 


.... 


18,1259 


26,1284 


■ . . . . 


a 


4 5. 50. 00 E. 37,30 


.... 


23,9760 


a8,5734 


.... 


z 


< S. 46. 00 E. 91,00 


. - - - 


63,2139 


65,4599 


.... 


I 


6 S 19. 5 E. 10,00 


- - - - 


9,4504 


3,^694 


. ... 


1 


; -5. 44. 30 W. 10,00 


. ..... 


7,i3M 


. - - - 


7,0091 


z 


8 5. 2. 00 E. 18,28 


. . - - 


18,2689 


0,6380 


. ... 


a 


(, 3. 41. 40 E. 23,14 


.... 


17,0151 


15.6827 


- . - - 


.^_ 


cjS. 49. 30 E. 10,00 


.... 


6,4945 


7,6041 


. . - - 


a 


umsin3oconrfes. | 


762,17 1 


00,1447 ' 


486,3582 1 


507,9447 


I i«,545i 


i 


I S. 44. 4j E. 


12,00 


,•-... 


8,522a 


8,4482 


.... 


3 


2 S. a6. 00 E. 


21,50 


.... 


19,3241 


9.4250 


.... 


3 


3 S. 7. 30 E. 


19,20 


.... 


19,0357 


2,5061 


.... 


3 


4 S. 4. 00 W. 


",77 


- - . - 


11,7413- 


. _ . - 


C,82IO 


3 


5 S. 10. 00 E. 


23,14 


.... 


22,7884 


4,oi8i 


. - . - 


3 


6S. 26. 00 E. 


26,20 


.... 


23,5484 


",4853 


.... 


3 


7 S. II. 00 W. 


28,00 


. . . - 


27,4856 


.... 


5.3426 


3 


8S. 17. ij E. 


24,07 


.... 


22,9873 


7,1377 


.... 


3 


9 S. 43. 30 E. 


17,35 


.... 


12,5851 


11,9429 


.... 


4 


c S. 59. 45 E. 


16,93 


.... 


8,5290 


14,6247 


.... 


S 


umsin4f>coiirfes. 962,33 


00,1447 


662,5053 


I 577,5328 


22,7087 


4 


I,S. 40. 50 E. 


15,87 


- - - . 


12,0075 


10,3768 


.... 


4 


2S. 28. 00 E. 


23,50 


. . . - 


20,7492 


11,0326 


- - - - 


4 


3S. 63. 00 E. 


19,36 


. . - - 


8,7892 


17,2499 


- - - - 


4 


4S. 36. 45 E. 


49,00 


. - - . 


39,2614 


29,3179 


.... 


4 


5S. 19. 10 E. 


40,87 


.... 


38,6045 


13,4183 


.... 


4 


6S. 10. CO \V. 


14,00 


. . - - 


13,7873 


.... 


2,4301 


4 


7 S. 5. 45 W. 


28,53 


.... 


28,3875 


.... 


2.8584 


'I 


8S. 72. 00 E. 


8,00 


.... 


2,4721 


7,6084 


- - - - 


A 


9S. 61. 30 E. 


16,76 


- - - . 


7,9972 


14,7290 


.... 


s 


oS. 29. 45 E. 


11,65 


- - - - 


10,9827 


6,2771 




C 


urns in 50 courfes. 1 1190,^^7 


00,1447 


1 «45,9439 


I 687,542^ 


1 27,9972 


3 


I S. 60. 00 E. , 51,70 


.... 


16,3500 


28,3190 


.... 




2S. 48. 45 E. 


6,00 


- - . - 


3,9560 


4,5110 


.... 


j 


3 S. 70. 00 E. 


14,50 


- - _ - 


4,9593 


13,6255 


- - - - 




4 S. 42. 00 E. 


10,25 


.... 


7,6172 


6,8586 


.... 




•5 S. 5. 20 E. 


13,50 


. . . w 


13,4415 


1,2548 


.... 




•6 S. 2. 00 W. 


19,90 


.... 


19,8879 


.... 


0,6945 




7S. 18. 00 w. 


7,80 


- - . - 


7,4183 


- ... 


a,4io3 




•8S. 2. 30 W. 


17,60 


. - - . 


17,5832 


.... 


0,7677 




■9S. 19. 5 E. 


33,18 


.... 


31,3249 


10,9391 


.... 


1? 


10 S. 40. 40 E. 


30,58 


.... 


23,1952 


19,9276 


- - - . 




)umsin6ocourfes. 1 1376,88 


1 00,1447 


1 991,6774 


1 772,9784 


1 31,8697 


> 


)i S. 42. 30 E. 


52,00 


.... 


38,3384 


35'i3'~^7 


- . - . 




his. 20. 30 E. 


33,00 


. - . - 


30,910a 


^i,5S(^^ 


- - - . 




S3 S. 23. 45 E. 


17,46 


. . . - 


15,9813 


7,0319 


.... 




S4 S. 38. CO E. 


.13.CO 


.... 


26,0043 


20,3168 


- - - - 




S5 S. 21. 00 E. 


24,54 


. - - - 


• 22,9x01 


8,7943 


- - - - 




% S. 29. 00 E. 


35,40 


. - - . 


3o,!;6i5 


17,1623 


- - - - 




17 S. 47. 00 E. 


22,72 


. . . - 


15,4950 


16,6163 


- - - - 




58 S. 13. 00 W 


34,00 


. - . - 


33,1286 


- - - - 


7,6483 




'>9 S. 77. 00 E. 


1.79 


.... 


0,4027 


1,7741 


- - - - 




To th 


• center of Ph 


ladelphia obfer 


vatory. 






'1 otal Sums, 


1030,79 


oo,M47 


^ "1205,8095" 
00,1447 


891,36161 
39,5180 1 


39,5180 




Tot I 


Southing:, 


1 205,6648 


1 8u,S4;'^T 


otal Eaftitig. 



Then 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



Chains. Log. 

Then NA diff. of lat. 1105,6648 3. 0812265 
To AE depart. 851,8436 2. 9303599 

As Rad. 10. - - - 

To Tang, of ENA the^le of the? g 

courle 35-\ 14'. 33",o8 ^ > '*v jj* 

And Sine of 35<^. 14'. 33",o8 9. 7612048 

To Rad. 10. - - - 

As 851,8436 a- 9303599 

To NE, the diftance in a ftrait") / 

line=i476,2336 Chains. 5 ^- ^^9^SSi 



117 




But the courfe of NE being 35'^. 14'. 33", E. with rcfped only to NA the magmth fouth ,- add 
the variation - - - 3. 8. o 



Which gives 38. 22. 33 E. for the courfe of NE with refpcifi: to NS the 
true meridian. 

So that the true courfe and diftance from Norriton obfervatory to Philadelphia obfervatory, 
in a ftraight line, NE is S. 38*^. 22'. 33" E. 1476,2336 chains. 



Then Rad. 
To cofme of 
As NE 

To NS true diff. of lat. 

And Rad. 
To fine of 
AsNE. 

To SE true diff. of long. 



38«, 22'. 33" 
1476,2336 

iiJ7f30l3 



380. 22'. 33" 
1476,2336 

916,4713 



10. - - - 

9. 8942913 
3. 1691551 

3. 0634464 

10. - - - 
9. 7929637 
3. 1691551 

2. 9621188 



Thus we have- 
Chains. Feet. 
Norriton obfervatory, fNorth, 1157,30=76381,8=12'. is",1 difference of latitude, 
from Philad. obfervatory, < Weft, 916,47=60487,02=00'. 52" of time=i3' diff. of longi- 
t.tude=r.9',95 of a great circle, or geographic ntile. 

But the obfervatory in the State-Houfe Square.T Chains. Feet, 

with refped to the fouth point of the city off N. 40,o685=2644,5=26",i6 diff. of lat. 
Philad. (to which Meffrs. Miifon& Dixon re- Uy-. 28 7695 = i898,8=l",6 of time, 
fer their obfervations), IS, J ' 

Therefore Norriton obfervatory, with refpeiS to the fouthernmoft point of Philadelphia 
i. Chains. Feet. 

North, iiw.SO +400685=1197,3685=79026,3=13'. oi",86 difference of latitude. 
Weft, 916,47 -1-28,7695= 945,2395=62385,8=00'. 53",6 of time. 

Hence, by the above meafurement and work, we get 
Norriton obfervatory 52" of time weft of the obfervatory in 
the State-houfe fquare ; which is exadly what we got, by 
that excellent element, the external contaB of Mercury 
Vol. I. Q^ with 



ii8 MATHEMATICAL and 

with the Sun November 9th, 1 769. The internal contaH 
gave it fomething more; owing no doubt to the difference 
that will arife among obfervers, in determining the exa6l 
moment when the thread of light is compleated; and the 
mean of all our other obfervations, gives the difference of 
meridians, between Norriton and Philadelphia^ only 4" of 
time more than the terreftrlal meafurement, and the exter- 
nal contadt of Mercury gave it, which may be taken as a 
verv P-reat degree of exactnefs for celefiial obfervations; If 
we'confider that the difference of meridians, between the 
long eftablifiied obfervatories of Green-Lvich and Paris^ as 
Mr. De La Lande writes, November iSth, 1762, was 
not then determined within 20" of time. For he fays " 
fome calledit 9'. 15"; others 9'. 40"; but that he him- 
felf commonly ufed 9' . 20", though he could not tell from 
what obfervations it was deduced.'* And it may be need- 
lefs to add that a fhort diltance is as liable to the differences 
arifmg from the ufe of inflruments in celeftial obfervations, 
as a greater one. Neverthelefs, if we apply the difference of 
meridians between Philadelphia and Norriton, got by this 
meafurement (viz. 52", inflead of ^6",) to the Revd. Mr. 
E-wing's colleaion of Jupiter's fatellites, (p. ^s)^ rejeding 
thofe of the 2d fat. and alfo the immerfions of May 5th, as 
too near the oppofition, we Ihall get Philadelphia, ^^- o' . 
37", and Norriton, 5^- i'.29%weflfrom Green-A'ich. This 
refult is what ought to arife from a diminution of 4" of 
time in the differ'ence of meridians, by dividing that dif- 
ference, and bringing the one meridian 2" more weft, and 
the other 2" more eafl; and we believe future obfervations 
will confirm this as exceeding near the truth. 

The latitude o{ Norriton comes out, by the meafurement, 
25",OQ lefs north, wkh refpeft to the fouthernmofl point of 
the city of Philadelphia, than Mr. Rittenhoufe\ obferva- 
tions give it; and if the latitude of that point of the city be 
taken, as fixed by Meffrs. Mafon and Dixon^ at 39^ s^' * 
29",4 then the lat. o^ Norriton (negleding fradions of fe- 
conds) will be 40^^. 9' 31" inftead of 40°. 9' . 56". How- 
ever, 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS 119 

ever, as both were fixed by celefllal obfervations, and ex- 
perienced men, the fmall difference ought perhaps to be 
divided; and if a mean be taken to reconcile it with the 
terreftrial raeafure, the lat. of the fouth point of Philadel- 
phia would be 39°- 56' . 42" ; and that of Norriton 40°- 9' . 
43". But. as Mr. Rittenhoufe had only SiJJon\ two and 
an half feet quadrant, and MelTrs. Ma/on and Dixon were 
furniflied with a compleat aftronomical fedor, and did their 
work to fix the lines of two provinces, it may be thought 
that their determination is moft to be relied on. Never- 
thelefs, the whole difference of 25" in the celeftial arc is fo 
inconfiderable, as not to give 40 chains on the furface of 
the Earth. 

All the refult in the above work are got without any fen- 
fible error, by plain trigonometry, as the different arcs are 
fo very fmall. In eflimating the length of a degree, to de- 
duce the difference of latitude between the two obfervatories, 
the fpheroidal figure of the earth was taken into confide- 
ration; and the degree meafured by Meffrs. Mafon and 
Dixon^ in mean latitude 39°- 12', = 363771 feet, wasmade 
the ftandard, which being lengthened in the ratio of 99, 
7866 to 59,8035 gave 363874 for a degree of the meridian 
in the mean latitude between Philadelphia and Norriton, 
which is only 103 feet more than the deg. in lat. 39°- 12', 
and makes but a fradion of a fecond difference in the lati- 
tude, fo that it might have been difregarded. With ref- 
ped to feconds of time in longitude, no fenfible difference 
can be obtained in the fmall diftance of about 1 1 miles, 
whether we confider the earth as a fphere of fpheroid. 

In bringing out the 52" of time diff. of long, a degree 
of the equator was taken in proportion to Meffrs. Mafon 
and Dixon\ deg. of the merid. in lat. 39^,1 2, in the ratio 
of 60 to 59,7866, (agreeable to Mr. SmJpon\ table) which 
gave 365070 for a degree of the equator. By taking a de - 
gree of longitude as fixed at the middle point by Mr. Maf- 
kefyne'mlsit. 38"- 7' . 35"? and faying as the cofine of 
that lat. is to cofine of mean latitude between Philadel- 
phia 



1 20 M A T H E M A T I C A L and 

phia and Norriton, ib is the length of a degree of long, at 
the middle point (viz. 284869,5 feet) to the length of a deg. 
in mean lat. between Norriton and Philadelphia, the refult 
was got 5 2 ",13; being only thirteen hundreth parts of a 
fecond of time more. 

The above account of the work was thought proper, that 
thofe who will take the trouble may examine and correct 
It if in any part necelTaiy. 
Philadelphia, Angufi 17, 1770. WILLIAM SMITH. 




To /y??^ American Philosophical Society, held at 
Philadelphia for promoting ufeful knouuledge. 

Gentlemen, 

GREEABLE to the order of laft meeting, we have 

colleded into one general and ihort view (from the 

laft, or 59th vol. of the philof tranfadions), the following 
account of the different obfervations of the late tranfit of 
Venus made in Europe and other diftant places; contain- 
ing the apparent times of the contacSls; the latitude and 
longitude of the places of obfervation, fo far as known to 
us, with fuch other circumftances, as we judged proper 
for anfwering the end you had in view; namely the afford- 
ing materials to perfons of a curious and mathematical 
turn, who mii^ht be defirous of enquiring what parallax 
of the Sun, may be deduced from a comparifon of thefe 
diftant obfervations, with thofe made in this Province, by 
your appointment. We are, &c. 

r William Smith, Hugh Williamson, 
Nov. ictb 1770. ^ John Ewing, Thomas Combh:, 
(^ Owen BiDDLE, D. Rittenhouse. 

Ai'pori'il times of the CONTACTS of the limbs of the SUN a/zf/ VENUS; -with other circumjlances of 
rr.o/i note, in the diJ'ere.it'iLvKOV&fLii Observation s 6/^/^ TRANSIT, June 2,d, 1769. 

MIDDl-E TEMPLE. lat 51*. 5c'. 50" N. Ion. 23' of time * Wtfl. By Mr. Horffr.ll, 

with a Gregorian reftecflor; mag. power lOO times. 
h. m. fee. 
7. II. 5I A penumbra obfcrved to flrike into ©'s limb. At 8" more, viz. 

7. II. 13I $ had made a vifible dent Bear the vertex of 0's limb. 

8. a8. A<A internal contail. The light juft clofing round $ . 

^* SHIRBURN 

• The different longitudes are fet down in time, Eaft or Weft with refpeft to the royal ob- 
fcrvatory of Greenwich, as tlic firft meridian. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 121 

SHIRBIJRN CASTLE, the feat of Lord MaccUifield, lat. 51". 39'. aa". N. long.^'. 57" Weft 
H. ni. fee. 

By Mr. Bartle, Lord MacclesJield\ohi<tx^ev ; with 14 feet refrador 
mag. power 60 times. ' 



7- 7- 
7- aj- 



4 Ext. contai5l 
a6 Internal ditto 



a? 2P- ? ^"'^rnal contad, by Lord Macchsfidd ; judged by the thread of light clofini 

-* 5 round $ . With a treble obje(ft gldfs refradtor 34 f. power 150. times. 

35. 16^ internal contadl, hy Lzdy MaccUsjM, with a 6 f. refrador. 



OXFORD Lat. 51°, 45'. 15" N. Long. 3'. 4" Weft. 

f Part of Venus's diameter entered on the Sun, he judges the 
7; 5. 58 < external contadl to have happened a few fecondslboner 

(_ than this. 
7. 23. l6 Reg. circumferences in contaft. 



1 



By Mr. Hornfby, 
Sav. Prof. Aftr. 
The Ext. Cont. 
with a I af. refrac- 
tor. Power 68. 



f Int. Contad judged of by the completion of the thread^ ,^, . 
j of light. About 10" later than this, viz. 7h. 24'. 23". the 1 .* 



7- 24- IjT 



6. la 



thread of light appeared in breadth= ^^^ of 2 's diam. fo ■ ^'^^^ 



24. 

6. 

24- 



6. 
24. 



6. 

24. 

6. 
24. 

5- 

24. 



int. contaft 

double 

that he concludes' the true internal contadl was about i' 1^ objed glafs re- 

fooner, viz. at /h. a3'. 15". $ "s diameter meafured, on I "^"o'' 7^ feet 

a mean offixmeafures, 58",!. j power 90 tmies 

"External contacft certainly pafled, having! By Mr. Lucas of New-College, with 
[ perceived a fmall impreflion feveral fe- [- a 6 feet Acrom. telefcope 'pow- 
V. condsfooner. j er 60. 

^g ? Int. contad, thread of light entirely com-? By Mr. Clare of St. John's College 
5 pleted. 5 with the fame telefcope. ' 

By Mr. Sykes of Brazen-Nofe Col- 
lege, with 3i feet Acromatic 
Telefcope. 



5 fomewhat entered 

CInt. contad, or thread of light com-] 

i pleated. 



f By Mr. ShuMurgh oiBaliol College, who thinks that at 



8 External contad. 
aj Thread of light complete. 



7h. a3'. l6"thecenterof5 was removed more than 
half her diam. from 0's limb, and that the true In- 
ternal Contad was then adually pafTed. He thinks 
at leaft 8" or 10" are to be allowed for the comple- 
tion of thread of hght. 



44 Ext. Contad 
Ij^* Internal ditto 



29 

39 

28 



Ext. Contad 
Internal ditto 
Ext. Contad 
Internal ditto 



y By Mr. Nikitin of St. Mary Hull, 

j By Mr. Williamfon. 

\ By S:imuel Horfley, LL. B. with an 18 inch Refledor, 



1 



Both with fmall t©. 
lefopes. 



* When there are fradionsof feconds, it is not to be imagined that feconds were divided in 
pronouncing the times of the contads by the clocks; but the fradions arife in applying the 
equation to reduce mean into apparent time. 



7. 28. 8 



KEW. I'. 14" Weft. 

59 Afudden boiling or tremor on ©'s limb. 
7 A fmall indent, and ugnal given for External Contad. 

Limbs tangentical, but ^ quite entered on 0, though i 
ftill joined to his limb by a Ilender tail or ligament, " 



jomea to nis iimo by 
but not fo black as her diik. 



igament, 



7. a8. 17 The tail vanilhed fuddenly. 



By Dr. Bevis, with a 
34 feet Refledor of 
6 inches aperture, 
and a magnifying 
power of 1 20 times. 



10 

a9. 



SPITAL SQUARE. Lat. ji". 31'. 15" Long. 17^^ W. 

445 Ext. Contad, C^y Mr. Canton, with a Telefcope magnifying 95 times. 2 '« 
isk Internal ditto i diam. 59" on a mean of 4 meafures. 0*s diam. 31'. jj^'i. 



HAMMERFOSr 



122 MATHEMATICAL and 



vvich; with a a ftet 



2.30. 3^ ifte'^ternajcontadlg o^^^^^ 

Ift internal ditto V 'uiftria 

milled m a cloud, j 



HAMMERFOST ISLE, (in Danifh Lapland) near the North-Cape of Europe. 
Lat. 70°. 38'. ai",5 N.Long, ih. 34'- ii"- E- 
-_ — — Ext. cent, at Ingrefs not feen, by reafon of clouds; but 

("Mr. "Jeremiah Dixon, (who conduced the obfervation, with a 2 f. 

Ill Refradlor) had an inftantaneous view of the Sun through a thin 

At I3h. jc/. o per clock, I dou^j. when Venus feemed completely entered, but no thread 

Or 9. a. 27 ap. tmie. 1 ^f light; the air at this time very hazy, and the Sun was imnic- 

L diately hid again in a cloud. 

N. B. Mr. Dixon's clock was kept near fiderial time, and as (lie appears at the noon of June 

3d, to be 4h. 49'. 3" fafter than apparent time, gaining thereof 3'. 59", 6 per day, fhe was at 

the time of the above hafty glimpfe of the internal contad, 4h. 47'. 2,2)" fafter than apparent time. 

ISLE MAGGEROE, (near the North Cape of Europe) lat. 71**. o'. 47". N. long. ih. 44'. 6'' 

of time Eaft. 
— — — 111: Cont. not feen, the Sun being in a cloud. 1 n,r Tv/Tr Tt ' ira ^ 

M ed by a black protuberant ligament I ^tf^rvatorv nJn. 

9.14. 56 The ligament broke; but the air very red and hazy, & f ^yj^-jj. ^ 
in 10" or 15" § appeared J_th part of her diameter refledor 
within 0's limb. J 

LEICESTER ; lat52°. 37'. 3" N. long, not given;? beginning of eel. i8h. ^s'- 2i". 
but may be deduced from 5 end of ditto - - 23. 21. 2. 

7. 7. I Ext. cont.7 By Rev. Mr. Ludlam, with a triple objed ghfs acromatic telefcope of 
7.25. 9lnt. ditto. 5 33^ inches; its mag. power 54 times. 

QUEBEC, viz. Captain Holland's Houfe, S. 56". W. of the Caftleof St. Lewis, 2 Smiles. 
H. m. fee. Lat. 46^'. 47'- l/'- N. long. 4h. 44'. 41". W. 

Holland, Efq. Surveyor-General of the Northern 
of America. With a Dollond's refrador. 

The external contaft was likcwife obferved at the fame inftant, viz. at 2h. 30'. 2,\", apparent 
time, by Mr. 5^ Germain of the feminary of Quebec, with a two feet refletftor of Short's. 

The above latitude of Captain Holland's place of obfervations, is taken from a mean of feveral 
refuks of the latitude, deduced by himfelf. He has not deduced his longitude, but he has given 
the following eclipfes of Jupiter's firft fatellite for that purpofe, obferved with his Dollond's 
refracftor, viz. 

1769. Immerfions. Apparent time. Emerfions. Apparent time. 

March II. I4h. jC. 47",7 May 28. I4h. 5'. 44^,7 

April 3. 15- 7- 24 June 6. 10. a8. 2,6 

19. 13. 27. 41,5 
By a mean of the above three immerfions, compared with the Nautical Almanac, and apply- 
ing the corredions which, (by the immerfions obferved at Greenwich), the almanac feems to 
require at this time, the difference of meridians of Greenwich and Captain Holland's obferva- 
tory is 4h. 44'. 2,5". 

By a mean of the two emerfions, compared with the almanac, and applying the neceffary 
correcStion, the difference of meridians is 4h. 44'. 47". 

The mean of thefe two refults, viz. 4h. 44'. 41" is the longitude fet down above. 

ISLE COUDRE; lat. 47°. 1/ ocy N. long. Eafl: of Quebec 3'. 6". or 4h. 41', 26" 

W. of Greenwich. 
2. 32. 56 A fmall impreffion on 0's linib;~) 

external contaft a few fecondspaft. I t>„ iv/r„ wr • ;> -r. .a r , 

2. 50. 19 2 completelyround; or regular cir- \^^2^!:J^''t'^ ^eP" 7 Surveyor of the 
•^ ^ ferencesincontadl. f Noithcrn Diftrid of America ; with a 

rr., J ri- . I.J • two leet reflector. 

2. 50. 50 Thread of light compleated, or in- I, 

ternal contacfl. J 

SWEDISH OBSERVATIONS. 
CAJANEBURG; lat. 64°. 13'. zo". N. long. ih. 50'. 47". E. of Greenwich. 

IBy Monf. Planman; with a 20 feet refledor. 
He miffed the ift ext. contact: in a cloud, and 
after the ift int.contadl a night of thunder and 
^ ftorm enfued ; yet next morning, a httle after 
15. 32. 27 2d external coritafl ; or to- the 2dint. contad: the Sun fhone out, and gave 
tal egrefs, Ihining ex- him an opportunity of obferving the total egrcfs 

tremcly bright. to great fatisfaction, at the time marked in the 

J margin. STOCKHOLM. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 123 

STOCKHOLM; lat. 59°. ac/. 30'' N. long. ih. la'- a6" E. 
H. m. fee. 

3. 24. 8. ill ext. con tad. 7 By Monf. Ferner, with a 10 feet acromatic 

8. 41. 48. ift int. ditto. 5 telefcope, magnifying power 90 times. 

8. 24. J ill external contaift. "| 

8. 41. a Regular circumferences in I 

contact. ^Monf. IVilcic, with l-| feet refledor. 

8 At AnX "^^^ ligament broke, and 5 I 
• '*-5 ^ appeared fomewhat within© J 
8. 23. 51 External contadl. "f 

8. 41. 3a Gircumferences incontad internally. C Monf. IVargenteln, with ai feet refratSor. 
8. 41. 47 Int. contad ; the ligament broke. j 

UPSAL; lat. 59°. 51'. 50" N. long. W. of Stockholm l>. 40", or ih. icy. 46" E. of Greenviicb. 
- - - - External contail not feen. 'I 

8. ■;o. 58 Regular circumferences in contafl. ( t,^ r a -, r ^ ^ 

I Iiuernal contact, the ligament broke, C^°"^-^^'''^'^"'^^''^» 3 feet refledor. 

8. 40. "52 J- , • r r 1 \ 

^ -^ ^ and circumterences leparated. j 

8. 22. I External contad. T 

5. 39-57 Circumferences in contad internally. > M.ik^ir/aW<?rwithaaofeetrefrado^.■ 
8. 40. 12 Threadof light completed, or int. contad. J 

_ ■ _ - External contad not feen. 7 -n/r r r> -i r r^ 

8. 40. 9 The ligament broke at the int. contad. $ °"^- ^"'^'"''"'-'''^^ ^ *! feet refrador.- 

8. 22. 12 External contad 1 -n/r r n r ■ • 1 , r ,« 

8. 40. 12 Internal ditto, the ligament broke. \ ^°"^- ^'''ff'"'' with a 16 feet refrador. 

8. 22. 15 External contad; a diftind dent in 0's limb") , , r o » • 

8. 39. 46 Regular circumferences in contad. C ^^^^- SaUmu, , with a la feet 

8.40.15 Threadof light completed, or int. contad. J retractor. 

GLASGOW; lat. ss°. 51'. ja" N. long, reckoned 17'. 11". * Weft. 

6. 54. 31,4 External contad. T „ „ jir-,r r, r r . „ 

^ , ? Int contad ; judged by the completion i ^7 ^''•J^'/''"' f'^h"^ Aftronomy 

7. II. 56,7j of the threadof lightround $. 5 "^ ^he College of Glafgow. 

6. 54. 28 External contad. ") 

7. 10. 24 Reg. circumferences judged in 1 By Dr. fVilHamfen and Dr. Jieid, throwing 

contad. t the Q's image of about fix inches diameter, 

7. 12. 24 Int. contad judged by the com- j on white paper, into a dark room; throuo-h 
pletion of the thread of light | a DoUond's refrador of 29 inches focus." 
round $ . J 

6.54.28 External contad. _ ? By Mr. ^/V/'o;; (fon of Profeffor ^/^o«) 

7. 12. 24 Int. cont. Thread of light compleated^ with a refledor of i f. of Short's. 
N. B. Dr. Wilfon wTites, that his fon thinks, he would have given the external contad 
8" fooner, had he been obferving apart ; but was kept in doubt whether the impreffion he firft 
faw was really 2 on Q, by finaing that Dr. Reid had not then obferved any impreffion. The 
internal contad, he adds, was noted by his fon, without any notice of the time given by the 
other two. 

H A W K H I L L ; the feat of Lord Alcmoor; lat. 55°. 57'. 30" N. long. 12'. 45" Weft. 
In'teTnal A\tto^ ' \ ^^ ^°^*^ Alemoor, with an 1 8 inch refledor. 
Ext-rnal contad. 7 By Mr. James Hoy, with a 3^ feet acromatic telefcope, 
Internal ditto, J power 150 times. 

InteVna^l di°tto! ' V ^^ ^^- ^""^' ^''^ ^ * ^^'^^ refledor. Power 100; 

Dr. Lind writes, that he fufpeds all the external contads at this place were too late. The 
internal contads were all carefully judged of by the completion of the thread of light round 2 
and the time accurately noted down. The above latitude of Hawkhill, which lies about i^^ 

mile 

* Seep. 19. Some ecHpfes of Jupiter's fatelUtes for the further afccrtaining the longitude of 
Glafgow, in refped of the Royal obfervatory, Greenwich. 



6. 

7- 


59- 
16. 


48i 


6. 

7- 
6. 


16. 

5- 


45 i 
5oi 
46 


7- 


16. 


52 



124 MATHEMATICAL and 

mile N E. of Edinburgh is G;iven from Dr. Lind's lateft obfervations; and the longitude (viz. 
12'. 45" of time) is taken from a mean of two rcfults, deduced by the aftronomer royal from 
Dr. Lind's obfervation of the eclipfe of the Moon in December, 1769. The longitude of 
Hawkhill may be further deduced from the end of the Solar eclipfe obferved there June 3d, 
1769, which was at aoh. 19'. 45" apparent time, 

KIRKNEWTON; lat. S5°- 54'- 30" N. 

H. m. fee. 

7. 14. 28^ Internal contaift. Judged of by the completion of the thread of light. This 
obfervation was made by the Rev. Mr. Bryce. He did not fee the external contad; nor has 
he fixed the longitude of his place of obfervation. He fays it is 17 miles Weft of Hawkhill. 
But the longitude may be deduced pretty near the truth from the end of the folar eclipfe, which 
was obfcrv'ed here at 2oh. 18'. 23" apparent time. 

GIBRALTAR; lat. 36°. 4'. 44" N. 

6. 51. 8 External contaft. 7 UtMttnzut JarJi.e. 

7. 8. 21 Internal contact. 3 ^ -^ 

The longitude of this place is not fixed; but for fixing the fame Mr. Jardine gives the fol- 
lowing obfervations, viz. 

June 8th, iflfat. emer. 9h. 22'. 34" clock l'. i6"i before mean time. 
15th, ift fat, emer. II. 15. j 4^ clock i. 28 before mean time. 
2jth, 3d fat. emer. II. 59. 56 clock I. 44 before mean time. 

CAMBRIDGE, New-England; lat. 42°. 25'. N. long. 4h. 44'. Weft. 
2. 30. 4 External contacft. 7 By yoAn SVinthrop, Efq. F. R. S. Hollifian Profeffor of 
2. 47. 30 Internal ditto, 5 Mathematics. 

He makes ©'s horizontal diameter at 9 in the morning=3i'. 33",*; and $ 's diameter 
58", 6, the leaft diftance of the centers 9'. 59", 7 ; fo that the tnie duration of the ingrefs Ihould 
be 18'. 56"; but this being contradled at Cambridge 15" by parallax leaves 18'. 41", and there- 
fore he thinks the ift contad happened nearly i'. 15". before the impreflion was difcovered by 
him . The time of the neareft approach of the centers he makes at 5h. 3 7' ; all apparent time. 

Mr. Winthrop, with a power of the great telefcope, magnifying 260 times, could perceive 
no fuch duflcinefs round $ when on 0, as he faw at the internal contad, nor that imperfed 
lio-ht which Mr. Dunn mentions in rcfped to the tranfit of 1761. He gives the above longi- 
tifde as near the truth ; but for the better fixing his longitude, he adds the following eclipfes of 
Jupiter's fatellites, as obferved at Cambridge, New-England, viz. 

1768. Apparent time, ift Sat. 1769. Apparent time, ift Sat. 

April 25. 9h. 13'. 52" May 14. loh. 19'. 7" 

May 18. 9. 27- *7 •'^"g- ^3- 7- 31- 5° 

June 10. 9. 37- aj 

July 3. 9. 4i- 54 June 7- 9- I- ^5 ad Sat. 

FRENCH OBSERVATIONS, 
PARIS. 

M. MeJJtcr, with an acromatic telefcope, 12 feet focus, aperture 
3^: inch. Power 180. 

M.' £/«fthe fon. \ ^^'^^ ^"^=^"^'' t^lefcopes. 




Int. cont. 



M E U T E, near Paris. 
*•• 38. 45 Internal contad. Mcfl". de Fouchy, Bail'y, de Borry, and two opticians. 

ROYAL OBSERVATORY of PARIS; lat. 48°. s^ • 14"- N. long. 9'.I5"E. 
7. 38. 5^"^ 5^- Cajfini de Thury, I Both with 3^ feet acromatic telefcopes of 

7- 38. 57 > Int. cotii. lT)\\\iit de Chaiilnei | Dollond. 
7- "38. 50 J M. Maraldi, with a 3 feet ditto, made at Paris. 

St. HUBERT. 
7- 38. J I Internal contad. yi. Le Mannier. 

BORDEAUX. 

7. 38. 50. Internal contad. M. Foguere. 

BREST. 
1 38. j8 Internal contad. M. Vtrdun. 

All 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 125 

AU tlie above obfervations of the Litcrnal ContaB, are reduced to the time of the royal obfer- 
vatory of Paris, allowing for the difference of meridians, &:c. 

N. B. The External Ccnua was niiffed by all the 1 rench obfervers, the Sun bein? in a cloud 
M(.nf.^A/^;frmeafured the diameter of ? , and found the greatefl meafurc j6|"; and the 

\ CAPE FRANCOIS; Lat. 19^ 47'. Long, not given. 

H. m. fee. 

a. 26. 12 Ext. COnt. ? n;r 1- n- - • • r 

2. 44. 44 Int. ditto, i ^'*°"'- ^"V-- witn a 5 feet acromatic telefcope. 

M A R T I N I C O. 

3. I?. 14 Ext. cont.? r. fT- XT . , . . . . 

3- 33. 57 Int. ditto. 5 ^7 a nuUionary. Neither latitude nor longitude given. 

AUSTIN AFFAIRS, London; 3" of time eaft of St. Paul's*; that is j%"\ well of Greenwich. 
7. 10. 28f Ext. cont. ? MJ-- '^'^f-^ .with a 2 feet reflecflor; power 110. He fuys that 6' 
7. 20. 00+ Int. ditto, C T^l^^'' *'"'^ marked for the internal contad the light of Q's 
' ' -*■ J umb was completed. 

WINDSOR CASTLE; lat. 51". 28'. Ij". N. lo.ng. 2'. 24"^ W. 

7. 8. 2?i Fxt. cont. 1 ^y ^^;^ /f.j^r/. niathematical mafter, of ChriU's Hofpital; with 

7. 26. 37I Int. ditto. C 1 '"^Vi '^."■'i^'^ '^^-""' ' P?"^"", ^^ ""'"• ? '^ diameter he 

* 3 makes 59"A; © s diameter 31'. 42". 

EAST DEREHAM, Norfolk; Lat. 53^ 40 . 
T By Rev. Mr. WollaJ]on\ who liktwifc obferved tl.e, 
7. 14. 54^ Ext. cont. V Beginning of 0's cclipie at i8h. 44'. 39" 
J End of the fame at 20. 30. 23. 

P. S. The following lift of correfpondent eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellite are given for "-he 
better afcertaining the difference of meridians of Greenwich and Glaprow. ' 

GLASGOW OBSERVATORY. 

1762. Apparent Time. 
Sept. II. Im. loh. 55'. ^^^''^-^ 

0(5t. 4. Im. II. 13. 22 ^y Good. 

1763. Nov. I. Im. 9. 28. 29 ^j 
1765. Dec. 22. Im. 15. 54. 25 indiff". 

The above obfervations were made by Dr. fVil/on, with a reflcAor of Short's of 18 incliej. 

176a. Apparent Time. Corresponding Observations. 

Sept. II. Im. Ilh. 12'. 43" 5«rry^;-frf, afectrefledor; by Mr. Majkelyne, 

1763. NoV. I.' Im.' ".' 45 255 ^"rry-fireet.zl^tX.xc^&eior, obfervedby Mr. 5/^sr/. 
1765. Dec. 22. Im, 16. 12 19 Gr«;zii»V^, 6 feetreflcdor; by Mr. il<f<7/^f/ync. 

N. B. Mr. S/jori's houfe in Surry-Jlrect, where three of thefe four obfervations were made, is 
26" i of time wefl of Greenwich. By comparing the three firft obfervations in each of the above 
lifts, making an allowance of 4"\ of time for the difference of the tworefledors; Glafgow Ob- 
fcrvatory comes out 17'. 10". weft of Mr. Shorfs, houfe in Surry-freet, or 17'. 36"^ of time 
weft of the royal obfervatory but in the above lift it is only reckoned 17'. 1 1" weft. By an im- 
mediate comparifon of the two immerfions of December 22d, allowing 20" of time for the 
difference of aperture of the 6 feet refledor, and the refledor of 18 inches, Glafgow will come 
out 17'. 34" weft of Greenwich; agreeing within 2" with the refiilt obtained from the three 
former obfervations. 

I. Jin Account of the Contaas of the limbs c/VENUS and the SUN, June 3^, I769, as obferved Ly 

the Right Hon. WILLIAM £.jr/o/ STIRLING, at his fat at Bajhcnridge, Kivj-jerfy. 
Apparent Time. I,at. 40''. 40'. N. long. 4h. 58. of time weft. 

2h. 16.' 00" Firft difiovtry of the external contaA at the ingrefj. 
a. 34. 12 Total ingrefs. 
The a'rovo account isej^traded from his Lordfhip's letter of June 29th, 1770, to the Rev. Dr. 
Smith Piovoft of the College of Philaddphia, and was communicated to the bociety, July 20th 

* St. Parl's London is 2z"l Wc?f cf the royal o'cfervatory; and its latitude 51°. 30'. 4c". 
N. B. The latitude of the royal obfervatory at Greenwich, is 51". 28'. 37". 

Vol. I. R following, 



126 MATHEMATICAL and 

following, together with his Lordftiip's obfervations of the comet, which are inferted below. 
Hewritesthat he had noopportunitie's of making any other obfervations refpe<fting the tranftt 
of Venus except the contaAs, and that his clock was properly regulated. 

a. Ohfer-jatlon of the contaBs of the limbs e/"VENUS cna' the SUN, fune ^J, 1 769, tnade hy 
JMr. William Poole, at M'Umington, in Pennfyl-vania. 

Lat. • 39O. 44'. 3''. N. Long. jh. 2'. 9". W. 

Extraded from a letter to Mr. Oiven BiJJ'.e, and communicated to the Society, Dec. 21ft 1770. 

") With a refrailor of 1 2 feet magnifying power about 50 times. 

j Mr. Poole thinks the external contaA was feveral feconds 

Apparent Time. j before the time marked in the margin. 

2h. 12 . 4?- £ lit Ext. cont. |,.,j,j^g internal contad was taken juft as the Sun's light began 

a, 30. 20 1 lit Int. ditto, j ^.p iurround the planet; though his limb was not viable 

J beyond the planet, till a fecond or two afterwards. 



To*the AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SociETY, held at 
Philadelphia ybr^r(?;wo^i;^ ufeful knoivledge, 

GENTLEMEN, 

1TAKE the liberty of communicating to you an im- 
provement in the conftrudion of Godfry\ double re- 
fle(^ing quadrant, which I have difcovered about two years 
ago, which may beof fervice to fuch as ufe that excellent in- 
ftrument. The greateft inconveniencies arifing from the 
former conftrudion of it are owingtothebadnefsof the glaf- 
fes, the planes not being ground parallel to each other, and to 
its (landing in need of a new and careful adjuftment almoft 
every time it is ufed. Both thefe imperfections, I appre- 
hend, are thoroughly removed by the newconftrudion pro- 
pofed. I have heard, that Mr. William Grant, an ingeni- 
ous mathematician of London had alfo made fome improve- 
ment in that inftrument; but I had not heard it before 
eighteen months had clapfed, after I had perfeded my de- 
monftration of it, and fpoke to the workman to conftrud 
it accordingly. 

As the propofed alteration makes the inftrument capable 
of affording a number of obfervations, the unavoidable er- 
rors 

* Mr. Po/i/f had no opportunity of afcertaining the latitude or longitude of Wilmington by 
celeflial obfervations, but they are both to be gotten with fufficicnt exadnefs from Mr. PiJJ/c's 
meafurcment between New-Caftle ;md the Philadtlphia obfcrvatory p. 87. From that niea- 
fiirement, we get Wilmington weft of Philadelphia obfcrvatory 6741^ perc]ies=:23'. 38", 8 
(iiif. of nicridians, or l'. 34", 6 of time; and fouth of the fame 47325 perches=l2'. J2",6 diff. 
of latitude. Whence the latitude and longitude of Wilmington in refped to Greenwich, arc 
as above fet down. '*'• S M I T H. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 127 

rors arifing from them maybe greatly leffened, by taking 
a mean of them: So that angles may be meafured by it 
with much greater precifion than can be attained by the 
common quadrants. This will make it peculiarly fervice- 
able for finding the longitude at fea, from the obferved dif- 
tance of the Moon from the Sun, or from a known ftar 
near her path. For unlefs this diftance is meafured accu- 
rately, it will occafion a confiderable error in the deduced 
longitude. 

That the inftrument may anfwer thefe purpofes, it is de- 
figned that the arch fhall contain an hundred and twenty 
whole degrees, and be numbered from the middle to 120 
both ways, and that inftead of one central fpeculum two 
Ihould be affixed to the index, and inclined to each other 
in an angle of 60 degrees. When they are once adjufted to 
this inclination, let them be fcrewed faft by the inftrument 
maker. 

Now the largenefs of the arch will enable us to meafure 
much greater angles than can be meafured by the fore ob- 
fervation of the common octant. If the Sun be within 30 
degrees of the zenith, the double fextant will give his al- 
titude either above thefouthern or northern horizon, as may 
bemoft convenient; or for the fake of greater precifion, Loth 
maybe taken in thefame manner as bytheforeobfervation; 
and then half the difference between their fum and 1 80 de- 
grees, being added to the lefl^er altitude when the fum is 
lefs than 180 degrees, or fubtraded from it, w^hen greater, 
will give his true altitude from neareft horizon more ac- 
curately than either of them feparately could give it. This 
may be done by one central fpeculum alone and one half 
of the arch. The fame may be repeated by the other, and 
the mean of all the four obfervations taken as ftill nearer 
to the truth. Hereby the error of adjuftment is taken a- 
way, and that of the obfervations, leflened. Or thefe er- 
rors may be corrected by the mean of four obfervations, 
when only one horizon can be made ufe of, in the follow- 
ing manner. Let the altitude be taken in the common 

way,. 



128 MATHEMATICAL and 

way, as by a fore obfervation, by one central fpeculum 
and noted; let the index be pufhed ftill farther along the 
arch and the image of the Sun will again be brought down 
to the horizon by the other central fpeculum, which affords 
another obfervation of the altitude to be noted alfo; count- 
ing from the end of the arch next to the obferver in the 
firil: cafe, and from the middle of it in the latter. Then 
let the arch of the inftrument be held upwards, and the 
center dov^nwards, and the index be moved the contrary 
way ; this will give two other altitudes. The mean of any 
two of thefe obfervations that depend on the fame glaffes 
gives the true altitude free from the abovementioned errors. 
The fame may be faid of taking any other angles. 

The inverting of the inftrument is not neceffary in tak- 
ing angles, when it is indifferent which of the objecSts is 
brought to the other by refledion ; as in meafuring the dif- 
tance between two ftars. But when one of the objects is 
brighter than the other, it is neceffary to bring the bright- 
er to the other by reflexion, in that cafe it is neceffary to 
invert the double fextant. In other cafes it will be found 
more convenient to make all the obfervations, by only mov- 
ing the index both ways. 

When the diftanceof two objeils is continually chang- 
ing, and expedition is neceffary in the obfervation; two 
or more pieces of brafs fhould be made to Aide on the arch 
of the inftrument, that the degrees noted by the index 
may be marked, by bringing one of them up to the index 
and fcrewing it faft to the arch, where it muft remain, un- 
til all the obfervations are made. In the fame manner 
may all the obfervations but the laft be marked; that no 
time may be loft in reading off the degrees and minutes 
and w-riting them down. When the obfervations are com- 
pleted, they may be read off, by bringing the index dole 
up to the abovementioned pieces, and written down at 
Icifure. 

That the moving the index backwards, will give the alti- 
tude of the Sun or ftar above the horizon, when the arch 

hangs 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 129 

hangs downwards, will appear very evident, by confide- 
ring, that the image of the Sun is brought down to the 
horizon, by pufhing the index from the obferver, and con- 
lequently the image of the horizon is alfo funk as much 
below the true horizon; therefore, when the index is moved 
in a contrary diredion or towards the obferver, the image 
of the horizon is thereby raifed up to the Sun in the Plea- 
vens, and their diftance is fhewn on the arch. But as it 
is requifite to bring the image of the Sun to the horizon, 
by moving the index both ways, this is effected by invert- 
ingthe inftrument; holding the arch downwards, while 
one obfervation is made, and upwards while the other is 
made. 

The above illuftration is fufEcient to anfwer all the pur- 
pofes of a demonftration to fuch as are acquainted with the 
theory and principles of this inftrument; as it fhews, that 
the demonftration is nearly the fame for the obfervations 
made both with the arch hanging down, and with it invert- 
ed. But as it may be defired by fome, 1 fhall infert the 
demonftration for the obfervation with the inverted double 
fextant, which will (hew more clearly the reafon of gra- 
duating the arch both ways from the middle. 

Let the double fextant inverted be reprefented by APQR; 
(See Plate IV. Fig. II.) QAR being the common fextant, 
and QAP the additional part propofed ; in which it is to be 
proved, that while the index moves from the pofition 
QCA, to that of AFD, the folar image will move twice as 
far from S, down to the horizontal line IDG, and will be 
feen by the eye at I, in the horizontal linelG, parallel to 
HO; fo that the angle QAD fhall be half of the angle 
SFH, which is the Sun's altitude. 

Let SF be a ray of light from the Sun at S, falling on 
the fpeculum at F, and from thence refled:ed to the fpecu- 
lum at G, and from thence reflected again to the eye at I, 
where the folar image will be feen in the horizontal line 
IG; the fpeculum at G, being fet parallel to the line AC^ 
or to the larger fpeculum at F, when the index is at Q^or 

the 



I30 MATHEMATICAL an© 

the beginning of the gi'aduations. Now it is to be proved, 
that the angle SFH, is equal to twice the angle QAD, 
which is the diftinguifhing peculiarity of this inftrument. 

DEMONSTRATION. 

Since NGM, is parallel to CBA, the angle NGC, is 
equal to GCB, and the angle MOB, is equal to GBC, being 
alternate; but the angles NGC, and MGB, are equal from 
the laws of reflexion, which make the angle of incidence 
equal to that of reflexion. Therefore GBC is an ifofceles 
triangle, having the angles at B, and C, equal. 

Again, fince HFS+SFD=(HFD=QAD+FEA=QAD-h 
4.DEA=QAD+FBC=QAD-f QAD +BFAz=2QAD+BFA 
= iQAD+GFA=) 2QAD4-SFD. Therefore, HFS=2 
QAD. 

That the inftrument may be held with greater eafe, an 
handle may be affixed to the back of it, or another fextant 
might be added directly oppofite to the middle of the other 
two, and the index continued to the oppofite arches, mov- 
ing on the center; which would have its advantages efpe- 
cially on land. And as the errors of adjuftment and ob- 
fervation may be correded without the fecond central fpe- 
culum, it may be negleded. 

This improvement of an inftrument, which was firft in- 
vented and conftrufted by Mr. Godfrey of this city, and 
which, I do not hefitate, to call the moft ufeful of all 
aftronomical inftruments that the world ever knew, I hope 
will make it ftill more ferviceable to mankind. But how- 
ever this may be, it isfubmitted with all due refpedt to the 
fociety, by 

Their very humble Servant, 

JOHN EWING. 



To 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS, 131 

To the American Philosophical Society, held at 
P hiladelphia^ for promoting ufeful Knoiv ledge, 

GENTLEMEN, 

SINCE my delivering in the fhort account of the im- 
provement, which I propofed in the conftrudion of 
Mr. Godfrey^ double reflecting oftant, at a late meeting 
of this fociety, I have been induced to fubjoin a relation 
of the manner in which I was firft led into it, and of the 
time when it was efFed:ed. In the beginning of the year 
1767, finding that the common arch of the odant was too 
ihort, for taking large angles by afore obfervation,! thought 
that it might be conveniently enlarged; and foon after 
found that this enlargement might anfwer valuable pur- 
pofes both at fea and on land. I communicated, to Mr. 
Benjamin Condy, mathematical inftrument-maker of this 
city, my propofal for making the inftrument with double 
the ufual arch, and the addition of a fecond fpeculum on 
the index, inclined to the other in an angle of half the 
length of the arch; as appears by his certificate, which I 
have here inferted in the following words, viz. 

" 'Y^HIS is to certify^ That fome time in thefpring orfum- 
■^ mer of the year 1767, the Revd. Mr. John Eiving, 
of this city, communicated to me a propofal of his, for ma- 
king Godfrey"* s Sextant ivith double the ufual arch, and the 
■addition of another fpeculum affixed to the index, and inclined 
to the other in an angle of half the enlarged arch ; and 
that ive had frequently con'uerfed together on the purpofes 
defigned to he anfwered by this neiv conjlru^ion. As ivit- 
nefs my hand this loth day of January, 1770. 

BENJAMIN CONDTr 

About two years after I had thought of this conftruClion 
of the inftrum..*.L and perfeded the demonftration of it, 
which I laid before the fociety on the original fcrap of pa- 
per, on which it was firft written, I learned by converfing 

with 



132 MATHEMATICAL and 

with Mr. William Grants an ingenious mathematician and 
merchant of London, who came to this city about April 
or May 1 769, that he had alfo propofed an improvement 
in the fame inftrument, but different from mine in thefe 
refpeds, viz. His was a complete femicircle, having the 
horizon glafs and place of the eye hxed on the arch, and 
without the fecond fpeculum on the index; which anfwer- 
ed nearly the fame purpofes, with mine; excepting that 
by its wanting the above mentioned fpeculum, it afforded 
but half the number of obfervations which my conftrudtion 
admits of. The firft intim.ation I ever had of his improve- 
ment was from the Rev. Dr. William Smithy provoft of 
the college in this city, in May laft; to whom I had fome 
time before mentioned, that I had thought of fomething, 
which might be deemed an improvement in the conflrudtion 
o^ Godfrey^ quadrant. This Dr. S}?iith intimated to Mr. 
GraJit, upon his informing him that he had improved that 
inftrument before he left London ; which circumftance in- 
duced the Doftor to promife him an introdud:ion to my 
acquaintance, as appears by his certificate in the following 
words, viz. 

Philadelphia, 12th Jan. 1770. 

" REV. SIR, 

" JN anfiver to your reqiiejl^ that IJhould certify the oc- 
•^ cafion of my introducing Mr. Grant to you^ I do ivell 

remember it to have been as foUoivs. That ingetiious 

gentleman having been recommended to my acquaintance^ by 
fome of my friends to the northvoard^ ive happened^ one 
day about the beginning oflajl May^ to fall into converfation 
upon fome literary fubjeBs. Among other things^ Mr. 
Grant mentioned an improvement iv hie h he had made in the 
conf ruction of Godfrey"* s quadrant^ and vuith a truly com- 
municative fpir it feemed voilling to explain the nature of his 
improvement .^ by making out a draft or jketch of it for me. 
It happened that I ivas to Jet out the day folloiving^ on a 
journey to Northajnpton County^ and Mr, Grant ivas appre- 

henfive 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 133 

henftije that he Jhould leave Philadelphia before ?ny return. 
J then recollefied -what you had told me fome time before^ 
concerning your impro-vement of Godfrey's quadrant, and 
fpoke to Mr. Grant asfolloivs: I amjorry, lam obliged to 
go out of to-wn to morro-w, as I could -wifh to have fome 
further converfation on this JubjeSl-, but there is a gentle- 
man of this city, the Rev. Mr. EvLnng.vuho fome time ago 
mentioned to me an improvement of aftmilar nature, -which 
he had made, and I believe he has engaged a ivorkman to 
finifld a quadrant for him, on the plan he has projeBed, 
Are you acquainted ivith Mr. Evuing ? If not, I -will bring 
you together, for I -uwuld -wifh you to compare your fc hemes, 
and to have a conference ivith each other. Mr. Grant ex- 
prefjed his defire to be acquainted vtnth Mr. Evuin^r^ and I 

accordingly introduced them to each other, before^/ ivent 
on my journey. 

WILLIAM SMITH.'' 
To the Rev. Mr, Ewing. 

Thefe things I have mentioned not from a folicitude a- 
bout the invention, but to fhew, that, what has often been 
fuppofed probable in affairs of this nature, has atlually 
taken place in the prefent inftance; that men at the diftance 
of many thoufand miles might fall nearly upon the fame 
inventions, about the fame time, without any previous 
correfpondence or acquaintance with each other. J. E. 

An ESSATon the Ufe of COMETS, and an Account of their 
Luminous Appearance; together vAth fome Conjee^ 
tures concerning the Origin of HEAT. 

i?r H U G H WILLIAMSON, M. D. 

Read before the Society, Nov. i6th, i^jo. 

A COMET is a folid dark body revolving round the 
Sun in ftated periods, receiving light and heat from 
the Sun. Comets revolve as other planets do in an ellipfis, 
Vol. I. S one 



134 MATHEMATICAL and 

one part of which is much farther from the Sun than ano- 
ther ; feme of them are very eccentric ; that which appear- 
ed Anno 1680 was twelve thoufand milHons of miles 
from the Sun in aphelk), it was not half a million in 
perihelio. The period of the comet which appeared 
Anno 1758 is 75 years. That of 166 1 is 120 years. 
And that of 1 680 is 575 years. Though comets doubtlefa 
move in an ellipfis, yet from the extreme length of their 
path, the fmall part that falls under our obfervation, the 
difficulty in determining the comet's abfolute diftance or 
velocity, &c. we have obtained no certainty concerning: 
the period of any comet except the three I have mention- 
ed, nor (hall we ever determine their periods in all proba- 
bility, except by a feries of obfervations on the return of 
each particular comet, which may require feveral thou- 
fand s of years. 

Comets receive their light and heat from the Sun, for 
they appear to have no light of their own, and are thence 
invifible, except on their near apj>roach to the Sun. In 
the year 1723, an aftronomer had the fortune to difcover 
a comet by means of his telefcope before it was bright 
enough to iDecome vifible by the naked eye. The great 
comet which appeared Anno 1743 feemed no larger tharr 
a ftar of the fourth magnitude whenfirft difcovered; as it 
came down towards the Sun it acquired a tail, and increaf- 
ed gradually in fize and kiftre till it obtained that amazing 
form with which it terrified half the world. As this co- 
met departed from the Sun, its tail decreafed, it toft its 
brightnefs, till in a fhort time it became invifible; this has 
alfo been the fate of every other comet; hence it is plain 
that their light, like that of other planets, is borrowed 
from the Sun. 

Having juft mentioned thofe general properties in which 
comets evidently agree with other planets, I ftiall now try 
to account for that luminous train which attends them on 
their approach to the Sun, from which they are generally 
denominated blazing ftars, and are fuppofed to differ ef- 

fentially 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS 135 

fentialiy from every other planet or ftar. If I fhould be fin- 
gular in any part of my opinion on this fubjed:, I prefume 
I fhall be indulged, fmce it is matter of mere hypothefis. 

Comets are not blazing ftars, they do not burn at all, 
nor is there any remarkable heat in that tail which has fo 
often terrified the nations, and been thought to portend 
diflblution to the world itfelf. The comet of 1743 had 
acquired a tail fome thoufands of miles long above two 
months before he pafTed the Sun, while he was yet three 
hundred millions of miles from the Sun. Surely this could 
not be a flame of fire kindled by the Sun, elfe comets take 
fire in a place where every drop of water on this globe 
would inftantly freeze. There is no greater reafon to think 
that comets burn by their own heat, fince their tail, what- 
ever it be, as w^ell as their light, evidently depends on the 
Sun, as we have already explained. 

Philofophers have differed greatly in their attempts to 
account for the tail of a comet. One imagines that comets 
are furrounded on all fides by a lucid fiery vapour, or at- 
mofphere, which on account of the Sun's fuperior light, 
is only vifible in the dark, whence we fee no part of it but 
that which is in the Ihadow of the comet on the fide op- 
pofite to the Sun. According to him their atmofpherc 
extends in all directions feventy or eighty millions of miles, 
for fome comets have appeared with a tail of that length, 
fo that from the near approach of comets to the earth we 
muft frequently have been enveloped in that fame lucid 
atmofphere. 

From the extreme vicillitudes which comets feeni to en- 
dure, at one time penetrated with intolerable cold, at ano- 
ther time blazing with deftrudtive heat, fome have irre- 
verently conjedlured that they were defigned as a place of 
future refidence for the unhappy tranfgreiTors in this ftate, 
and thus vainly fuppofe that fifty or an hundred worlds 
were created for the fake of punifhing the inhabitants of 
this little globe. It is fufficient to have mentioned fuch 
conjedures. 

The 



136 MATHEMATICAL and 

The great Sir Jfaac Neivton was of opinion, that comets 
were defigned, among other pUrpofes, to nourifh and re- 
frefh this earth and all the neighbouring planets. He 
imagined that by vegetation and putrefaction, a great deal 
of radical moifture is confumed or changed into earth ; 
that the tail of a comet is a thick vapour exhaled from the 
comet by the heat of the Sun, which vapour is fcattered 
through the planetary regions, and part of it being receiv- 
ed within our atmofphere, occafionally fupplies our lofs 
of moifture. 

Whatever properties have been afcribed to heat, it feems 
very clear that evaporation cannot be performed unlefs by 
means of an atmofphere whereby the fluid is attraded, 
fufpended and carried off. Therefore if we fuppofe that the 
earth and all the planets are fupplied with radical moifture 
from the comets, we muft alfo fuppofe, that the folar fyf- 
tem is univerfally filled with an atmofphere fufficient for 
attracting and fufpending fluids, which hypothefis would 
certainly deftroy our prefent lyftem of aftronomy. Befides 
this we may obferve, that from the moft accurate chymical 
analyfis, there feems great reafon to believe, that all the 
apparent changes in matter depend on combination and 
folution alone. That water may be combined with earth 
and again feparated from it; but, that fince the creation, 
this globe has not fuftained the abfolute lofs of one ounce 
of water, or gained one ounce of earth. Therefore we 
do not require any nourifhement from the vapour of comets. 
I fee no reafon to doubt that comets were created like 
this world, to be the refidence of intelligent beings; fome 
of them no doubt which travel to immenfediftances through 
the Heavens, may be inhabited by an order of beings, 
greatly fuperior to this fliort lived race of mortals, and 
much better fitted for comprehending and admiring the 
works of their divine original, whichthey behold in greater 
perfection. One of the primary ideas we form of the 
Supreme Being is, that he is the fource of life, intelligence 
and happinefs, and delights to communicate them; the 

carlh 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 137 

earth we tread, the water we drink, and the very air in 
which we breathe, fwarm with Uving creatures, all fitted to 
their feveral habitations. Are we to fuppofe that this little 
globe is the only animated part of the creation, while the 
comets, many of which are larger worlds, and run a nobler 
courfe, are an idle chaos, formed for the fole purpofe of 
being frozen and burnt in turns. We cannot admit the 
thought ; the comets are doubtlefs inhabited. The great 
viciffitudes of climate, is the only plaufible objection that 
has been made to this opinion. The comet of 1680 came 
within one hundred thoufand miles of the Sun, but the 
Sun's whole diameter is more than feven hundred thoufand 
miles. The comet's heat was then fuppofed to have been 
two thoufand times hotter than red hot iron; but the fame 
comet was about twelve thoufand millions of miles from 
the Sun, at his greateft diftance, when it is fuppofed, that 
he perceived ten thoufand times lefs heat than we ufually 
enjoy. Hence it is fuppofed, that fuch a planet could never 
afford a comfortable refidence for rational creatures. 

But here philofophers have taken for granted that the 
heat of every body is inverfely as the fquare of its diltance 
from the Sun, a proportion which I greatly fufpe£t; for I 
apprehend that it is contrary to experiment. 

Were heat a certain body proceeding immediately from 
the Sun, the quantity of heat in any fpace would doubt- 
lefs be inverfely as the fquare of its diftance from the Sun. 
But I fee no reafon to believe that heat comes from 
the Sun, while there is much reafon to think that it does 
not. We perceive that light comes from the Sun. We 
alfo perceive that heat is produced in the bodies on which 
the rays of light fall, hence we are apt to confound light 
and heat together, though it be demonftrable that light is 
not heat and that heat is not light. So contraded is our 
knowledge of the primary conftituent parts of bodies, that 
we cannot readily determine why any particular caufe 
fhould not excite heat with equal facility in all bodies. 
But we are taught by experience that different quantities 

are 



138 MATHEMATICAL and 

are produced by the fame caufe, according to the medium 
on which it operates. It alfo appears that the particular 
aptitude of any body to be heated is nearly as the elaftici- 
ty of that body, or the cohcfion of its parts. Whatever 
produces a tremulous motion in the particles of any body, 
■excites heat in that body, and 'vice 'verfa whatever excites 
heat produces a tremulous motion in the particles of the 
body. Does heat therefore confift in nothing elfe than 
the rapid vibrations of the minute particles of any body ? 
or is there an elementary principle of fire diffufed through 
all bodies, which is only excited or brought into adion 
by any caufe which produces a tremulous motion in the 
particles of thofe bodies ? The latter feems mod probable, 
though in folving the prefent hypothefis there is no dif- 
ference whether heat depends on the fimple vibration of 
the particles of matter, or whether it depends on the fire 
which was only brought into adion by the vibration of 
thofe particles, provided it fhould appear that the heat 
in every body is uniformly as the vibratory motion 
of the particles of that body. — This I apprehend is the 
cafe, and fhall beg leave to mention fuch evidence as feems 
to render the matter at leaft very probable. 

Philofophers have enumerated five methods by which 
heat it generated, viz. i. by attrition, 2. chymical mixture, 
3. fermentation, 4. inflammation, and 5. by the Sun. In all 
thefe cafes it appears that the heat depends on a vibratory 
motion which by one means or another is excited in the 
particles of the body. 

I. Heat is produced by attrition, or by the ftriking or 
rubbing of one body againft another. In this cafe there 
can be no doubt that the heat depends on the vibratory 
motion of the particles, hence bodies are fooneft heated 
where the fridion is confiderable, provided the bodies have 
alfo a proper degree of elafticity. For the motion once 
communicated to the particles of an elaftic body, are re- 
tained a confiderable time, and increafed by every fucceed- 
ing ftroke of the caufe which put them into motion. The 

quantity 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 139 

quantity of heat produced in any body by fridion, de- 
pends greatly on the body being fit to preferve the motion 
once communicated. Thus a faw fixed in a hand vice fo 
that it may long retain its tremulous motion, will foon bd 
heated, whilft the file with which it is rubbed is not foon 
heated, being held in the foft unelaftic hand, whereby the 
vibratory motion of its particles are immediately deftroyedl 
The facility with which fome bodies are heated before 
others, and with which the fame body may be heated in 
one pofition rather than in another, abundantly prove that 
the quantity of heat produced in any body by fridion will 
not be as the motion communicated, but as the ftrokes 
communicated, together with the number of vibrations re- 
tained and communicated in confequence of each ftroke. 

2. The heat which is produced by chymical mixture 
has been the fubjed of much fpeculation. — There are fun- 
dry bodies which joined together produce confiderable heat 
as water with oil of vitriol ; others produce cold, as fait of 
nitre with water. Why fhould one union produce heat 
the other cold? It appears in general that all mixtures, 
properly fo called, produce heat, all folutions produce 
cold. But in every mixture the bodies undergo a certain- 
change in their qualities, whereas bodies undergo no 
change by folution. This may point out to us the true 
origin of heat in one cafe, and cold in the other, and the 
pores of the one body are fo conftituted as that the minute 
particles or atoms of the other body may penetrate into 
them, a general diflblution of the conftituent parts of the 
body muft enfue, the minute particles being rent afunder' 
by the attradive force of the parts ; fuch diflolution of the 
conftituent parts of a body neceffarily alters the qualities 
of that body. We may eafily perceive that in the rapid 
tlnion of fuch bodies by which the minuteft particles are 
rent afunder, the vibratory motion of thofe parts muft be 
'rreatly in creafed. Hence the generation of heat by mix- 
tures. Hence too the heat in fuch mixtures, feems to be 
in proportion to the number of particles, which in any 

bod-f 



I40 MATHEMATICAL and 

body of a determinated bulk, rufh into union with and dc- 
ftroy the texture of one another. 

In fokuions or cooling combinations no change is pro- 
duced in the qualities of the bodies. Thus by a folution of 
nitre in water cold is produced, and the fait may be depo- 
fited from the water, or the water be evaporated, and 
neither of the bodies undergo the leaft change. In this 
cafe it appears, that there is no diffolutionof the conftituent 
parts of either body, by the attradive force of the other, 
or by the conftrudion of their parts; but that the globules 
of one body adhere fuperficially to thofe of the other, and 
the particles of the fluid are fimply charged with thofe of 
the folid, by which means the vibratory motion of the 
particles isdiminifhed, whence cold is neceffarily produced. 

It has been obferved thatfpirit of nitre mixed with water 
produces heat, while the fame fpirit mixed with fnow pro- 
duces the moft intenfe cold. This may be probably urg- 
ed as an objection to the above theory of heating and cool- 
ing combinations, under the apprehenfion that fnow being 
nothing elfe than frozen water, fliould on thefe principles 
produce the fame effeds, on combination with any third 
body. But it muft be obferved, that one is a mixture, the 
other a folution. Water joined with fpirit of nirre produces 
a mixture, the bodies undergo a change of qualities, and 
heat is generated. Pour the fpirits of nitre into fnow and 
nothing will follow, at leaft nothing has followed but a 
folution of the fnow in the fpirit. For thefe experiments 
have always been made when the temperature of the 
fpirits was much below the freezing point of water, fo that 
the fnow could not be melted by fuch combination. Hence 
there being no intimate union of the parts, nor any thing 
elfe than a proper folution, cold was generated as in all 
fimllar cafes. 

3. Heat produced by fermentation or putrefadion, may 
be accounted for in the fame manner as that produced by 
chymical mixture, there being no doubt that new mixtures 
are conllantly forming in every putrefcent or fermenting 
body. 4. Heat 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 141 

4. Heat which is produced, by inflammation feems alfo 
to depend on the chymical mixture of bodies. In all bo- 
dies which blaze there is found an acid and mephytic air, 
which feem to abound in thofe bodies in proportion to their 
different degrees of inflammability. The feparation of 
thefe two bodies conftitutes a flame; this we obferve can 
only be effedied by means of a third body, viz. common 
air. The union of the acid with the water that is fuf- 
pended in the air, and the union of the mephytic with the 
common air, produces two heating mixtures. Hence heat 
is excited by flame. 

5. Heat is produced by the Sun : Does that heat pro- 
ceed immediately from the Sun, as is generally fuppolcd, 
or is it mechanically excited by the adion of the rays of 
light; The latter is moft probable. We havefeen a variety 
of methods by which heat is produced. They appear in 
diff'erent forms, but they all terminate in the fame thing; 
they are diff^erent methods of exciting a tremulous motion 
in the particles of the body. By fome of them the moil 
intenfe heat is produced, and yet in no cafe is there any 
adual addition of fire. When heat is excited by the Sun, 
there is alfo a tremulous motion excited in the particles of 
the body, they are expanded, (^c. The phenomena re- 
femble thofe of heat excited by other means, whence it 
feems unphilofophic to fuppole that there fhould be an ac- 
ceflion of fire in this cafe more than in the others. I there- 
fore fuppofe that all the heat ijuhich is caufcd by the Swu 
depends on a tremulous motion excited by the rays of lights 
in the particles of the body ivhich is heated. Hence it will 
follow that the heat of any body ivill not be according to its 
diflance from the Sun, but according to the fitnefs of that 
body, to retain and propagate the federal vibrations ivhich 
are communicated to its particles by the rays of light. Hence 
it is that the air which is very elaftic, when well com- 
preflTed by the weight of the incumbent atmofphere, will 
receive a great degree of heat near the furtace of the 
earth, while the light thin air whofe particles are removed 

Vol. I. T to 



142 MATHEMATICAL x\ n D 

to a confiderable diftance, as on the top of a high moun- 
tahi, is always in a freezing ftate within the torrid zone. 

Let us fee how this theory of the generation of heat 
may be fublervient to the inhabitants of the cometary 
worlds. 

It is evident that comets are furrounded with an at- 
mofphere very different from that of our globe; the 
heighthof our atmofphere is hardly fuppofed to exceed 60 
or 70 miles, while that of a comet is frequently 8 or 10,000 
miles. Why fhould they have fuch a weight of atmo- 
fphere more than us? This is doubtlefs fubfervient tofomc 
very extraordinary purpofe. We may alfo fuppofe with 
great probability, that the atmofphere of a comet differs 
greatly from ours. The particles may be fmaller, more 
fubtile, elaftic, and much more eafily heated, whence the 
Sun's rays may be enabled to warm fuch an atmofphere 
compreffed together by the weight of eight or ten thoufand 
miles, at a diftance from the Sun, in which we lliould 
perceive the moft intenfe cold. This will explain the man- 
ner in which the inhabitants of a comet may be fufficiently 
warm at their greatefl: diftance from the Sun ; but if they 
were proportlonably heated on their neareft approach 
to the Sun, their fummer heats would be intolerable; but 
this muft certainly be the cafe if their atmofphere were in a 
permanent ftate, and continued in all feafons of equal den- 
fity and VN^eight. We are certain however from obferva- 
tion, that this is not the cafe; for as the comet approaches 
the Sun, we can eafily perceive its atmofphere greatly 
rarified, and thence rendered lefs fit for generating or re- 
taining heat. But this is not the principal relief which 
cometarians receive from the fummer's heat. The atmo- 
fphere of a comet feems to undergo a change which is pe- 
culiar to itfelf. It is removed by the rays of light, and 
thrown off to a confiderable diftance behind the planet. 
It is demonftrable that the rays of light pafs with amazing 
velocity, they travel above thirteen millions of miles in a 
minute; fuch amazing velocity multiplied into their weight, 

however 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 143 

however fmall they be, muft give them a confiderale mo- 
mentum or impelling force, which muft be great in regions 
near the Sun; by this force they repel the extremely fub- 
tile and light particles of air, and drive them off to fuch 
a diftance behind the comet that their weight is hardly per- 
ceived on its furface. The atmofphere being thus repelled 
by the Sun's rays, and thrown as it were into a fhelter be- 
hind the planet, will be there extended longitudinally in 
the form of a fliadow, being very rare towards the top. 
Every particle near the furface of this immcnfe dream of 
air muft be illuminated by the refradlion and reflection of 
the Sun's rays, whence they will exhibit the faint appear- 
ance of a blaze. Thus we are apt to imagine that a comet 
is intenfely hot, and that a prodigious flame proceeds from 
it, while we fee nothing elfe than its enlightened atmo- 
fphere. 

As the inhabitants of comets are not prefled by day, 
when they come near the Sun, with a thoufandth part of 
the atmofphere which ufuallyfurrounds them, and which 
is doubtlefs the mediate and principal caufe of their per- 
ceiving heat, we may eafily fee how they may be tole- 
rably cool at noon day, on their neareft approach to the 
Sun. 

If we might form any conje£lure concerning the life of 
a cometarian, from the annual periods of the world which 
he inhabits, we fliould apprehend that he far exceeds the 
years of an antedeluvian. Or might we attempt to mea- 
sure the continuance of this globe, from the length of time 
which will be neceflary to bring the aftronomy of comets, 
as well as every other fcience to that perfedlion at which 
they muft doubtlefs arrive, we fhould infer that a fmall 
portion of that time is yet elapfed. On which ever of thefe 
fubje6:s the mind is fuffered to ftray for a few minutes, it 
will find fufficient fubjedof a pleafing fpeculation. 



A Utter 




144 MATHEMATICAL and 

A letter from Da'vid Rlttenhoufe^ A. M. of Norritoiiy to 
JVi/Iiam Stnit/j, D.D. Provojl of the college of Phila- 
delphia; containing Qhfer<vations of the COMET, ivhich 
appeared in fune and July^ 1 770; ivith the elements of 
its motion^ and the Trajedory of its path. Communis 
catedto the Society y Augiift yl, 1770. 

REV. SIR, 

E R E W I T H I fend you the fruit of three or four 
days labour^ dv.ring ivhich I have covered many 
JheetSy and literally drained my ink f and fever al times. It 
is an account, (^c. of the Comet vohich lately appear ed, 
and I have no objeSiion to its bei?ig made public. I might , 
indeed^ have been a little more careful to have the precife 
tifne of my obfervations, as the near approach of this Comet 
required ten times the accuracy <, that is neceffary for com- 
puting the place of any planet. I am-, hovuever, quite fatis- 
fied that the fituation I have given its orbit ivill be found 
very near the truth. 

THEcIrcumftancesmoft remarkable in this comet were, 
its prodigious apparent velocity, the fmallnefs of its 
fize, and the fhortnefs of the time it continued vifible. Its 
velocity was at firft furprifingly accelerated, and before it 
difappeared again retarded, from which its near approach 
to the earth may be inferred. 

I did not fee it till Monday the 25th of June; and from 
its fituation at that time, I expected it would have been 
vifible for many weeks, if not months; and therefore did 
not prepare, with fuch expedition as I might have done, 
for obferving its place with accuracy. But from the 27th 
to the 30th, the weather continuing fair, every eveninc^ 
about nine, I took the diftance of the comet from Lucida 
Lyr<e and LucidaAquiU, with, a common Hadley's quadrant. 

July the firft, it was cloudy in the evening. At 10 
however, I faw both lucida lyr3E and the Cornet through 
the cloud:;, and obferved their diftance; but the comet 

was 



AST Pv GNOMICAL PAPERS, 145 

was again hid before I could take its diftance from the pole 
ftar, which feemed to be about 5 or 6 degrees. This even- 
ing it was diftant from lucida lyrae 49". 17'. whereas the 
evening before it had been but 5". 42' . from the fame ftar at 
gh. It had therefore moved above 45°. in the laft 25 
hours, and now appeared much brighter than it had been 
before; there being alfo fome appearance of a tail on the 
fide oppofite to the Sun. July the 2d it was cloudy with 
rain in the evening; but in the morning of the 3d about 
3".. I obferved its diftance from the pole ftar, from Ca- 
pella, and from a ftar of the fecond magnitude in Caflio^ 
peia, which was the laft time I faw it. 

From the above obfervations, and many very laborious 
calculations, I have endeavoured to fettle the elements of 
this comet's motions (fuppofing it to move in a parabola, 
and to be governed by the Sun's attractive force) as follows, 
viz. 

The place of the afcending node - Leo 14°. 21'. 45". 

The place of the perihelion - - Pifces26°. 19'. 28". 

Inclination of the orbit ----- i°' 49^ ^",. 

Perihelion diftance from the Sun, "^ 

in fuch parts, as the earth's > 62757,5X05.9. 7976653 
mean diftance is 1 00000 j 

The logarithm of its daily mean motion - 0.2636300 

Time of the comet's being in perihelio, Auguft 8th, 
I9\ 26'. equal to Auguft 8. 80965 

Its motion direct; that is, according to the order of the 
figns. 

From thefe elements, and Dr. Halley\ tabula generalis 
motuum cornetanwh in orbe paraholico^ it will be eafy to 
compute this comet's vifible place for any time; during 
its ftay in the planetary regions, in this manner. 

Find the dift'erence between the time propofed and the 
time of the perihelion; that is, Auguft 8. 80965, in days 
and decimal parts of a day; and to the log. thereof add 
the log. of the daily mean motion. The fum is the log. of 
the mean motion from the perihelion. To the mean motion 

fo 



146 



MATHEMATICAL and 



fo found, take the angle correfponding out of Dr. Halley\ 
table abovementloned, which angle being added to or fub- 
tradted from the place of the perihelion, as the time pro- 
pofed is after or before Auguft 8th, 19/7. 26', gives the 
heliocentric place of the comet in its orbit; and, as that 
is fo nearly parallel to the plane of the ecliptic, 1 have, for 
the more eafy calculation, neglected the redudion entirely, 
which could fcarcely exceed 50" at any time. Likewife, 
to the mean motion, take out of the table aforefaid the 
Logarithmus pro dijlantia afole\ from which fubtrad the 
compliment of the log. of the perihelion diftance, viz. 
2023347 always, and you have the log. of the comet's 
diftance from the Sun. The inclination and geocentric 
place may then be found by the fame method we ufe for 
the planets. 

Example. Let the vifible place of the Comet for June Z7th, ()b. be required. 
Trom Auguft 8. 80965 
Subtraajune 27. 375 
Remain days 41. 43465 log. 1. 6277207 
Log. daily motion add - - - 0.2636300 



Mean motion before perihel. 77.86652. 1. 8913507 
Angle correfponding 80°; 5'. 12''. Log. pro diftantia 
Sub. from perihelion K 26°. 19'. 28". 



Remains the Co- ' 
met's heliocen- 
tric longitude 
Sub. from longitude ©Vj". 6' 



X Vj". 6°. 



14'. 16" 
16'. 7" 



Compliment log. perihehon? 



dift. fubtrad 

Comet a 107082,2 
© a O 101678,2 



I 



Log. 
Log. 



5.2320440 
.2023347 



5-0297093 
5-0072180 



Comet a © 



5404 



Difference =l'. 51" Tangent 

Add the Log. of© diftance a © 



Subtraft the Log. of the Comet a © 



Sum 



6.7308977 
5.0072280 

II. 7381257 
3-7327153 



Log. 3-7327153 



Remains Tangent 
Which fub. from 

Remains 
Plate of the node 



34'. 48" 8.0054104 

>y. 6°. 14'. 16" The heliocentric longitude. 



Iry. 50. 
•:^. 14"^ 



39'. 28" The Comet's vifible place. 
21'. 45" Defccnding. 



Argument of lat. 
-f-Sine inclin. of orbit 



7'. 29" 
49'- 5" 



— Rad.=Sine hehocent. lat. 1°. 7'. %d' 

Tangent ditto 
-f-Log. Comet a 



Log. Comet a ©=3.7327153? 
■ 8''— Rad.=5l5 5 



-^Secant 34'. 48 

Remains Tangent vifible lat 



21°. 13'- = 



Sine 9.7905493 
8.5014111 



8.2919604 

8 2920434 
5.0297093 

13.3217527 
3. 7327668 

9.5889859 



Sum 

Sub. 



Obfervcd 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 



H7 



Obferved diftances of the COME T, 



Troni 


Liicida 




Lyr<e. 


D. h. 




June 27- 9- 


40°. 44' 


29. 9. 


22. 25 


3c. 9. 


5- 42 


Xy 2. 15. 





3- 154 


95- 5<; 



Luc'tda 
Aqiiilit. 



50 



Cafeila In Jlexurd Longitude 
ad Ccxas cil>/lri/ed. 
CaJJlvpe'te I 

,Vj'5''.4l' 

I>? lo- 9 

>? 23. 36 
2>S°- 31' 



8. 



7' 



n 24- 32 
n 27. 29 



Longitude 
computed. 



'/■j* 10, 

>? 23, 

n 24 

n 27 



39' 



N. Lai. 'TV. Za^ 
obferved. computed. 



This lajl obfervation -was taken by the Rev. AJr. EwlNG. 



38'64. 

3S\23- 

29,ZI. 



15' 

21 

o 

50 
30 



21" 

39- 
64. 

21. 



13' 

47 

o 

29 

35 



In making the above obfervations, the tune (as hath 
been already hinted) was not ftridtly noted to minutes; 
and therefore a perfe^ agreement, between the obferved 
and computed places, cannot be expe(f^ed. Befides, the 
comet approached fo very nigh, that an error of i'. in 
computing its heliocentric place, might produce an error 
of a degree in its vifible place, and more than two degrees 
in its longitude in the figns. 

It is remarkable of this comet, that in any future re- 
turns, whilft it continues to move in the fame orbit, it can 
never approach the earth nigher than it did this time. On 
the firfl: of July, it was about one fixtieth part of the Sun's 
diftance from us. 

Perhaps^ if the apparent diflance of the Nucleus^ from 
fome fixed far near ivhich it paffed^ had been meafured 
ivith a micrometer^ at different places on the earth conve^ 
7iientlyjituated^ the Sun'sparallax might, by this means, 
have been determined nearer than ive can ever hope for, 
by any other method. 

This comet, notwithftanding its nearnefs, appeared but 
fmall and continued vifible but a few days; and, in all 
probability, had it pafTed the earth's orb but three weeks 
fooner, we Ihould never have feen any thing of it. This 
affords ground for a probable conjecture, that there are 
numbers of thefe wandering bodies, which traverfe the 
vaft fpace encircled by the planets, entirely unperceived 
by us. I remember one, about ten or twelve years ago, 
that appeared much fmaller than this, moved very faft, 
and difappeared in a few days likewife. 



Nothing 



148 MATHEMATICAL and 

Nothing but thefmallnefs of the prefent Comet can pre- 
vent its being feen at this time (if indeed it be not feen) ; 
for it muft rife in the morning before day, and continue 
to do foforfome months; but will at length retire to a prodi- 
gious diftance beyond the reach of the beft glafles, in the 
26th degree of Virgo, and very little north of the ecliptic. 

The earth's place June 27th, I4\ at the meridian of 
Greenwich, is computed to be 9'- 6". 16'. 7" and the ex- 
centricity of its orb 168 fuch parts, as its mean diftance 
is 1 0000. If any one would compute thevifible place of 
the Comet, from the principles above laid down, he muft 
find the Sun's place, or rather the earth's, by the tables 
he makes ufe of, to June 27, 14". at Greenv/ich, and as 
much as he finds it fafter or flower than 9'- 6°. 16'. 7" lb 
much muft he add to, or fubtrad from, the place of the 
perihelion, not negleding feconds, otherwife a very great 
diff'erence might arife in the calculation. 

If the reduction to the plane of the ecliptic be applied, 
50" may be fubtradled from the place of the perihelion. 

NoRRiTON, July 24, 1770. D. RITTENHOUSE. 



LETTER II. 

DEAR SIR, 

WAS much pleafed with a paragraph in the Gentle- 
^^ man's Magazine, for July 1770, by which it appears, 
that M. Melfier difcovered the laft Comet in France, ten or 
twelve days fooner than we did here; becaufe it aff"ords 
another opportunity of comparing this Comet's motion 
with my theory. 

According to M. Meftier's obfervation, on the night be- 
tween the 15th and i6th of June, the Comet's right af- 
cenfion was 270". 57'. 37" with 15*^. ss' - 24" South de- 
clination. The hour of the night is not mentioned, but 
the place of the Comet was no doubt determined by its 
pafling the meridian, which he fays was about midnight, 
that is at Philadelphia, June 15th, 7". Time 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 149 



Time of the perihel. Aug. 8. 8096 
Subtnidl June 13. 2916 

Remain Days, 54. 518 Log. 1,736540 
Add the log. of the daily mean motion, ,263630 

Mean motion, 100,04 Log. 2,000170 

Angle correfponding 90°. o'. 54" Log. pro diftantia a. Sole 



Which fub. from? , g 

the perihel. ^ 35 • 9- 



Comet's heliocent. 

long. 8s. 26°. 18'. 34"=z66. 18.34 

©do. 8. 24. 44- 53 

differ. I. 33. 41 

Ltt S, (Plate I. Fig. 3.) be the 
place of the Sun; E, the place 
of the Earth; and C, of the 
Comet. 



Subtrad, 

Comet's dift. from© =CS 125,581 
Earth's diftance from ditto 101,627 
Secant, i^'. 33'. 41" — Rad. fub. 



0,301260 
,202335 

Log. 0,098925 

Log. 0,007011 

161 



PS 



Sub. from CS=i25,58i 
Rem. CP 



101,590 Log. 2,006850 

+Tai)g. x'^. 33'. 41" 8,43549^ 



23.991 



SuiH, 10,442340 
Sub. CP. Log. 1,380048 



RemainsTang. ECS=6''. ^s'- 3"= 
-{-heliocent. long. 8s. 26°. i8'.34" 



9,062292 



The fum is the geocent. place of the Comet, 

Long, of the defcending node los. 14^. 22/. 45" 
Sub, heliocent. long, of Com. 8. 26. 18. 34 



9s. 2°. 53' 37'' 



Argument of latitude, 48. 4. ii Sine, 9,871548 
" 8,501434 



-j-Thc Sine of the inclinat. of orbit i. 49. 5 

— Rad. =Sine heliocent. latitude, i. 21. 9 

As the Cofineof 6°. 35'. 3"=ECS 9,997126 
Is to Radius - - - lo, - - 

Sois CP=23,99I ... 1,382922 



8,373003 



To CE=24,I5028 



1,380048 



As CE=24,i5028 l,38292Z 

To CS=i25,58i 2,098925 

So is tang, heliocent. lat. l°.ai'. 9"=8,37309l 

10,472016 



To the tang, of the? o -/ 
geocent. lat i ' 



9,089094 



Hence the vifible place of the Comet was Vf 2°. Si'- 37" with 7°. </ North latitude. The 
right afcenfion and declination I find as follows. 

Let C, (Plate L Fig. 4) be the place of the Comet; A, the firft point of Aries; AP, a por- 
tion of the ecliptic; CP, perpendicular to it; AR, part of the equator; and CR, perpendi- 
cular thereto. Then fliall AP, be equal to the complement of the Comet's longitude=87°. 7', 
and PC, its North latitude=7"'. o', AR, the complement of right afcenfion ; and RC, the 
decUnation. 

Cofine AP=87'. 7' - - - - 8,701589 

rJiCofine CP=7. o - - - - 95996751 

— Rad.=Cofin. AC=87°. 8'. 2o"=8,698340 

Rad. 4-Sine 7^.0' - - - - 19,085895 
—Sine 87''. 8'. 20" 9,999458 

x=Sine - - - 70. i'. - - - 9,086437 

Vol. I. U 



=Sine 



150 MATHEMATICAL and 

=Sine - - - 7'^. i'. - - - 9,086437 
Sub. from ^3- 28 obliq-iity of the ecliptic. 

Rem. 16". 17' Sine, 9,452060 

4.Sinc - - - 87. 8'. zd 9.999458 

— Rad. =Sine 16. a6=CR= 9.45l5iS 

Rad.-fCofi. 87°. 8'. ao" 18,698340 i^Ki* 

— Coftne - - 16, 36. 9,981886 

=Corme AR=8r. I 8,716454 

Which fubtraded from 360, leaves 371^. 59'- '"'gl^* afcetifioff. 

Right Afcenfion. Declination South. 
Therefore, by calculation from? 272°. <;>)' l6°. 26' 

the theory, we have 3 ' . 

But by Mr. Meflicr'sobfervatioi>, ■2,^^. s';\ T-S-SSh 

The difference in right afcenfion is, 0°. i'\ and 0°. 30 \ in declination. 

Hence it appears, that the obfervation of M. Meffier 
entirely agrees with the magnitude I have afligned the 
Comet's orbit, and Ukewife with the time and place of the 
perihelion; but the inclination of the orbit ought perhaps 
to be increafed four or five minutes. I am. 

Ever yours, &c. 
December 2, 1770, D. RITTEN HOUSE, 

lo Rev. Dr. Smith. 

POSTSCRIPT. 

Mr. Rittenhoufe^ when he v^rote his firft paper, ex- 
prefled his hopes of obtaining a further confirmation of his 
theory of this Comet's motion, by feeing it on its afcent 
from the perihelion. But it was not then feen (fo far as 
we have yet heard) by any perfort in America. This dif- 
appointment, however, he did not afcribe to anydefeift in 
a theory which he had endeavoured to eftablifh from the 
beft principles, and with great labour of calculation, but 
to the difficulty of finding a body of fuch fmall fize in the 
heavens; efpecially with fuch a large unwieldy refrador, 
as he himfelf was obliged to ufe. The account, there- 
fore, of M. Meffier's obfervation, who faw the Comet ten 
or twelve days fooner than we did here, being fo accept- 
able to him, (as it gave a further opportunity of confirm- 
ing his theory by the above paper of December 22d) I 
ima aned that any account of the Comet, after its return 

from 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 151 

from the Sun, would beftill more acceptable; and there- 
fore, when the Gentleman's Magazine, for Auguft lad, 
fell into my hands, I loft no time in fending him the fol- 
lowing, viz, 

" Though we were not lucky enough in America to 
" difcover the late Comet in its afcent from the Sun, yet 
" I have the pleafure to acquaint you, that it was feen in 
" England. I find in the Gentleman's Magazine for Au- 
" guft, that Mr. Six fays, he had the unexpected pleafure 
" (to you it would not have been unexped:ed) oi feeing 
" the Comet on its albent from the Sun towards its Aphc- 
" liouy and though not vifible to the naked eye, yet with 
" a telefcope magnifying 25 times, it appeared much like 
" the Nebula in Andromeda^ ^ Girdle. Auguft 2 2d, half paft 
*' two, fuane, it had 106*^. 20'. right afcenfion, and2i°, N. 
" declination. The two fucceeding days its longitude in- 
" creafed daily 1°. 15'. but its latitude both days not mere 
" than 5'. Its apparent motion, he fays, was nearly pa- 
" rallel to the ecliptic. If thefe fubfequent obfervations 
" agree as well as Mr. Meffier's previous obfervation, with 
" your theory on this Comet, I think it will thereby be 
" eftabliftied paft doubt. I am yours, &c. 

WILLIAM SMITH." 

Mr. Rittenhouse's Anfwer, December iGtb, 1770. 

I was favoured with your extradt from the Gentleman's 
Magazine, for Auguft, by which I find Mr. Six was lucky 
enough to difcover the Comet with his telefcope, after it 
had paft its perihelion, though it was not vifible to the 
naked eye. I have computed the Comet's place to Au- 
guft 2 2d, half paft two in the morning, and make its right 
afcenfion 108". 46'. with 21°. o' . North declination; 
agreeing with Mr. Six^s obfervation entirely in declination, 
but diff'ering from it about 2°. in right afcenfion, which I 
cannot think material, unlefs I knew what method he took 
to determine the right afcenfion of a heavenly body, out of 
the meridian. Z). R. 

N. B. 



152 MATHEMATICAL and 

N. B. In the Parabolic TrajeBory of this Comet (Plate 
I. Fig. 2.) fiippofe that part, from A to B, a little elevated 
above the plane of the ecliptic ; and the remainder, from B to 
C, as much depreffed below it; the two planes interfed:- 
ing each other in the line of the nodes, at an angle of i°- 

49'- 

Some account of the fame COMET, in a letter from the 
Right Honorable William Earl of Stirling^ /oWil- 
LI AM Smith, D. D. Provofl of the College of Phila- 
delphia. Communicated to the Society -i Aug. 17, 1770, 
njiz. 

Baskenridge, June 2(.)^ ^77^- 

DEAR SIR, 

YOU have reafon to think me negligent in not com- 
municating (according to my promifes, to you) my 
observations of the laft Tranfit of Venus. I now fend them*, 
and you fhould have had them before, but I have been fo 
much engaged in bufniefs the laft twelve months, that I 
have had but little time to think of any thing elfe. 

Laft night, about ten o'clock, I difcovered a neivflar^ 
about 78°. diftant from the pole. It would pafs the me- 
ridian, I imagine, about midnight, and a little before lyra. 
its appearance was larger than a ftar of the firft magnitude, 
of a dull light, with a bright fpeck or nucleus^ in the cen- 
ter. I take it to be a comet, and that its tail is from us. 
But whether it be a comet or not, will be determined in a 
few days; for as it changes its place, and the earth moves 
on in its orbit, the pofition of the tail, with regard to the 
earth, muft be altered, and will then appear to encreafe 
in length. 

June 30th. Laft night I again obferved the new difco- 
vered ft.ar. Its appearance was much as it was the night 
before, but I think rather larger. Its fituation was about 
70° from the pole, and it pafted the meridian with lyra 
almoft half after eleven. I think I have its place fo well 

marked, 

* Tlicy are infertcd a'ovc, P. 125, 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 153 

marked, that in two or three evenings I fhall be able to 
determine its courfe. What further obfervations I make 
before I have an opportunity of fending this, I will add 
hereto. 

July I ft, The new ftar, which, I no longer doubt, is a 
comet, on his way to the Sun, paffed the meridian laft night 
about twelve o'clock, and nearly half an hour after lyra, 
and was advanced to within 48''- of the pole, being a little 
to the northward of our zenith. It feemed to me to be 
encreafed in fize, the fhape rather more oval than circular, 
the nucleus no longer in the center, but advanced towards 
the northern part of the whole appearance. 

July 2d, laft night at twelve o'clock, the comet was 
nearly Eaft from the pole ftar, and about 8°- diftant from 
the pole. 

July 4th. The night before laft, being cloudy, the comet 
w^as not vifible; and laft night, (July 3d) although thefky 
was clear, the ftars bright, and myfelf on the watch for it 
till day light began to appear in the Eaft, I could not dif- 
cover any appearance of the comet. It muft now be gone 
to the region of light, and we ftiall not fee it more until 
its return from the Sun. 

The apparent velocity of this comet, for the laft three 
days of its appearance, has been prodigioufly great, which, 
together with its apparent fize, induces me to think, that 
its real fize is but fmall ; and that its path lay at no very 
great diftance from the earth. But thefe matters may be 
better determined, if we have an opportunity of feeing the 
comet again, in its return from the Sun, 

I am. 

Dear Sir, 

Your moft humble Servant, 

STIRLING. 

EQl.L\TION 



154 



MATHEMATICAL and 



EQUATION of EQUAL ALTITUDES of the SUN 


for the Latitude of Philadelphia. 1 






Calculated by JOHN EWING. 








Months 
and I 


Sun's I 
.ongi- 2 






Halt the interval ot trie iJDiervations 


n Time. 




h. 


V.V. 


h. 30'. 1 


3h- 


0'. 3h.3o'.|4h. 


o'.i 4h. 


3C'. 


5h. 


0' 


5h. 30'. 


6h. 0'. 


Dav? 


. 1 


tilde. — 


1 




1 




- 1 — 


- 1 - 


- 1 


- 




- 


— 


— 


M. 


D. 


s. c. 


II 


//' 


II 


III 


// 


III 


// 


HI 


7 


/' 1 // 


///j // 


/// 


!l III 


// /// 


Deccm, 


22, 


9. c 


0. 





0. 


c 


0. 





0. 





0. 





0. 





0. 





0. 


0. 




a6. 


i 


I. 


52 


I. 


SZ 


I. 


Si 


I. 


Si 


I. 


53 


I. 


S3 


I. 


54 


I- 55 


I. 56 




31. 


IC 


3- 


42 


3- 


42 


3- 


43 


3. 


43 


3- 


43 


3- 


44 


3- 


45 


3- 49 


3. 51 


-Jan. 


5, 


li 


5- 


27 


5- 


27 


5- 


28 


5- 


2^ 


5. 


29 


5- 


32 


5- 


3S 


5- 38 


5- 43 




10, 


20 


7- 


6 


7- 


7 


7- 


7 


*f 


9 


7- 


II 


7- 


15 7- 


19 


7- 23 


7- 31 




i.T, 


25 


8. 


37 


8. 


_3! 


8. 


39 


_L 


41 


A 


45 


8. 


50 8. 


SS 


9- 3 


9- 15 




20, 


10. 


9- 


5^ 


lO. 


I 


10. 


6 


10. 


6 


10. 


1. 


10. 


16 10. 


2( 


10. 36 


10. 51 




24, 


5 


II. 


9 


II. 


13 


II. 


18 


11. 


21 


II. 


3. 


II. 


36 11. 


At 


12. I 


12. 20 




29. 


10 


12. 


II 


12. 


15 


12. 


19 


12. 


26 


12. 


3- 


12. 


46 


13- 


] 


13- 19 


13, 43 


Feh. 


3. 


15 


13- 


c 


13- 


6 


13- 


11 


13- 


2C 


13. 


3^ 


13- 


46 


14. 


4 


14. 27 


14. 56 




8, 


20 


13- 


38 


'^3- 


44 


13- 


5^ 


14. 


4 


14. 


i; 


14. 


36 


14. 


5f 


15. 26 


16. 2 




13, 


2.5 14- 


4 


14. 


13 


14. 


2;- 


14. 


38 


14. 


5: 


15- 


17 


15- 


4.' 16. 17 


17- 




18, 


II. 


14. 


SI 


14. 


33 


14. 


"4? 


14. 


54 


15- 


2^ 


15- 


4t 


16. 


2C 


16. 59 


17. 49 




23> 


5 


14. 


29 


14. 


44 


14. 


59 


15- 


17 


15- 


41 


16. 


IC 


16. 


48 


17. 32 


18. 29 




2S, 


10 


14. 


28 


14. 


41 


15- 


3 


15- 


23 


15- 


51 


16. 


24 


17. 


7 


17- 57 


19. I 


March 5,1 


15 


14. 


18 


14. 


37 


14. 


56 


15- 


2J 


15- 


53 


16. 


32 


17. 


18 


18. 15 


19. 25 




10, 


20 


14. 


13 


14. 


23 


14. 


44 


15- 


12 


15- 


48 


16. 


3C 


17. 


22 


18, 25 


19. 41 




T5, 


25 


13- 


41 


14. 


3 


14. 


2614. 


56 


15- 


is 


16. 


2C 


17. 


19 


18. 27 


19. 49 




20, 


0. 


13- 


I3JI3- 


36!i4- 


J 


14. 


3S 


15^ 


16 


16. 


7 17- 


8 


18. 21 


19. 50 




25, 


5 


12. 


41 


13- 


5[i3- 


32 


14. 


7 


14. 


51 


15. 


46 16. 


49 


18. 9 


19- 43 




30. 


10 


12. 


3 


12. 


28112. 


58 


13- 


3614. 


23 


15. 


19 16. 


25 


17. 49 


19. 29 


April 


4, 


li 


II. 


22 


II. 


49 


12. 


20 13. 


013. 


49 


14. 


4715. 


56 


17- 23 


19. 6 




9> 


2C 


ID. 


38 


II. 


5 


II. 


38 12. 


1913- 


9 


14. 


915- 


21 


16. 50 


18. 36 




I'T, 


2."; 


9- 


52 10. 


19 


10. 


Si ". 


33|I2. 


_26 


^3-_ 


27,14. 


41 


16. II 


17- 41 




20, 


I. 9. 


4 


9- 


32 


10. 


5 


10. 


48 


II. 


""40 


12. 


41 


IS- 


56 


15. 25 


17. 14 




25, 


5 8. 


I^ 


8. 


42 


9- 


16 


9- 


58 


10. 


51 


II. 


51 


IS- 


6 


14. 34 


16. 22 




30> 


10 7. 


26 


7- 


SI 


8. 


26 


9- 


6 


9- 


58 


10. 


57 


12. 


11 


13- 38 


15- 22 


May 


J, 


15 6. 


3^ 


7- 


3 


7- 


35 


8. 


14 


9. 


4 


10. 





II. 


12 


12. 3S 


14. 14 




10, 


20 5. 


4^ 


6. 


12 


6. 


43 


7- 


21 


8. 


7 


9- 


1 


10. 


8 


II. 27 


13. 2 




_i6, 


25 5- 


I 


5- 


2.- 


5- 


51 


6. 


28 


7- 


9 


8. 





9- 


I 


10. 13 


II. 41 




21, 


2. 


4. 


15 


4. 


34 


5- 





5- 


32 


6. 


9 


6. 


SS 


7- 


50 


8, 56 


10. 15 




26, 


5 


3- 


29 


3- 


47 


4. 


9 


4- 


37 


5- 


8 


5. 


49 


6. 


37 


7. 33 


8. 42 




3i> 


10 


2. 


44 


2. 


l^ 


3- 


18 


3- 


41 


4- 


7 


4. 


41 


5. 


ao 


6. 7 


7- 4 


June 


5, 


15 


2. 


I 


2. 


13 


2. 


28 


2. 


41] 3- 


6 


3, 


32 


4- 


2 


4, 37 


5- 22 


iij 


20 


I. 


2C 


I. 


21 


I. 


38 


I. 


49; 2. 


4 


2. 


22 


2. 


42 


3. 6 


3- 36 




16, 


25 


0. 


39 


0. 


4.^ 


0. 


49 0. 


55 I- 


2 


I. 


12 


1. 21 


I- 34 


I. 49 






, 


+ 


+ 


+ 1 + 


+ 


+ 


-t 


+ 


June 


21, 


3- c 


0. 





0, 





0, 


o| 0. 


c 


0. 





0. 





0. 





0. 


0. 




26, 


.5 


0. 


39 


0. 


45 


0. 


49 0. 


SS 


I. 


2 


I. 


12 


I. 


21 


I. 34 


I. 49 


July 


2, 


IC 


I. 


20 


I. 


29 


I. 


38 I. 


49 


2. 


A 


2. 


22 


2. 


41 


3- 5 


3- 36 




7, 


IJ 


2, 


I 


2. 


13 


2. 


28 2. 


44 


3- 


6 


3- 


32 


4- 





4- 36 


J. 22 




12, 


20 


2. 


43 


2. 


59 


3- 


18 3- 


40 


4- 


8 


4- 


41 


5- 


18 


6. 5 


7- 3 




17,' 25 


3- 


27 


3- 


46 


4- 


9 4. 


35 


5- 


8 


5- 


48 


6. 


34 7. 31 


8. 40 




23, 


4. 


4. 


14 


4- 


33 


4- 


58,5. 


30, 6. 


8 6. 


54) 7- 


48 8. S3 


10. II 




28, 


S 


5- 





5 


21 


5- 


50 


6. 


24 7- 


7; 7- 


57 8. 


5710. II 


II- 37 


AuguJ 


2, 


lol 5. 


47 


6. 


ID 


6. 


41 


7- 


'7 ^• 


4 8. 


5910. 


411. 22 


12. 56 




7, 


15! 6. 


35 


6. 


58 


7. 


31 


8. 


11! 8. 


59 9- 


57". 


712. 29 


14. 9 




12, 


20' 7. 


24 


7- 


^l 


8. 


22 


9- 


3' 9- 


52,10. 


5212, 


613- 31 


15- 15 




18, 
23 


25' 8. 


II 


8. 


38/ 9- 


II 


-9jL 


S3 lo- 


44III. 


45li3- 


014. 27 ■ 


16. 13 


5- f 


■ 9 


c 


9- 


26 


9 


~5"6 


10. 


42 11. 


33 


12. 


3413. 


49115. 17 


17. 4 




a8 


J 


9- 


47 


10 


13 


10 


47 


II. 


2812. 


18 


13- 


2C 14. 


33 


16. 2 


17. 49 


Septem. 2 


ic 


>I0. 


31 


10. 


5^ 


II. 


31 


12. 


10 13. 


I 


14. 


I 15. 


13 


16. 41 


18. 26 




7 


15 


II. 


I5'ii. 


41 


12. 


12 


12. 


51 13. 


40 


14, 


3615- 


47 


17. 12 


18. 55 




13 


, 2C 


II. 


58;i2. 


2C 


12 


5C 


13' 


2714. 


13 


15- 


916. 


17 


17- 38 


19- 18 




T? 


2ir'T2. 


3 31^ 


},i 


13- 


23 


13- 


5914- 


42 


Tf. 


35 't6. 


4C|I7. f? 


IQ. I-X 



Jt-QUAliON 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS 155 



■QIJATION of EQUAL ALTITUDES of the SUN, for the Lat 


tudc of PHILADtLlUIA.I 






Calculated by JOHN EWING. 










Months Su 


n's 
igi- 




Half the Interval of the Obfervations in time. 






and 


Lo 


2h. 


0'. 


zh. 30'. 


hh. 0'. 3h. 'jc/.Uh. 0'. 4h. 3c'. 


5h. 


0'. 


5h. 


3^. , 


on. 


C. , 


Days. 


til 


dc. 1 4- 


+ 


1 + + 1 -h ' + 


4- 1 


+ i 


+ 1 


iVX. D. s. 


o. " 


/" .V /// // /// II III II HI II III u 


/// // 


III 




/// 


23, 


6. 


o 


13- 


6,13- 27 


13- 53 


14. 26 


15- 7; 15. 57|i6. 


57 


18. 


10 


19. 


39 


28, 




5 


13- 


33.13- 5?, 


14. 18 


14. 48 


15. 26,16. 12 17. 


8 


18. 


16 


19. 


39 


O^oier 3, 




lo 


13- 


5614- 13 


14. 36 


15. 3 


15. 3816. 20^17. 


12 


18. 


14 


19. 


30 


^) 




15 


14. 


12 14. 27 


14- 47 


15. 12 


15. 4416. 21 17. 


9 


i8. 


4 


19. 


14 


13> 




20 


14. 


21 14. 34 


14. 52 


15. 14 


15. 4iji6. 1616. 


58 


17. 


47 


i8. 


50 


18, 




25 


14. 


22 


14- 33 


14. 4^- 


tT. 8 


IT. 32'i6. 2 16. 


_i2 


17. 


23 


18. 


18 


23, /• 


014. 


T4 


14. 35 


14- 30|I4- 54 15- 3 15- 4^ 16. 


12 


16. 


50 


17- 


3; 


28, 




5,13- 


58 


r.!. 6 


M- 15,14- 31.14. 4815. 9,15. 


36 


i6. 


9 


16. 


31 


I^o'viin. 2, 




10,13. 


32 


13- 37 


13. 4613. 58 14. 12 14. 29 14. 


51 


15- 


19 


15- 


55 


7, 




15I12. 


5^1 


13. c 


13. 513. I5'i3. 27!i3- 41 13. 


57 


14. 


21 


14. 


50 


I-) 




2C 12. 


5 


12. 10 


12. 1512. 21 12. 31112. 4212. 


54 


13. 


14 


13. 


37 


17, 




25;ii. 


5 


11. 


IT. I4II. 18 II. 24I1I. 32 II. 


43 II- 


58 


12. 


16 


22, 


8. 





9- 


55 


9. 5810. I 10. 5|io. 8(10. 1410. 


22 


10. 


34 


10. 


47 


27, 




5 


8. 


35 


8. 37 8. 38 8. 41 


8. 44 8. 47' 8. 


5i 


9- 


I 


9- 


12 


Deeemb. 2, 




10 


7- 


5 


7. 6 7. 7 7- 8 


7. 10 7. 12 7. 


17 


7. 


21 


7- 


30 


7- 




IJ 


5- 


27 


5. 27, 5. 2? 5. 28 


5- 29 5. 31 5. 


34 


5. 


38 


5- 


43 


12, 




20 


3- 


42 


3. 42; 3. 43 3- 43 


3- 4 3 3- 45 3- 


45 


3- 


49 


3- 


51 


17. 


25 I. 


53 I- 5.?] I- 53l 1- 5?,\ I- 53| i- 54 i. 


54f I. 


55 


I. 


56 



An eafy method of deducing the true time of the Sun'j paf- 
fing the meridian per clocks from a comparifonoffour equal 
altitudes^ obfer'ued on tivofucceeding days, -5/ David 
RiTTENHOusE, A. M. of Norviton, Communicated Aug,^ 
lyth 1770; by William Smith, Z). D, 

TH E method of obtaining the true time of the Sun's 
paffing the meridian, by corredting the meati 7ioon, 
deduced from obferved equal altitudes of the Sun, by the' 
help of the tables of the equation of cor rej ponding altitudes ^ 
being attended with fome trouble, and not being fo ready 
as might be wifhed; perhaps the communication of the 
following method, which I frequently make ufe of, may 
be acceptable, as it is practicable without any tables, and 
will fave a good deal of labor, when the neceflary corre- 
fponding altitudes can be obtained. 

Suppofe, then, there are four fetts of altitudes obtained 
on two fucceffive days, (viz, one fei"t in the morning, and 
one in the afternoon each day) the inftrument being kept 
exactly at the fame height both days; then the exad: time 
of the Sun's paihng the meridian per clock, may be readily 
obtained by the following — ■ RULES,- 



156 MATHEMATICAL and 

RULES 

Take the difference in the time between the forenoon 
obfervations of the two days, and alfo between the after- 
noon obfervations. 

Call half the difference of the two differences X ; 
And half the fum of the two differences Y. 
Let the half interval, between the two obfervations of 
the fame day, be Z. 

Then, if the times of the altitudes obferved on the fecond 
day be both nearer 12, or both farther from 12 per clock, 
than on the firft day — X will be the daily variation of the 
clock, from apparent time, and Y will be the daily differ- 
ence in time of the Sun's coming to the fame altitude, 
arifing from the change of declination. And the propor- 
tion will be — 

24^' : Y : : Z : E, the equation fought; which will be 
found the fame (without any fenfible difference) as the 
equation obtained from the tables. 

But if one of the obfervations on the fecond day be nearer 
12, and the other more remote from 12, than on the firft 
day — 

Then Y will become the daily variation of the clock from 
apparent time, and X will be the daily difference in time 
of the Sun's being at the fame altitude ; 

And the proportion will be — 2^^. : X : : Z : E. 
The equation, E, thus obtained, is to be fubtradedfrom 
the mean noon, if the Sun's meridian altitude be daily in- 
creafing ; but to be added if it be daily decreafmg. The 
reafon of all this is very plain; and an example or tv^o 
will make the method familiar — 

Suppofe the following correfponding altitudes were 
taken — 







Morning. 


Afternoon. 




D. 


H. m. fee. 


H. m. fee. 


Nov. 


8. 


9' S^'3^ 


2. 4. 9 




9- 


10 I. 16 


2. I. 52 



Required 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 157 

Required the time of the Sun's pafTmg the meridian ; 
and hence of a.pparent noon, per clock, November 8th. 
DifF. between the morning ob- ? i, / / 

fervations of the two days, 5 ' ' fj 

DifF. of the afternoon oblervations, o. 2. 17 

Sum, 5'. 2" 
Half Sum, 2. 3i=Y 



DifF. of the two differences, - - • 28'' 

Half do. - - - . i^"=X 

The half interval between the ^ h ./ i>__y 

two obferv. of Nov. 8th, is, $ ' '49 — 

Now becaufe both the obfervations on the /econd day 
are nearer 1 2 than on xhtfrji day<, X only gives the daily 
variation of the clock from apparent time; and the pro- 
portion for the equation, agreeable to the rule is, — 
24\:Y::Z: E. That is 24'* : 2'. 31" :: 2". 2'. 49: 12" 
,88=E 

And adding Z, or the half interval, to the forenoon 
obfcrvation of Nov. 8th, 

We have 9^ 58' . 3 I "4-2\ 2' , 49"= I 2^, l ' . 20" mean noon, Nov. 8 

Add E, theequat. becaufe the Sun's "} , j^ 88 
merid. altitude is daily decreafmg 3 * 

Which gives the true time of the ^ ^^h ^, ^^ 88 
Sun's palTmg merid. per clock, 3 * * 3 ' 

And thus the clock is i'. 32^,88 fafler than apparent 
time, on the noon of November 8th. 

Or fuppofe the correfponding altitudes as follows, 

Morning. Afternoon. 

D. H. m. fee. H. ni. fee. 

Nov. 8. 9. 58.31 2. 4' 39 

9. 10. 4. 16 2. 5. 22 

I - ■ — — • 

DifF. between the morning ob- "> - ^-" 

fervations of the two days, 3 ^"^^ 
DifF. of the afternoon obfervations 



Vol. I. 




Sum 



158 MATHEMATICAL and 

Sum, - 6. 28 
Half Ditto, - 3. i4=:Y 

DifF. of the two Differences, - - 5'. 2" 

Half Ditto, - - 2. 3i=X 

Half interval between the two "> u. / J -J7 

obfervations of Nov. 8th, 3 * ^ ' ^ 

Now as one of the obfervations on \he fecond day is 
nearer 12, than on ihtjirji^ and the other more remote, 
Y is the daily vai-iation of the clock from apparent time, 
and the proportion for the equation, agreeable to the rule, is 
24^ : X : ; Z : E. Or ; 24'^ : 2' , 3 1'' : 2^' 3' , 4" i I2",c) 
=E. 

The mean noon is, 9^- 58'. 31" 4-2^- 3^ 4"=i2h. i'. 

To which add the equation, E= - - - 12,9 

And the correct time of noon per clock, Is - 12. i. 47,9 
So the clock would here be i'. 47''59 fafter than ap- 
parent time. 



Account of the l^x2in{\\. of yi¥.-R.c\5^Y over the Svn, No- 
vember gthi 1769, as ohferved at Norriton in Fenn- 
fylvania^ by William Smith, D. D. John Lukens, Efq\ 
Meffrs. David Rittenhoufe, and Owen Biddle; the 
committee appointed for that objervation, by the Ame- 
rican Philofophical Society. Draivn up and co??imuni- 
cated, by dire^ion and in behaf of tbe committee^ by 
Dr. Smith. 

I'^ H E inftruments ufed in this obfervation, were the 
fame as are already defcribed, in the Norriton account 
of the tranfit of Venus. 

The forenoon of November 9th was, for the moft part, 
cloudv, and made us almoft defpair of obtaining any fa- 
vourable fight of Al^rn/ry on the Sun; but about one 
o'clock the Sun flione out perfed:ly clear, and continued 

undifturbed 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 159 

undlfturbed by clouds till about half an hour after three, 
which gave us an opportunity, as favorable as could be 
defired, not only for obferving the external and internal 
contads at the ingrefs, but alfo for making fome material 
micrometer obfervations. 

The external contad was noted to the very fame inftant 
of time by all the three obfervers without having any com- 
munication with each other; the fame method, of giving 
fignals to perfons ftationed by the clock, being purfued 
now, as at the tranfit of Venus. 

Mr. Rittenhoufe and myfelf likewife gave the internal 
contad the fame inftant, but Mr. Lukens was 2" fooner. 

A telefcope could not be procured for Mr. B'lddle to ob- 
ferve the conta6is\ but he gave a ready affiftance in the 
parts of the bufinefs. 

The whole work of the day ftands as follows, viz. 

1769. Apparent time. 

D. h. m. Inches, aoths. 500ths. 

Nov. 9. 9. so A. M.l sun'sdiam. \ \' W' ?f per micrometer. 
9. 35 ditto, 5 i 3- 13- 03 *^ 

Mean of thcfe gives 0'sdiam.=32'. ao",i8. 

Firft external contadt. 

p ^ f Dr. Smith, with a a f . refleftor. Magnifying power 200. 

3 Mr. Lukens, with a 42 f. refradtor. Magnifying power 140. 
^' 35- 17 (Mx. Rittenhoufe, with a 36 f. refrador. Magnifying power I44. 

Firft internal contad. 

2. 36. 33 By Mr. Lukens, ~i Each obferver having the fame telefcopes, 

, ' C By Dr. Smith, and V and magnifying powers, as at the external 

''• 30- 35 I. Mr. Rittenhoufe. 3 contad. 

Micrometer meafures of the leaft diftance of the neareft 
limbs of the Sun and Mercury. 

Apparent time. Value in 



H. m. fee. 

3. a. 44 

3- 10. 9' 

3- 19- i> 
3. 31- II 

4- ^l• 20 



Inches. 20thsi jooths. 
o. 5. 04 
o. 6. 12 
o. 8. I 

o. 10. o 

o. 18. II 



M. Sec. 

2- 15,52 

2. 50,5 

3-. 31.84 

4- 23,78 

8. 7,44 



From 3 1 ' paft three, the Sun was conftantly obfcured 
in a cloud that defcended with him, 'till about 30' paft 
four, at which time he fhone out for about 3'. During 

this 



i6o M AT HEiM ATIGx4.L and 

this interval the lafl: micrometer meafure was taken, which 
is therefore a little doubtful, as the Sun entered another 
cloud as foon as the artificial contact of the limbs of© and 
^ was formed, and before we could be certain that the mi- 
crometer flood in the diredion of the leaft diftance. The 
firft micrometer meafure is alio a little doubtful, the mi- 
crometer having been accidentally moved, while we were 
reading off the vernier. Both of them however are near 
the truth; and the other three meafures may be perfedly 
depended on. 

On a mean of fundry meafures taken backwards and 
forwards (during the intervals of the other micrometer 
meafures) Mercury's diameter was found no more than 
8", 22. The utmoft attention was paid to this point, as 
one of the moft important obfervations of the whole. - ,j'< 

The following obfervations were alfo taken of the ap- 
pulfes of the limbs of the Sun, and Mercury's center, 
to the crofs wires of the tranfit telefcope, viz. 

Q's Lower limb at horizontal wire. 
0's Precedent limb at vertical wire. 
5 's Center at vertical wire. 
0's Subfetjuent limb at vertical wire. 
5 's Center at the horizontal wire. 
Q's Upper limb at the horizontal wire. 

2. 

0's Lower limb at the horizontal wire. 
Q's Precedent limb at tlie vertical. 
5 "s Center at the vertical. 
0*5 Upper limb at the horizontal wire- 

The other two obfervations of this fet could not be com- 
pleted, the Sun being again hid under clouds, and appear- 
ed no more during that day. 

Several more micrometer meafures of the diftance of the 
neareft limbs of © and ? might have been taken, between 
the time of the total ingrefs, and half an hour paft three, 
when the Sun was firft obfcured. But a meafure of this 
kind, taken carefully once in every 8' or lo', wasjudged 
fufficient; and ,the intervals were employed -in attempting 
by frequent meafures (as already hinted) to ifcertain the 
diameter of Mercury on the Sun, to the'greateft poflible 
exadnefs. From 



Apparent 
H. m. 


time, 
fee. 


3- 


3- 


30 


3- 
3- 
3- 
3- 
3- 


3- 
'^. 
6. 
6. 

7- 


4a 
58 
31 

1 3 


4- 


30- 


34 


4- 


31- 


4 


4- 


32- 


39 


4- 


33- 


41, 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. iGi 

From the above meafures, and the appulfes of the Sun 
and planet to the wires of the telefcope, a proje(3:ion of the 
tranfit might be made, were it neceffary. 13ut the chief 
advantages to be derived from obfervations of a tranfit of 
Mercury, are the perfecting the theory of his motions, and 
fixing the longitude of places on the earth. For the firlf, 
the leaft diftance of the centers, and the diameters of © and 
^ , which may be got from the foregoing obfervations, are 
the moft material elements ; and for the fecond, the con- 
tadls and their exadt times are fufficient. 

With refpe6t to the theory of mercury's motion, the late 
Dr. Halley hath left but little to be fettled. Fie obferves 
(Philofophical Tranfadions, vol. VI. No. 39.) a remark- 
able period in this planet's motion, wherein he makes 191 
revolutions about the Sun, and correfponding tranfits over 
his d'ljk. Thus, if at the afcending node, the planet hath 
paffed over the Sun, it will, in 46 Julian years, 4 hours, 
51 minutes, (if there have been 12 intercalations) pafs 
over the Sun again, only i'. 12" more northerly; or in 
one day more, if there have been but 1 1 intercalations. 
At the defcending node, the period is 46 years, 7 hours, 14 
minutes, or one day more, according as the intercalation 
requires. Thus, if one tranfit of any feries or clafs hath 
been obferved, the times of the following correfpondent 
ones are obtained by addition only; and all we have to do, 
is examine the theory by the obfervations, to fee if it needs 
correction. 

The firil time that ever mercury was obferved on the 
SuiCs dilk, was by Gaffendus, at Paris, OClober 2 8tb, 
1 63 1, O. S; and the late tranfit of November 9th, was 
the fourth in that clafs the two intermediate ones, each at 
46 years diftance, being obferved by Dr. Halley, in 1677 
and 1723. This clafs, therefore, will afford as good a 
comparilon as any. 

Thus, at Paris, 28th October, 1631, at 10^28'' mane, 
GaiTendus obferved the laft external contadl. Whence the 
middle reduced to the meridian of Greenwich was, in the 

aftronomical 



l62 



MATHEMATICAL and 



aftronomical reckoning, October 27, 19^' 37'. SS" > ^^^ 
the leaft diftance of the centers, acccording to Dr. Halleyy 
3' . 20". Taking this as our ground work, let us com- 
pare theory with obfervaiion. 



By the THEORY. 



October.Middlereduc-Leall dift. 
ed to Green- of centers, 
v.'icli. 



Years. 

[ftTranfit i6u- 

+46 



zd Tranfit 1677 
+46 



;d Tranfit 172^ 
+46 



4th Tranfit 1769 



D. h. m.fec. M. fee. 
17> 19- 37- 55 3- 30 
o, 4. 51 4-1- 22 N. 



28, o. 28. S5 4- 4^ 
I, 4. 51 -f I. 22 N. 



28, 5. 19.55: 6. 4 
o, 4. 51 -|-i. 22 N. 



28, 10 10. $y 7. 26 



By O B SERVATION S. 



Middle reduc- 
ed to Green- 
wich. 

D. h. m. fee. 
27, 19- 37- 55 



Difference 
later in 46 

years, 

H. m, fee. 
(4- 50. 5 



28, o. 28. oj 

j 

^7 4. 47. 22 

28. TO. I. 5215 



Lealt 
dift. of 
Cen- 
ters, 
m. fee 
3. 20 



4- 

T56 
7- 32 



Diti'erence 

more N. 

in 46 

years. 

■) m. fee. 

C I. 18 



I. 18. 



1. 36 



Thus it appears, that the obfervations do not quite agree with the theory ; the latitude being 
increafed by the laft tranfit about :| of a minute more north, than the theory would give, and 
the time of the middle falhng about 4' too foon. Whether this can be accounted for from a re- 
examination of the obfervations themfelves, or by any corredtion in the motion of ^ 's nodes, 
may be worthy of further enquiry. 



The Sun's Parallax deduced from a comparifon of the 
NoRRiTON andjome other American obfervations of the 
tranfit ofVenus^ ^7^9 ; '^ith the Greenwich and other 
European obfervations of the fame. By William 
Smith, D. D^ Provoft College Philadelphia, 

ON E can fcarcely enter upon this fubjed, without 
admiring the fagacity of the great Dr. Halley^ who 
firft conceived the method of afcertaining the Sun's paral- 
lax (that is, the angle which the earth's femidiameter 
fubtends at the Sun,) and confequently the dimenfions of 
the whole folar fyftem, either from the total duration of a 
tranfit of Venus, duly obferved in one fingle place of the 
earth properly fituated, or from the difference of abfolute 
time that elapfes between the obfervations of the contads 
of the Sun and Venus in different places. 

The latter of thefe methods is what aftronomers in 
general prefer; yet, even in that, a concurrence of fo many 

circumftances 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 163 

clrcumftances is requifite, that neither the former tranfit 
of 1 76 1, nor, it is feared, this of 1769, will enable aitro- 
nomers to do juftice to the Doctor's noble problem in all its 
parts. For it is necelTary 

jpir/?, That the different obfervers fliould have good 
telefcopes, time-pieces well adjufted, and the latitude and 
longitude of their places of obfervation determined with 
the moft fcrupulous exadtnefs. 

Secondly^ That the abfolute difference of time between 
the conta<fts, at the different places to be compared with 
each other, be fo great, as to render the unavoidable fmall 
defeds of inflruments and obfervation infignificant. 

Thirdly, That all the obfervers be favoured with a clear 
fky, and the Sun of a fufficient altitude, not lefs than 8"- 
or I o°- above the horizon. 

Granting therefore, what I believe will not be denied, 
that all the circumftances mentioned under the firfl head, 
concurred in favor of the American as well as European 
obfervations made ufe of in the following deduction of the 
Sun's parallax; yet the abfolute difference of time, being 
on a mean, but about 3' . 4", was fcarce one fourth part 
of the greateft abfolute difference that might be obtained 
from obfervations made at two places fituated in the mofb 
favourable manner, with refped; to each other. 

But though this circumflance did not concur in favor 
of the European and American obfervers, yet, if the Sun 
had been fufhciently high to the former, and as refplendent 
and well defined as he was to us, notwithftandingthe fmall 
difference of abfolute time between our obfervations, his 
parallax might have been deduced from them, perhaps to 
as great exactnefs as ever it can be expeded from a tranfit 
of Venus. For any two obfervers with us, having eyes 
and inftruments equally good, and taking the fame method 
of judging concerning any phenomenon, could fcarcely 
have differed more than 5" or 6"; and where feveral ob- 
fervers were at one place, it is probable the mean of all, 
might have brought the time within the limits propofed 
by Dr. Halley^ that is within 2" of the truth. But 



i64 MATHEMATICAL and 

But fcarce any of the European obfervers, in the follow- 
ing lift, had the Sun above S''* high at the external contact; 
and, at the internal contacf^, in France and Sweden, he 
was fcarce 2° above the horizon, and even at Greenwich 
not quite 5°- This circumftance therefore, and the form 
Venus put on, hanging to the Sun's limb by a fort of pro- 
tuberant ligament, muft have rendered it very difficult to 
pronounce the moment of the internal contadt. More- 
over, the whole duration of the ingrefs, or time between 
the contacts, given by the European obfervers, being near 
1' longer than it was obferved in America, when it ought 
rather to have been fliorter, tends further to {hew that the 
true internal contact muft have been paft, before they faw 
the Sun's light compleated, round the dark body of the 
planet. 

And here, as Dr. Halley * exprefles it, " Since Venus, 
like her fex, is exceeding coy, and deigns but in certain f 
ages, to come before the eyes of men, divefted of her bor- 
rowed drefs;" an American, who has the leaft of the fpi- 
rit of an aftronomer in him, cannot help lamenting for his 
brother-aftronomers in Europe — men of fame and great 
abilities — that they were condemned, amid horizontal va- 
pors, only to a tranfient glimpfe of this rare phaenomenon 
(fpeBaciilum hiterajlronomica longe nobil{ffimu?n) ; and that 
they could not have ftiared with us fome part, at leaft of 
that luxury gazing, which we enjoyed here. 

However, notwithftanding thefe unfavourable circum- 
ftances, the parallax of the Sun, as deduced from the beft 
obfervations of the tranfit 1761, will be greately confirmed 
by the following comparifons of the American and Euro- 
pean obfervations of 1769; efpecially thofe of the exter- 
nal contadls, which on this occafion, perhaps, are only to 
be relied on. For a difturbance or alteration firft arifmg 
on the Sun's limb, and that at a greater altitude, was cer- 
tainly 

* Venus, quam-ji i fyd(frutn omnium fjjecio/ijjima, more fexusfui, fine mutuato cultu ac fplendore afcitiiia 

in conrpLtiiim prodire vcretur : Hoc etenim fbeBaculum , intsr ajironomica longc nohiliffnnum, injiir ludo- 

rumfecdlarium, inie^rifeculi mortalihus in-viddnt motuum ariiiC leces . Pliilof. Tranf. Vol. I. No. lOO. 

f Vciius will not befccn on the Sun again, till the year 1874; fo thatfcarce even the G;ranii- 

"■hildren of the obfervers of the lafl traniit will fee the next. 



ASTRONOMICAL P A P E P. S, 165 

tainlyacircumftance that could bemore eafily judged of as 
to time, than the completion of a imall thread of the Sun's 
light, almod in the horizon. 

But, before I proceed to draw the conclufions, although 
it may be unneceflary to perfons verfed in agronomical 
fubjeds and calculations, yet to the generality of thofc 
who may be readers of the tranfadlions of an American 
Philofophical Society, and particularly the youth in our 
different feminaries of learning, it may be acceptable to 
fhew the whole procefs by which the conclufions are ob- 
tained, and how to calculate the effed: which the parallax- 
es of Venus from the Sun have, both in latitude and lon- 
gitude, with refpedt to the contacts here and in Europe. 

It need hardly be obferved that the true place of a planet 
in the heavens, Venus for inftance, is that where flic 
would be feen if viewed from the center of the earth; and 
that unlefs fhe is in the fpedator's * zenith, her apparent 
place will be lower than her true place. This difference 
of place is called the planet's parallax in altitude, and is 
meafured in a vertical circle; being greateft in the hori- 
zon, and decreafing at the altitudes increafe, till in the 
zenith it becomes nothing. The method of determining 
the quantity of this parallax at different altitudes, and of 
reducing into thofe of latitude and longitude, fo as to know 
their effect on the planet's place, is as follows. 

Let V. (Plate III. Fig. 7.) be the place of the Sun and 
Venus; ZV, a verticle circle; EC, the ecliptic, PVD, a 
circle of declination; OVN, part of the orbit of Venus; 
and C, the firfl: point of Aries. 

Then the following things are known, viz; 

ZP, the co-latitude; VD, the declination; VP, its 
compliment; CV, the Sun's longitude; CD, the right 
afcenfion; and ZPV, the hour angle from noon. 

From thefe data, the parallaxes of Venus from the Sun, 
namely VL, in the vertical, VN, in longitude, and LN, 
in latitude, may be found for any given place and time. 
Vol. I. Y Let 

* This matter being very well explained by Mr. Bfnjanin WeJI, in hh account of the Provi- 
dence Obiervations, (p. 104.) need not be repeated h-jre. 



i66 MATHEMATICAL and 

Let the place be Norriton, at 2''. 12'. 50'', the moment 
of the firft external conta£t. 

Then, in the fpherical triangle ZVP, we have two fides, 
and the included angle, viz. 

ZP,=49°. 50^29", the co-latitude 

YV^—6'j. 34. 17, the co-declination. 
ZPV=33. 12. 30= 2\ 12'. 50". the time turned into 

deg. &c. 

Hence we get the angle ZVP —49°' sj'* 33''' 

And the zenith diftance of o's center ZV =^2>3' 9* 42 r 

Subtradfor 9 higher than o's center, 15. 18 

Remains the zenith dift. of 9's lower limb, 32. 54. 24! 
Complement of which is the height 9's? _ 
lower limb above the horizon, 5 ~5'' J* ^S^ 



AlTumirig now any number for the Sun's horizontal pa- 
rallax on the tranfit day, let us fay 8^,52 12 (the nearer to 
the true parallax the better) ; then the horizontal parallax 
of Venus will be to that of the Sun, inverfely as their dif- 
tances from the earth ; that is 

28887: 101512 ::8'',52i2:29".9444=the hor. paral- 
lax of 9. Subtract Sun's parallax= 8. 5212 

The remainder 21. 4232 = horizontal 
parallax of Venus from the Sun on the tranfit day. 

Then, Radius is to the Sine of the zenith dift. of Venus, 
as her horizontal parallax from the Sun, is to her parallax 
at the altitude aforefaid ; viz. 

T the paral. of 

Rad : S. 32%54' ,24.^ ; : 2 1",4232 : n",6387=LVf l;^^ "t. 

J the alt. 57**, 

Moreover, in the right-angled fpherical triangle CVD, 
we have two fides, viz. 

CV the Sun's longitude=2'. 1 3". 20' . 3 1 "=y2>^. 2o^ 3 1 ". 
DV the declination— 22°. 25'. 43''. 
WhencewegetCD=7i°. 55'. 33", 
And likewife the meridian angle CVD=82*'-54'. 21''. 

The 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 167 

The next thing to be found is OVE, or CVN, the angle 
of the vifible way, which is got as follows. Let? ^e (Plate 
III. Fig. 9,) be the inclination of the orbit of 9 with the 
eclipticrr3° 23'. 20". Let e ^ be o's horary motion, with 
the menftrual equation, as from Mayer's tables^ 143^,53 
and ? y the horary motion of 9 as feen from ©taken from 
Halley's tables=238",334. Then, by trigonometry, the 
'tSO 9 will be found = lyi'^^o'. ^^" ; the complement of 
which 9 e A, is the angle of the vifible way— S'^- 29'. 

25'.* 

The fide 9 9 is the horary motion 9 a 9 as feen from the 
Sun=:95",4i8; which encreafedinthe ratio of 9 's diftance 
from 9, to her diftance from O, gives her horary motion in 
the vifible way=239',89i. 

Now, returning to fig. 7; we had got 1 ^ 3^0 . ^i" 
the meridional angle CVD, J ' ^^' 

But we had before Z VP, or DVL=49".55' .;i^^ 
And we have now got the angle l_n /- =58. 24. 58 

of the vifible way, CVN, 5~ ^* ^9* ^^ 3 

Subt. their fumfrom CVD, and we have LVN,=24. 29. 23, 

Wherefore, in the right-angled triangle LNV (which 
being fmall may be refolved as a plain triangle) having 
found one angle LVN and the hypothenufe LV, we get 
the remaining fides, viz. 

VN the parallax in longitude=io"* 592. 

liN the parallax in latitude= 4. 8245. 

Now the parallax of longitude VN contributes to accele- 
rate the contact of Venus and the Sun, by its whole length; 
but the parallax of latitude LN contributes to accelerate the 
fame by a fpace different from its whole length. 

There are feveral ways of explaining this matter, and 
of converting the fpace LN into a proportionable part for 
acceleration. The following method, given by Mr. Rit-' 
tenhoufe^ is that which we made ufe of, and is as plain and 
ftridtly mathematical as any. " Let 

* This angle, in the Norriton account of the tranHt, was called 8"*. 28'. 1-", that is near 
l' lefs; tiie fide Q ^ being computed from Halley's tubles, aot havin^^ M.iyer's tibhs at that 
time. 



i68 MATHEMATICAL and 

" Let S (plate IIL fig. 6) be the center of the Sun and of 
the circle ABC, whofe radius=975" the fumof the femidi- 
ameters of the Sun and Venus. Let D L o be the true tran- 
fit line, and D the place of Venus'' s center at the time of the 
external contadt, as feen from the earth's center; and B 
its place as feen from any part on the furface of the earth, 
fuppofe Greenwich. Make B E perpendicular to D o ; then 
will D E be the parallax in longitude, andEB in latitude; 
and D Lihall be the whole fpaceby which Venus is brought 
fooner into contact: with the Sun to a fpe6tator at Green- 
wich, than as feen from the center of the earth. 

" Now if the parallax of longitude only took place, the 
center of Venus would be removed thereby only along her 
true path from D to E, and fo the tranfit would not yet 
be begun. But the parallax of latitude EB makes her cen- 
ter appear to be removed in another direction from E to B, 
and brings her to touch the Sun's limb by the fpace E L 
fooner than if only the parallax of longitude took place. 
The length of this fpace E L, (which is here lefsthanE B) 
may be determined as follows. 

" Having affumed the Sun's horizontal parallax as be- 
fore it follows from the Norriton obfervations, that the 
leaft'dlftance of the centers of the Sun and Venus, as feen 
from the earth's center, was 610". Make therefore, o S 
=610", perpendicular to Dor; and om = half the parallax 
of latitude BE, calculated as above for the given place. 
Drawn m I, parallel to o L; join S I, which Ihall be per- 
pendicular to B L. Make S p, perpendicular to S I, or 
parallel to BL. Then the triangles BEL, 1 m S, arefiml- 
lar; for they are both fimilar to S m p ; whence I m : m 
S : : B E : E L. But m S, — 61 — m o, h alf the parallax 
of latitude already found; and v^Sl 1 mS.^m L Thus, 
the three firft terms of the proportion being known, the 
fourth EL is known alfo. 

*' In like manner let F be the geocentric place of Venus's 
center, and H its place as feen at Norriton at the time of 
the external contact. Draw H G perpendicular to D L o. 

Then 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 169 

Then F G will be the parallax of longitude, and G H of 
latitude. Make o n=r half the parallax of latitude found a- 
bove. Draw q n K parallel to D L o. Join SK which 
fliall be perpendicular to H L. Then the triangles FHG, 
K S n are fimilar; and K n : n S : : H G : G L. Thus 
G L may be found. Let us, for an example, take Norriton. 

HG the parallax of latitude (under the denomination 
of LN) was already found =4", 8245 ; whence ^^ =2",4i 
22 = o n. And o S — o n=:nS; that is 610" — 2^,4122 = 
6o7",587^nS._Moreover ^SK'TTSi Kn ; That is 
^Q75ir6o775878=^762"536r=K n. Wherefore fince Kn: 
n S : : HG : GL; we have y62",S3^ - 6o7",5878 : : 4^8245 : 
3",8432=GL. 

Thusthe parallax of latitude HG=4",8245? _^^^'^"^f 
accelerates the contact only by GL 3 ^^^ ^^ 

To which add the parallax of longitude EG,? _ 
found above for Norriton j ~ '-^-^^ 

And we havethe whole fpaceFL by which "^ 
the contact is haftened at Norriton, by the> =14,4352 
parallaxes both of longitude and latitude j 

Now as the motion of 9 in an hour is 239'', 891; fhe 
will require 216", 624of time, to pafs over the aboveparal- 
ladic fpace of 14^^4352. And by fo much will the ex- 
ternal contact be accelerated at Norriton in time; viz. 
2 1 6", 624. 

By the like procefs for Greenwich, (ufing fig. 8, where 
we had fig. 7 before), we fhall find the whole parallactic 
fpace, DL=:2 7'',o44i 

,.0 ^5^or the acceleration of ext. 

which gives in time=405' ,846 ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ Greenwich. 

But, 2 1 6,624 was the acceleration at Norriton. 

The difference 189*', 222, is the abfolute time, by which 
the external contad Ihould have been feenfooner at Green- 
wich than at Norriton, if the Sun's horizontal parallax were 
truly affumed=8",52i2 on the tranfitday. 
But at Norriton the ext. contact was obferved, at 2^ 12' ,50'' 

Add 



170 MATHEMATICAL and 

h. m. Cec. 

AddforthediflF. ofmerid.ofGreenw. &Norrlton,5. i. 29 



The Sum gives the time for Greenwich, if there? 

were no parallax S^' '^' " 

But the contact was obferved at Greenwich, at 7. 11, 2 

The difference is the obferved effect of paral.=:3'. 17'":= 197" 
But this obferved effed 197'' is greater than the calculat- 
ed effect 1 80", 222 and therefore the Sun's true parallax 
on the tranut day is (by this comparifon) greater than the 
parallax aifumed for the calculation, and will be found 

For I89S222 : 197" : : 8",52i2 : 8",87i5. 

In like manner, for the internal contacts, after comput- 
ing the parallaxes of 9 a C!^ in long, and lat. for the refped:- 
ive places and times of obfervation, agreeable to the fore- 
going rules, the parallaxes in latitude were reduced to their 
proportionable fpace for acceleration, by taking the differ- 
ence of the femidiameter of «3 and 9 —918'' for the radius 
of the circle (Plate III, Fig. 6) inftead of their fum— 975". 
In all other refpedts the operation is the fame as for the 
external contacts. 

So far concerning the neceffary preparations. The fol- 
lowing table contains the names of places, their latitudes 
and longitudes, and fuch other requifites as enter into the 
comparifons for deducing the Sun's parallax from the 
obfervation s. — 




Thus 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 171 

Thii-, fr.btrading the time of the external tontadt at Norriton, from the mean of the ten ex- 
ternal contajSs in the above table, we have jh. y'. 40",25 for the mean difference of longitude 
by the obler^'ation;.. But the true mean dilT. of long, is jh. 1 2'. 44", 95- The difference of thefe 
two=V. 4",7 — 184",7 is the mean obferved effedl of parallax. But the mean calculated 
effe(5t=i87'',229. 

Whence 187", 229 . i84",7 = = S^.jiii : 8",4o6. Thus, by one fingle comparifon of the 
mean of the above ten oblervations with the Norriton obfervation, we get the Sun's parallax on 
the tranfit day=8",406, agreeing to the lafl decimal place with what is got by making all the 
comparifons ftparatcly, and taking the mean of the refults, as in the following table. It would 
therefore h'.vc been needlcfs to enter down thefe feparate comparifons, if it were not to fee how 
they difici ir^ni each other, and which (if any) ought to be rejected. 



I^orriton and Gr^eniuich. 
[-1. m. fee. feconds. 

2. 12, 50 Norriton. /i05,846 Grteniv. 

5. I. 29=diff. of merid, 216,624 A'c»v-jVo«. 



7. 14. 19 

7. II. 2 Greeaivirh. 



189,222 



+ 7",778 



3. 17=197" 

Sun's Parallax=8",87 15 



Norriton and Middle Tt'irip'e. 
2 12. JO Norriton 405,84! M. Temp. 

5. I. 4^diff. merid. 216,624 Norriton. 



7- 13- 54 

7. II. si Mid. Temple. 



,217 



-2o",967 



2. 48i=i68",25 

Sun's Parallax=7'',5776. 



Norriton and Windfor Cajlle. 
2. 12. S^ Norriton. /^OS^oS^ Windfor. 

4. 59. 4:|=diff. merid. 216,624 A'brr/Vo/i. 



7- II- 54i 

7. 8. 30 IVindfor. 



189,04 



+ li",46 



3. 24i=204",5 
Sun's Parallax=9^^2I8I. 



Norriton and Oxford. 

2. 12. 50 Norriton 405,236 Oxford. 

4. 56. 25=diff. merid. 216,624 Norriton. 



9- 15 

5. 58 Oxford. 



?,6l2 



Norriton and Spital Square. 
H. m. fee. feconds. 

2. 12. 50 Norriton. 405^852 Spital Sq. 

5. I. 12=diff. merid. 216,624 Norriton 



+8",388 



3. 17=197" 

Sun's Parallax=8',9002. 



Norriton and Upfal. 
2. 12. 50 Norriton. 398,632 Upfal. 

6. 12. I5=diff. merid, 216,624 Norriton. 



8. 25- 5 

8. 22. 9 Upfal. 



182,008 



-6",oo8 



2. 56=176" 

Sun's Parallax=8",23399. 



7 14. 2 189,228 

7. IC. 44^ Spital Square. -J-8",5Z2 



3. i7i=i97",7J 

Sun's Parallax=8",9055. 



Norriton and Keiv. 
2. 12. 50 Norriton. 40S,7SS .Ke-w. 

5. o. 15 =diff. merid. 216,624 iVbrr//o«. 



7- 13- 5 

7. 9. 5CfKe-u: 



,131 

—3". 13 1 



3. 6=186". 

Sun's Parallax=8",38o4. 



Norriton and Shirburn Caflle. 
2. 12- 50 Norriton. 405,452 Shirb.Cafl. 

4. 57. 32=diff. merid. 216,624 Norriton. 



7. 10. 22 188,828 

7. 7. 4 Shirk. Cafle. 4-9",I72 



3. 18 = 198 

Sun's Parallax=:8",935I. 



Norriton and Glafgoiv 

2. 12. 50 Norriton. 400,867 Glafgoiv. 

4. 44. l8=diff. merid. il6,6%4 Norriton 



6. 57. 8 

6. 54. 29 Glafgozu. 



184,243 

— 2i">343 



2- 39=159''- 

Sun's Parallax=7'',3537. 



Nirriton and Stockholm. 
2. 12. 50 Norriton. 339«388 Stockholm. 

6. 13- 55=diff. merid. 216,624 Norriton. 



8. 26. 45 

8. 24. I Stockholm. 



182,764 

—18'', 764 



Mean of the luhole, 8",403 



2. 44=164". 

Sun's Parallax=:7",6464. 



Names 



^1' 



MATHEMATICAL and 



places. 



INTERNAL CO 
Calcul 
Long, in 
time, from 
Norriton. 



Names of Reg. cir-' ^ 



cumf. in ^ 
contiiift. I E 



accelera- 
tion in 
time, by 
Parallax. 



N T A C T 

Thread 

of light 
com- 
plete. 



[Greenwich, 
Spital Square, 
Middle Temple, 
Kew, 

yindfor Caftle, 
Shirburn Caftle, 
Oxford, 
Glafgow, 
Upfal, 
Stockholm. 



h. m. fee. 
l7- *8- 31 



8. 39- 54 
8. 41. 17 



h. m. fee 
5. I. 29 E. 



3 6. 12. 15 

a 6. 13- 55 



leconds. 
423,821 



418,247 
416,769 



Mean 8. 16. 341 

Norriton, 2. 30. 61 



- 5- 49- 13 |4I9><>I23 

3 1 I238 . - 



h. m. fee. 
7. 29. 18 
7. 29.15^ 
7. 28. 49A 
7. 28. 17 
7. 26. 37 
7. 25. 24 

7. 24. 20 
7- 12. 15 

8. 40 16 
8. 41. 47 



2; 



Long, in 
time, from 
Norriton. 



Cal. acce-i 

Iteration ' 
in time, 
by pa- 
rallax. 



1. m. fee. 
5. I. 29 E, 
5. I. 12 
J- I- 4 

5. o. 15 

4- 59- 4i 
4. 57- 3* 
4- 56. 25 
4. 44. 18 

6. 12. 15 
6. 13- .';5 



feconds. 

424,768 

424,741 

'424,701 

4*4,454 

424,221 

424,103 

423.956 

421,01 

418,947 

14^7,275 



7-40.37>^| 
i.30.26 I 



\S- 12. 44,9j 



f422,oi7 

1238,07 c 



Dirt. 



15. 46. 2bl - i 



iiSi,6i23 115.10.11,81 - 1 



1 163,642 



Thus the true mean diff. of"J 

meridians oS. Norriton and | 

the three places where ^5. 49' 1 3 

the reg. circumferences I 

are noted in contadt, is J 
Both the mean difF. of mc-' 
j ridians, by the obferva- ' 

tions, is 



a. 



46 28 



2. 45=165" 



The difF. of thefe two, is 
I the mean obferved effeft 
I of Parallax, 

But the mean calculated effedl of? igi// 6i2'? 
Parallax, is i ' 



\- 



The difF. of thefe "l 

two, isthe mean f if— tci ic 

1 obferved efFedr °-*-33'^.J-^.53,i5 

I of Parallax, j 

But the mean calculated? ,0,// o-, 

t efFedl of Parallax is 5 **^ '^^^ 

And, 
Il83",84 : I53".i5 = = 8",5212 : 7",o8 
Whence 7",o8=©'s Parallax. 
Both thefe refults are the fame as the mean refults of their refpedive clafFes, got by the fepa- 
'rate comparifons in the following tabk 



And, i8i",6i23 ::i65" :: 8",5ai4 = 7".74a. 
Whence, 7",742=0's Parallax. 



In like manner, for the ten places, 
which noted the completion of the 
thread of light, for the internal con- 
tact ; we have— 
M.diff. merid. 5. 12. 44,95 
But, by the obfer-T 

vations, the mean > 5. 10. II, 8 

difF. merid. is \ 



INTERNAL CONTACT. 

Comparifons from the regular circumferences in Contad:. 



Norriton and Greeniviib. 
H. m. fee. Seconds. 

2. 30. 6. Norriton. 423,821 Green-zvich. 
5. I. 29. =difF. merid. 238. Norriton. 



7. 31- ?<s- 185,821 

7. 28. 31. GreeniviJj. — l",82I 



Norriton and Upfal. 
H. m. fee. feconds. 

2. 30. 6. Norriton. 418,247 Uffal. 

6. 12. l5,=difF. merid. 238, — Norriton, 



8. 4*- ai- 

8. 39- 54- Upfal. 



3. 4=184". 

Sun's Parallax =8",44. 



Norriton and Stockboln:. 
2. 30. 6. Norriton. 416,769 Stockholm 

6. 13. 55. =difF. merid. 238,--- Norriton. 



44. I. 

41. 17. 



Stockholm. 



178,769 

— I4",6oj. 



2. 44. = i64". 

Sun's Parallax = 



27=147"- 

Sun's Parallax: 



180,247 

— 33",347 



=6",95. 



The mean of thefethree comparifons gives thi 
Sun's Parallax 7",74. 



Compatifoiif 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 173 



Companions iroin the complttioii ot tlu- thread ot ii^ht. 



Norrilon and Greenivich 
H. m, fee. feconds. 

1. 30. z6. Norr'iton, 424,768 Grcenivicb. 

5. 1. 39.=iiiff. merid. 238,975 NonHun. 



7- 31- 55- 

7. 29. 18. Gretnti'iih, 



185,793 

— 28'',793- 



a- 37 = 157"- 

Sun's Parallax=a7"20o6. 



j^^u, rtiun and 6pitaL Square. 
H. m. iec. feconds. 

a. 30, z6 Norriton. 4t4,T/^l Spital Sj 

5. I. I2=diff. merid. 238,975 AVr;74.«. 



7- 3r. 38 185.766 

7. 29. islSpital Square. ^^t,'\oiC 



2. 22ii==I42",75, 

Sun's Parallax =»6",?4S. 



JSlorriton and Middle Temple. 
2. 30. 26. Norriton a,%i,^-iO\ Mld.Temple, 
5. I. 4.=diff. merid. 238,975 A'orr/Vo/). 



7. 31. 30. 185,726 

7. 28. 4<)lMiJ.Tem/>le. --25",476 



Norriton and Ke-zu. 
2. 3c, 26 Norrittn, 424,454 jr#.M,, 

5. 0. 15— diff. merid. 238,975 Norriton. 



7- .?0- 41 

7. 28. 17 JC?'! 



185,479 



-4I"479 



a. 40^=160", 25. 

Sun's Parallax=7''',3523. 



iVo/ riton and IVindfor. 
2. 30. 26 Norriton. 424,221 (Vindfor. 

4. 59. 4^=difF. nierid.238,975 Norriton. 



7- 29. 30i 

7. 26. 37'i IVindfor. 



185,246 



-I2",a46 



2. 53 = 173"- 

Sun's Para]lax= 7^^9579 



Norriton and Oxford. 
2. 30. 26 Norriton, 4^3^95 Oxford. 

4. 56. 25=diff. merid. 238,975 Norriton, 



7- 26. 51 

7. 24. 20 Oxford. 



184.975 

—33.975 



2. 31=151. 

Sun's Parallax=6,956i. 



Norriton and Upful. 
2. 30. 26 Norriton. 418,947 Upfal, 

6. 12. I5=diff. merid. 238,975 Norriton. 



8. 42. 41 

8. 40. 16 Upfd. 



179,972 

— 34",97» 



2. 25=145". 

Sun's Parallax=6",8654. 

Mean of the above Ten. 7'^G9. 



a. 24=144". 

Sun's Parallax=!56".6r?6. 



Norriton and Sbirlurn Caji/e. 
2. 30, 26 Non-ito,;. 424,102 Siiri.Caf. 

4. 57. 32=difF. merid. 238,975 Nsrritnn. 



7. 27. 58 185,128 

7. 25. i^Shirb. CijVe, 3l",I28 



2. 34=154". 

Sun's Parallax~7'^,o846. 



Norriton and Glajgo-ic. 
a. 30. a6 Nerriton. 42 J, 01 GLi/gow, 

4. 44. l8=diff. merid. 238,975 Norriton. 



7. 14. 44 

7. 12. 15 Glafgoiv, 



183,035 

— 33".0J5 



a. 29=149". 

Sun's Parallax=6"9748. 



Norriton and Stocihotm, 
a. 30. a6 Norriton. 417,275 Stockholm. 

6. 13, 55=diff. merid. 238,975 Norriton. 



8. 44. 21 

8. 41. 47 Stockholm. 



178.3 



a. 34=154". 

Sun's Parallax = 



-24",3- 
3599- 



Let us next fee what parallax of the Sun will be got 
from the Philadelphia obfervations, compared with thofc 
made at the ten places above fpeciiied ; wherein a fingle 
comparifon will be fufEcient, fince the refult will be the 
fame, as from a mean of the ten comparifons made fepa- 
rately. 



Vol. I- 



PHILADELPHIA, 



174 MATHEMATICAL and 

PHILADELPHIA, and Ten Places in EUROPE. 
External Contact, 
H. m. fee. feconds. 

2. 13. 46,6 PliiUidelpliia mean of 5 obfeiv. 403,853 mean parallax for the 10 places. 

5. II 5a,95=mean difF, merid. 21^,12 parallax for Philadelphia. 

/• 25- 39,55=time for the 10 places? diff. i88,733=calculatedeffe(5i: of parallax. 

without parallax, 5 
7. 22. 30,zj=niean ofthe obferved times. ^o">S^7^ 

DifF. 3. 9,3=i89",3=^mean ohferved efTefft of parallax. 

Whence, 188", 733 : i8(/',3 - 8'',52I2 : 8",5468=j^'s parallax ontranfit day. 

Internal Contact. 
H. m. fee. feconds. 

a. 31. 28. Philadelphia mean of 5 obferv. 422,817 mean parallax for the replaces. 

5. II. 52,95=mean diff. merid. 237,94 parallax for Philadelphia. 

7. 43. 20,9i=timc for the ic places? DifF. 184,87 7=ealculated effedl of parallax. 

without parallax. 5 
7. 40. 37,8=mean of the obferved times. —2l,"yiy 

Diff.2. 43, 15=163", 15 mean obferved parallax. 

Whence, i84",877 = i63",i5 :: 8",52I2 : 7",5i98=?v)'sparallaxon tranfit day. 

Thus, by the External Contact, we have the Sun's Parallax— 

feconds. 
From the Philadelphia Obfervations 8,5468 

And from the Norriton Obfervations 84060 



16,9528 

The Mean of both is, =8",4764. 

a 

In like manner, by the Internal ContaB, we have the Sun's Parallax-^* 

feconds. 

From the Norriton obfer-? 7,74 comparifon, reg. circumf. in contacH:.^ 

vations. 5 7,08 comparifon, thread of light complete. 

From Philadelphia obfer- 7 .. r .v, j n- u.. 1 . 

• '^ > 7,5a companion thread of light complete. 

22,34 

The Mean ofthefeis, ^— ^ =*7'',447. 
3 

Now the mean parallax thus got by the comparifon of 
all the ten external contacts in the above table, with thofe 
of Philadelphia and Norriton, being ^"^^y6^ on the tran- 
fit day, is nearly the fame that was got by the heft obferva- 
tions in 1 76 1, and gives 8", 6045 for the Sun*s horizontal 
parallax at the mean diftance. And there is reafon to 
think, that is as large as perhaps any good obfervations 
will give it. 

But 

* III tie compaiifuiis ivith the Creeniu'uh internal centals, the olfcrvatkn nf Mr. T)v.nn, en dJJ'ering 
Ju LoiifiJerahly from the rtji, luas hjt out ; but in thrife nf the external contaB, it ivas included. If it be 
included at the internal coutaii alfo, the tntAH of the whole •will ie f ,^62, injlead if f\4^y. 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 175 

But the Aftronomer Royal writes me, that he has under- 
taken the final fettlement of this matter; and, no doubt, 
he has feveral obfervations (whereon to found comparifons) 
that have not come to our hand, and will likewil'e confidcr 
every nicety that can enter into this truly delicate calcula- 
tion, making the proper allowances for the difference of 
telefcopes, &c. I therefore thought it needlefs to be very 
particular in my comparifons, and contented myfelf with 
thofe places whofe latitude and longitude could be well 
depended on, and where the {ky was clear, and the Sun 
any tolerable height above the horizon. Indeed, fome of the 
ten places in the above table ought, perhaps, to be rejecled. 
The longitude of Glafgow, for inftance, does not feem 
fully determined. For the eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites, 
obferved there by Dr. WilJo7t^ would give the longitude 
different from what the Doctor calls it in his account of, 
the tranfit. If that obfervation were left out, the mean 
parallax would come out a fmall fraction larger by the ex- 
ternal contact. 

As to the parallax deduced from the internal contad» 
viz. 7'',447on the day of the tranfit, I think no dependence 
can be placed upon it, for the reafons given above. For 
unlefs our internal contacts had all been noted about 22'' 
later, they would not give the fame quantity of parallax 
as the external contads. And the truth of obfervation 
would by no means permit us to lengthen out our internal 
contads fo much; for, in 22'' after the times noted by us, 
Venus appeared not only furrounded wholly by the Sun's 
light, but a confiderable way within his difk. And indeed 
the aftronomers in Europe, feem fcnfible of the little de- 
pendence that can be placed on obfervations made fo near 
the horizon, as thofe of the int. cont. 

Moiifieiir Ferner writes from Stockholm, that he is more 
furprized that " the times or the contads ffiould agree fo 
well together than he is at their difference. For the near- 
nefs of the Sun to the horizon, and the extraordinary quan- 
tity of vapors with which the atmofphere was loaded, not 

only 



176 MATHEMATICAL and 

only caufed the limb of the Sun to tremble and undulate, 
but gave it, as it were, the form of a large faw, the emi- 
nences being luminous, and the cavities black, which 
fhifted places like a tempeliuous ocean." Thefe things 
made it difficult to fix even the time of the external contadl 
to greater certainty than 5 or 6 feconds; but, at the inter- 
nal contact, he found difficulties of another kind. For 
" when he thought Venus ought to be entirely within the 
Sun, the luminous cufps did not join immediately behind 
her; but on the contrary, fhe feemed to carry the limb of 
the Sun along wnth her, which appeared to bend towards 
her, leaving a black cavity in his limb; and the body of 
the planet, though he thought he faw it all within the Sun, 
ftill ffiot out a black column or ligament towards his limb." 

It was intended to have compared all the other Ameri- 
can obfervations (as well as thofe of Norriton and Phila- 
delphia,) with the European obfervations, for deducing 
the Sun's parallax; but I could only find leifure to make 
the calculations for two places more, viz the Capes of Dela- 
ware, and Bafkenridge, New-Jerfey. Mr. Biddle\ exter- 
nal contact at the Capes, compared with the ten places a- 
bove, gives 9^,254 for the Sun's parallax on the tranfit 
day; and deducting 8^' of time, by which he thinks he 
noted his internal conta<5t too late, on account of the tre- 
mulous motion on the Sun's limb, occafioned by the denfe 
vapors from the fea, that contact gives 8", 862. The ex- 
ternal contadt (obferved at Bafkenridge, by Lord Stirling) 
gives, on a like comparifon 7^,756, and his internal con- 
tad 8",i668. 

His Lordfhip has not yet had an opportunity to afcertain 
the longitude of Bafl-^enridge with the neceffary precifion; 
and the contads by Mr. Biddle being about 16" later, than 
tl\ey ought to be from his difference of longitude (allowing 
for parallax) compared with Philadelphia and Norriton; he 
apprehends that the time of his clock could not be depend- 
ed on nearer than to about one quarter of a minute, hav- 
ing only a very fmall equal altitude inftrument mounted 

on 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPEPvS. 177 

on a theodolite, to regulate by, and the whid very high on 
June 2d. In other refpeds, there cannot by the leaft doubt 
of the accuracy of his obfervations, having an excellent te- 
lelcope, and acknowledged abilities for the ufe of it; nor 
can there be an uncertainty of fo much as 3" of time in 
the longitude of his obfervatory, in refpedt to the places 
abovementioned. 

Neverthelefs, if the parallax of the Sun deduced from 
thefe two obfervations of the external contad, be joined 
with thofe ofNorriton and Philadelphia, and the mean of 
all the four be taken, it will give 8^,4907 for the Sun's 
parallax on the tranfit day, agreeing exceedingly near with 
what was got before by the comparifon from the Philadel- 
phia and Norriton external contads, viz. 8 '',4764. 

There is one fmall nicety, which the extreme ftridnefs 
of the modern aftronomy might have required to be taken 
into the foregoing calculations ; and which was not thought 
of in time. In the hypothefis of the earth's being an ob- 
late fpheroid, the true latitude of places is more fouth than 
the apparent latitude, or that deduced from obfervations. 
Thus, the calcul. were made with lat. 40°. 9'. 31" for 
Norriton. 
But, on account of the fpheroidal ) 

figure of the earth, fubtrad, ^ °* ^^' ^ 

Remains the true latitude, that") 

fhould have been ufed in the > =39. 54. S3 

calculation, j 

In like manner the latitude for Greenwich fhould be 
51". 14'. 19", inftead of 51°. 28'. 37". 

Moreover the horizontal parallax alfumed in the calcu- 
lations, being to be confidered as the equatoreal parallax, 
lliouldhear a fmall redudion likewife for different latitudes. 

With this redudion, therefore, both of latitude and pa- 
rallax, the calculations for Greenwich and Norriton were 
repeated, and the Sun's parallax came out, for the external 
contad 8^,805, inftead of 8", 8715. The difference is fo 

fmall. 



178 



MATHEMATICAL and 



fmall, that it was not thought worth while to repeat any 
more of the calculations on that account; efpecially as the 
final determination of the Sun's parallax, from the late tran- 
fit, as was hinted already, will not be left to depend on our 
calculations in America. I fhould have been glad, if time 
had permitted, to have gone over the work a fecond time, 
to be fare of its corred:nefs. Some of the calculations were 
made by Mr. Rittenhoufe and myfelf jointly, and of the re- 
fidue, made by myielf fmgly, which were the greateft part, 
we have here and there feled.ed out fome re-examination» 
And though, among fuch a multitude of figures, as necef- 
farily entered into thefe calculations, it is difficult to avoid 
miftakes wholly, either in writing or printing, yet I think, 
there can be none of any fignificancy. 

Meteorological Observations made at Philadelphia., in December, 1770; and in yaniiaiy, 
and part of February, IT] 1. ^^r ThoMAS Coombe, ^/j-. Communicated by Dr. ^^mn. 

THOUGH part of the following obfervations ought not, in the order of time, to come 
into this volume, yet the fingular moderation of the weather, for more than ten weeks of 
what isufually the fevercft part of our North- American winters, makes it proper not to fepa- 
rate obfervations which many people will wifh to preferve entire, for a comparifon with future 
winters, whenwefhall be favoured with any of the like mildnefs. 







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434 


dittc 


2 p.m. 


30. -- 


T,0 


32 1 


ditto. 


clou. 


• 2 p.m. 30. zi 


44 


^A 


i.^. 


„ 


9 a.m. 


30. 2 


16 


29 : 


ditto. 


fair 


' 9 a.m. 29. 94 
', 2 p.m. 29. 9 


:IO 


-, ; 


\v. 


J 


2 p.m. 


30. It 


!3 


,]2 w.n.w. 


do. 


+9 


48 


n. v/. 


A 


9 a.m. 


30. ; 


'8 


32 f, w. 


do. 1 


20 9 a.m.' 


29. 84 


37 


42 


w. 


j, 


9 a.m. 


29. p 


.,? 


2si w. 


clou. 


ji9a.m. 


29. li 


-i3 


45 


f. v/. 


( 


9 a.m. 


29. 6-; 


]8 


40 1 ditto. 


do. 


|2p.m. 


29. 14 


47 


47 


w. i? < 




2 p.m. 


29- 1% 


13a 43i "• w. ' do. 


2a 9 ■''•™- 


29. 5^ 


32 


35 


n. V. . 




9 a.m. 


30. i 


]i J36 ; ditto, i fair 


12 p.m. 


29. 6-i 


34^36 


ditto. 


J 


2 p.m. 


29- 9\ 


36i'36i 


n. 


do. 


3 '9 a.m. 
,3 p.m. 


29. 64 


32 2.6 


n. e. 


i 


9 a.m. 


29. 8 


^s 37 


w. 


do. 


29. 6^ 


34 '374 


n. n. e 


*/ 


8 a.m. 


29. 9 


33 56 


f. w. 


do. 


9 a.m. 
2 p.m. 


30. 1 


^7 '3^ 


f. w. 




§a.m. 


29. 8i 


36 40 


ditto. 1 do. j 


30- -5 


31 '3* 


n. w. 


IC 


2 p.m. 


29. 84 


|6 46 


ditto. 1 do. 1 


J '9 ''•"!• 
•2 p.m. 


30. li 


28 32 


n. 




9 a.m. 


30. i 


38^!4l 


n. e_ I clou. '• 


30- l| 


31 'z^\ 


n. w. 


1 J 


2 p.m. 


29. 9 




41 


ditto. 


do. t 


j^'9a.m. 


30. 3i 






f. w. 


12 


9 a.m. 


29. 8 


43 


43 


n. 


do. ! 


i2p.m. 


30. 3-1 


31 


314 


w. 


r, p.m. 


29- n 


43 


43 


ditto. 


do. 


27j9 a.m. 


30. 37 


31 


32 


n. c. 


I. 


9 a.m. 


29. 8i 


35-i 


41 


n. w. 


fnow 


28.9 ^•'^^• 


30. 34 


29 


3.34 


ditto. 


2 p.m. 


29. 9 


38 


41 


ditto. 


clou. 


2 p.m. 


30. 34 


36 


57^ 


n. 


1.1 


9 a.m. 


30. %\ 






n. w. 


fair, t 


29 9 a.m. 


30. 2i 






w. 


2 pm. 


30. 24 


39 


39 


w. 


do. 


30 


9 a.m. 


30. 4 


34 


3^^ 


ditto. 


I.' 


9 a.m. 


30. %\ 


>o 


33 




do. 


2 p.m. 


3°- J 




42 


f. w. 


iC 


9 i.m. 


30- \ 


-.9 


41 


f.w. 


do. 


31 


9 a.m. 


! 29. 8: 


37 


37 


n. e. 


2 p.m. 


29- 9i 




44| 


j ditto. 


do. 


2 p.m. 


i 29- 7; 


41 


41 


ditto. 


' Snow the preceeding night, f R»i° a^ '" 


les. \ A fliarp froft in the night, § 


the n 


ight. 

























ao. 
Jo. 
• air 
clou. 
^\jh 
iair 
rain 
clou. 
•.v& 
clou, 
fnow 
clou. 
do. 
do. 
do.§ 
do. 
fair 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
fair 
do. 
do. 
rain 
clou. 
JANU. 
§ Snow in 



ASTRONOMICAL PAPERS. 179 



J 



« s 



9 a.m. 
a p.m 
9 a.m 
a p.m 
9 a.m. 
2 p.m. 
9 a.m.' 

*'i2p.m. 
'9 a.m. 

•^ zp.m. 

6 9 ^•'^• 
2 p.m. 

9 a.m. 
',2 p.m. 
g 9 a.m. 

,3 p.m. 

'0 a.m. 
9 ' 
^|2p.m. 

10 9 a.m. 

I9 a.m. 
■"^^jzp.m. 

'9 a.m. 

2p.m. 

9 a.m. 

|2 p.m. 
149 a.m. 

(9 a.m. 



12 



13 



IJ 



|2p. 



O 

3 
30! \ 
30. 1^. 
30. 3^ 

30. 2^ 

29. 9a 

29. 8-i 

»9- 7i 
29. 8 

29. 8 

29- 7Ti 

30. 3-i 
30. 

30- 
33. 
30. 
30. 
30. 
29. 
29. 
30. 
30. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
30. 
30. 



I Therm. 

\Fciri~tib. 
p. I in 
lir. !d. 
39 

31 \is- 



37-5 
374 
41 

39 
!43^" 



37 
35 
?9 
39 
44 
IS 
45 
33i3<^i; n. e. 



N U A R Y, 1771, 



n. n, e. 
n. w. 
f. w. 
n. w. 
i: w. 
f. w. 
w. 
f. w. 
\v. 



3i 


37 


i^ 


i^i 


J 


.57 


A 


5oi 


2' 


36 


i 


30 


84 


40 


8' 


36 


\ 


34 


X 


46 


97 


43^ 


9-i 


sH 


8 


43 


6i 


43 


^4 


25 


3 


28 


3 


is i 



364! 

36 I n. 
37l n. 
34 n. n, 
36 n. n 
31^: 
4H 



3 7 

i6 

45 

44 

44i 

49 

46f 

33i 

39 



L 

f. \v. 

n. \v. 

\v. 



w. 



f. w. 



clou.* 

do. 
fair t 

do. 
rain 
:lou. 

fair 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

lou. 

fair 

do.. 

lou. 

do. 

fair 

do. 

do. 

do. 

:lou. 

rain 

clou. I 

fair 
do. 

clou. 



9 a.m. 
2 p.m. 
^ a.m 
z p.m 
) a.m 
; a.m 
) a.m 

1 p.m. 
) a.m. 
zp.m. 
9 a.m. 

2 p.m. 
9 a.m. 
9 a.m 
2 p.m 

9 a.m 
2 p.m 

^69 a.m 
2 p.m 

10 a.m 
27' 

'|2p.m 

28,9 a.m 
\q a.m 
^2 p.m. 
9 a.m 
2 p.m. 
) a.m 
2 p.m 



30. 
30. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
3c. 
30. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
29. 



Therm 

Farenh. 

.p. 

lir. 



30 



^I 



9\ 
9k 
9i 
7i 
7 
29. 9^ 
29. 91 
29. 8- 
29. 84 
29. 8| 
29. 
29. 
30. 
30. 
30. 
3^-- 



+7 

46i 

55 

iok 

31 

36 

35 

40 

36 

36 

35 



9t 



29. 6i 
28. 5i 
29- 5 



m 



42i 
48 
464 
41 i 
JJ i| 
35 I 

6i 
36 
41 
38 
36 
36 
34 
32k 
36 

33i 

31 

33 

33 

36 

35 

33 

33 

36 

40 

40 

435 



n. e. 

f.e. 
n. w. 
n. w. 
n. w. 

do. 
f. w. 

do. 



rain, 
do. § 
'cloudy. 

do. 
cloudy. 

fair, 
cloudy. 

do. 
I do. 
i fair, 
fnow. 11 
i do. 
cloudy, 
do. 
do. 
do. •[ 
do. 
fair, 
do. 
cloudy, 
do. 
do. 
fair, 
do. 

n. e.^je.'rain. \\ 
do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



f. w. 
f. w. 
n. w. 
n. 6y e. 



. ty eJ 



cloudy, 
do. 



* Rain in the night, f Sharp froft in the night. J And fun-fhine. § And wind. || And 
wind. *5 Snow in the night. \\ And wind ; — fnow in the night, and early this morning. 

B R U A R Y, 1771. 



o X 



I 


9 a.m. 


ap.m. 


a 


9 a.m. 
2 p.m. 


^ 


g a.m. 


J 


1 p.m. 




9 a.m. 
ip.m- 


4 


5 


) a.m. 
2 p.m. 


t 


; a m. 


J p.m. 


^ 


9 a.m. 


/ 


2 p.m. 


8 


) a.m. 


9 


; a.m. 
I p.m. 


IC 


; a.m. 




a p.m. 


II 


■) a.m. 


12 


; a.m. 
ip.m. 


13 


) a m. 
2 p.m. 


14 


9 a.m 
2 p.m 


15 


.;a.m. 
2 p.m. 



tc 



30. 
30. 

30. 
30. 
30. 
30. 

30- 
29. 
30. 
30. 
29. 
30. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
28. 
28. 
29. 
29. 

3^- 
29. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
30. 
30. 



F 

Therm 

Fahren. 
op. 
air. 
38 



d. 

39 

32 

39 

3^ 

39 

35 

4n 

3« 



33 1 3"^ 
^5 p3 
26^ 26 
52I 13 3i 
35 



n. w. 
n. w, 

f. w. 

do. 
n. w. 

do. 

do. 
f. w. 
n. w. 

do. 
n. b;' e 



32t 
39^ 
392 
24 V 
28 

26i 

3il 32i 

8|; 15 

8i, 26 
8f: 25 

7i! 35 

i 22^ 
1 31 



35* 
464: 

2/i 
284, 
28 i 
38I 

35 1 

21 

26 

-7 
34 
28 

31^1 



n. e. 
n. w 
do. 
f. w. 

(V. f. 

w. 

do. 
n. e. 



w. 



w. 
n. w, 

do. 

do. 
f. w. 

do. 
n. w. 

do. 



Fair and windy. 

Fair. 

Ditto. 

Clouds, and fun-fliine at times. ■ 

fair. 

cloudy. 

fair. 

Ditto. 

fair and windy — Smart frofl in the night. 

Ditto. 

fair; intenfely cold this morning. 

cloudy. 

rain ; fnow in the night . 

Ditto. 

fair. — mnch rain and wind at night. 

cloudy and ftormy; — a remarkable high tide. 

cloudy and windy. 

fair and windy. 

Ditto. 

overcafl:. 

foggy; — much rain in the night. 

wind and Sun-fhine. 

cloudy and very windy — Delaware full of ice. 

wind and Sun-fliine. 

overcafl. 

fun-fhine. 

fair. 

Ditto. 



The 



i8o MATHEMATICAL &c. 

The thermometer marked open air, Is fufpended in a 
North window, about thirteen feet from the ground, the 
cafement of which ftands on ajar. That marked in doors, 
hangs in an open entry of a ground floor, the door of 
which fronts the eaft. The former thermometer was made 
by the late ingenious Mr. Ayfcough, and compared with 
one made by the accurate Mr, Bird; the latter was made 
by Mr. Nairne, and compared with that of Ayfcough, with 
which it agrees. 

From the accounts of the weather at Plymouth, in Eng- 
land, in January, 1768, as publiilied in the 58th vol. of 
Philofophical traniadions,it appears, the greateft cold there, 
was on the third and fourth days of that month, when 
the mercury in the thermometer fell to 20 degrees. The 
greateft height was on the 14th, when the mercury flood 
at 49 degrees; wind at S. W. 



Sect. II. 
ESSAYS ON AGRICULTURE. 

An ESSAY on the cultivationof the Vine, and the mak- 
ing and preferving of Wine, fuited to the different climates 
in North- America. By the Hon. Ednjoard AntilU Efq; 
of New-Jerfey. Communicated to the Society 

By Charles Thomfon-^ with the following 
Extrad of a Letter to him. 

DEAR SIR, 

/'H AV E at lajl^ after many hardjiruggles, and many 
a painful hour-, labouring under a tedious diforder^fi- 
nifhed the effay on the cultivation of the Viney S*c. 
ivhich I noivfendyou. 
Nothing but the love of my country and the good of man- 
kind could have tempted me to appear and expofe myfelf to 
public vieiv. I have, to the utmoft of my Jkill and knoiv- 

ledge. 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. i8i 

ledge^ endeavoured to lay open and explain every part of this 
undertakings yet neiv to Ajnerica; though an widertaking 
as ant tent at leaji as the days of Noah ; and yet ivhatfcems 
Jirange to telU it is an art that has not yet arrived at per- 
fe6iiony hut is jlillvifibly capable of Jome ejfential improve- 
ments. That America Jhould give the fnijloingjlroke at lajl 
to a works that has been in hand above four thoufand years ; 
and vuhat is fill more f ranges a zvork every part ofivhich, 
is an experiments if attended to \ J fay that the completing 
of fuch a ivork fljoidd be left to the genius of America^ no 
doubt ivonldgive the people of America a good deal of plea^ 
fure. That this vuill be the cafes I cannot yet take upon 
me to fay ; but J think there are fome hints nozv offered-, 
ivhich iffeadilypurfueds and improved by eafy experiments., ■ 
the jnaking of ivines and the preferving them, i^'ill Jhon 
arrive at greater perfe^ioUs than yet it has been done. 

Thefiiccefs and perfeBion of every undertaking depends 
upon fet ting out right: Indeed the people of America have 
greatly the advantage of the people of Europe^ in things of 
this natures hecaufe ive begin nvhere they leave offs and ive 
are free from the force of all their prejudices and erroneous 
cufoms ; hut then voe mujl determinately acl like men^ and 
judge for ourfelvess and not implicitly folloiv thenis luithout 
the ufe of our ovon reafon: Let us then fuppofe that every 
art is capable of improvements and let the people of America 
try the ftrength of their oivn genius. They may hit on 
thing Ss that have not been thought of before ; for ijueyear" 
ly fees that the arts andfciences toos meet ivith conftant ad- 
ditional improvetnents ; and ivhyfhould the people of Ame- 
rica he fecluded fro7n the honour and pie (fare of being fer- 
viceable to mankind 'in their turn. JVe mujl expect to meet 
ivith all the difcouragementSi that the artifice of France^ 
Spain and Portugal can give us ; ivefloall he tohU that our 
country is too neiVs ourjbil is not ft, and our climate is the 
reverfe of that of vuine countries) hefdcs that ivithout the 
help of experienced vignerons it ivill be impoffible for us to 
make any hand ofit; that as to books s they arefo erroneous s 
Vol. i. A a that 



i82 CULTIVATION OF THE VINE. 

that there is no dependence upon them^ and abundance offuch 
Jiuff. But let not the people of America he dupes to France-, 
or any fet of dejigning men. 

Why the people oj America^ that trade in ivines^ fhould 
give oppofition to the undertaking-^ I cannot conceive. They 
and their children ivill be dead and gone^ before it can ar- 
rive tofuch a pitchy as to interrupt their trade ; beftdes it 
mujl., ivhen brought to perfeHion^ be a double advantage 
tofuch men ; for it is vuell kjtoivn, that the ivine merchants, 
in all ivine countries, gain more by ivine than the people 
that make it ; and their gain ivill fill be increafed, ivhen 
they come to fend it home to the 7nother country. 

The papers I fend you are only a rough draught, as you 
ivill eaftly dif cover ; I have notflrength to go over it again, 
to range all the parts under different heads, in order to re- 
dttce them to proper chapters for the eafe of the reader; I 
mufl leave that to the printer, and to thofe that direSl the 
prejs^ 

I am, ifc, 

E. A. 

Monmouth, New-Jerfey, 
Shrewfbury, May lo 1769. 



An Effay (?« z/?^ Cultivation of the VINE, ^r. 

TH E vine, if confidered in its full extent of pleafure, 
profit and ufefulnefs to man, challenges, next to 
what affords us bread, the chief place among the vegetable 
creation; its fruit, when thoroughly ripe, is pleafing to 
the eye, grateful to the tafte, comforting to the ftomach, 
refrefhing to the body when eaten with caution and mo- 
deration, and greatly contributes to health. Its juices, 
when exprelTed and rightly fermented and purified accord- 
ing to art, partake of a noble fpirit truly homogeneous and 
fit for the ufe of man. They gladden his heart, remove 

to 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 1^3 

to a diftance his troubles and cares, caufe him to forget his 
poverty and low eftate, and raife him to a level with the 
rich and great: They enliven his thoughts, exhilerate his 
fpirits, cheer his foul, and for a time make him as happy as 
his prefent condition is capable of. Wife and happy is 
the man, that fhuns excefs, that prudently avoids turning 
this cordial into a cup of poifon, and moderately enjoys the 
blefling with a thankful heart. 

Wine is a very confiderable branch of trade. The 
many advantages that muft arife to the Colonies from the 
making it, as well as to the mother country, are fo great 
and fo very well known, that I need not go about to de- 
fcribe them at large; to touch upon them is fufHcient. 

The planting of vineyards, the cultivation of vines, the 
making of wine, and cafics to preferve it, muft employ and 
give bread to a great number of people; the freight and a 
profitable remittance, muft enrich the merchant; and the 
being fuppUed from the colonies with wine, in exchange 
for her manufadures, muft be a confiderable faving to 
Great-Britain. 

I know full well, that this undertaking being new to my 
countrymen, the people of America, will meet many dif- 
couraging fears and apprehenfions, left it may not fucceed. 
The fear of being pointed at or ridiculed, will hinder many: 
The apprehenfion of being at a certain expence, without 
the experience of a certain return, will hinder more from 
making the attempt; but let not thefe thoughts trouble 
you, nor make you afraid. You have a friend for your 
guide, who will not deceive you, nor miftead you : One, 
who by experience, knows, that the thing is pra<5ticable 
here, where the country is open and clear; one who looks 
upon you all his children, and with the fondnefs of an af- 
fedionate father will uke you by the hand, and lead you 
with plainnefs and honeft fimplicity, through all the dif- 
ferent operations, till you become mafters of the whole, 
and then with pleafure and delight will look on and fee you 
reap the profits, to your full fatisfadion, of all your ex- 
pence and labour. Whoever 



i84 CULTIVATION OF the VINE. 

Whoever confiders the general climate of North-Ame- 
rica, the foil, the feafons, the ferenity and drynefs of the 
air, the length and intenfenefs of the heat, the fair and 
moderate weather, that generally prevails in the fall, v^rhen 
grapes are coming to maturity, and arrive at their greateft 
perfection; whoever compares the prefent ftateofthe air, 
v^rith what it was formerly, before the country was opened, 
cleared and drained, will find that, we are every year fafl: 
advancing to that pure and perfed: temperament of air, fit 
for making the beil: and richeft wines of every kind. 

Such has been the bounty and goodnefs of heaven, that 
there are vines adapted to every country, to every region, 
from fifty degrees both north and fouth latitude down to 
the equator; and the countries beyond thefe may eafily be 
fuplied by traffic, fo that all the fons of men may partake 
of this general, this univerfal bleffing. 

It is not every vine, that is fit for every country : Some 
are earlier, fome are later ripe ; fome are tender and delicate, 
and will not ftand the feverity of winter, others are hardy 
and robuft, and will fiand any weather : Hereafter I fliall 
range them in proper and diftindtclafles, and adapt the dif- 
ferent forts by name to the difi^erent climates in America, 
where they may be propagated with fafety and to the beft 
advantage. 

A vine, from a ftick or cutting, begins to bear fruit the 
third year, the fourth year it bears more, and the fifth year 
you may make wine; and fiar your greater encouragement, 
from that time until it attains the full age of man, it in- 
creafes in value and yields a richer wine; and if from the 
beginning, it be carefully pruned, duly manured and pro- 
perly cultivated, it will generoully reward you for all your 
labour, expence and care, and will hold good above an 
hundred years, as moft writers affirm. But then it mud 
be tended by a careful and fteady hand. It will not bear 
to be llighted, or negleded. If you do not manure the 
ground and keep it in good heart, your vine will bear no 
fruit; if you negledt to cultivate the foil and keep it clean, 

your 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 185 

vour fruit will be knotty, and ftarved, and will not come 
to maturity; if you fuffer the ftakes or props to fall, and 
your vine to fprawl on the ground, the fruit will not ripen, 
but remain aultere, and will not make good wine. Wine 
is too rich a juice to be made from a barren foil, or by lazy 
idle flovens. Such men fhould never undertake a vine- 
yard. They not only hurt themfelves, and bring the thing 
into difcredit, but hinder others, who are ht for the under- 
taking, from making the attempt. If a vineyard does not fuc- 
ceed, the fault is in the man, not in the vine. It will flouriih 
and profper under a careful diligent hand ; but it will de- 
generate and run wild under the hand of lloth and idlenefs. 
A gentleman of Rome, who took great delight in vineyards, 
fome of which he had raifed with his own hands, wrote a 
very elegant piece upon the culture of vines, and in the 
moil pathetic terms recommends it to the people of Italy, 
as the moft profitable, as well as agreeable amufing under- 
taking. Among many other encouragements, he tells 
them this ftory : " Pavidius Veterenfis, a neighbour of my 
uncle, had a vineyard and two daughters. Upon the mar- 
riage of one of them, he gave with her as her dowry, one third 
of his vineyard; and then doubled his diligence, and cul- 
tivated the remainder fo well, that it yielded him as much 
as the whole had done before : Upon the marriage of the 
other daughter, he uave with her one other third of his vine- 
yard ; and now having but one third part of the whole left ; 
he fo manured and cultivated it, that it yielded him full as 
much as the whole had done at fir ft." 

This ingenious author accufes many of his countrymen 
of having begun this work with feeming refolution, and of 
having carried it on for fome time with afliduity, but be- 
fore they had brought it to perfed:ion, they flagged, and for 
want of fteadineis and a little longer perfeverance, loft their 
money, their labour, and all their profpeds. At the time 
he proves to a demonftration, from exa<5l and minute cal- 
culations, the great advantages of vineyards notwithftanding 
the great expence the P^omans were at in buildings, inclo- 

fures, 



i86 CULTIVATION of th£ VINE. 

fures, workmen and magnificent works, and brings his 
own vineyards, which were well known, as proofs of all 
he had faid. 

I fhall take the liberty to conclude this introduction with 
a fhort but pretty defcription of the vine, which Cicero, 
in his beautiful trad upon old age, puts into the mouth of 
Cato. 

The vine that naturally runs low, and cannot rear itfelf 
without a fupport, is for this end provided with tendrils, 
by which, like fo many hands, it lays hold on every thing 
it meets with, that may raife it, and by thefe aids it ex- 
pands, and becomes fo luxuriant, that to prevent its run- 
ning out into ufelefs wood, the drefler is obliged to prune 
offits fuperfluous wandering branches; after which from 
the ftanding joints, in the enfuing fpring, the little bud 
called the gem, pufhes out the new Ihoot, wheron the ten- 
der young grape is formed; which gradually fwelling by 
nourifliment from the earth, is at firft auftere to the tafte, 
but guarded with leaves around, that it may neither want 
due warmth, nor fufFer by too fcorching rays, it ripens by 
the Sun's enlivening beams, and acquires that delicious 
fweetnefs and beautiful form, that equally pleafes both the 
tafte and the eye; and then enriches the world with that 
noble liquor, the advantages of which I need not name. 
Yet it is not the fenfe of thefe, nor of all the advantages 
of hufbandry, that fo nearly affe6: us, as the pleafure I 
find in their culture alone; fuch as ranging the vines and 
their fupporting perches in exad: and even rows, in arch- 
ing and binding their tops, lopping off the woody and 
barren, and training the fruitful branches to fupply every 
vacancy, and then contemplating the beauty and order 
with the procefs of nature in the whole. 

Of the planting and management of the Vine, 

THE firft thing neceflary to a good vineyard is a pro- 
per plot or piece of ground. Its fituation ihould be high 
and dry, free from fprings and a wet fpewy foil. Its af- 

ped: 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 187 

pe^rt or front fhould be towards the fouth and fouth-eaft. 
Though the ground be not a hill, yet if it be high, open 
and airy, and gradually afcends towards the fouth or fouth- 
caft, it will do very well. If it be a fruitful hill, it will 
do better. But if it be a mountain, with a rich foil, it 
will be heft of all; for the higher the vineyard, the richer 
the wine. 

The foil mod natural to a vineyard, and fuch as pro- 
duces the fweeteft grapes, and the richeft ftrongeft wine, 
is a rich mould mixed with fand. The newer and frefher 
the ground, the better ; fuch a foil may be found on a 
rifmg ground and on fome hills, but very feldom on the 
fides of mountains; for here the foil is generally ftiff and 
clayey, fo ordered by Providence, as being lefs fubjedl to 
be waflied away by hard rains; but this ftiif foil on the 
fide of mountains differs greatly from clay grounds below ; 
the winds and air, and the Sun's heat fo dry and warm it, 
that it becomes a proper bed for vines, and renders them 
both prolific and productive of the richeft wines. 

A rich warm foil mixed with gravel, or a fandy mould 
interfperfed with large ftones, or with fmall loofe rocks, 
are alfo very proper for a vineyard. Rocks and ftones, if 
the foil be good, warm and dry, are no difadvantage to 
vines. On the contrary, they refledt great heat to the 
fruit, and thereby contribute towards perfed:ing the wine, 
efpecially if they are on rifing ground, on the declivity of 
a hill, or on the fide of a mountain. It is true they are at- 
tended with fome inconveniences. It is more difficult to 
keep fuch a vineyard clean, to ftake it well, to range the 
vines in proper order, and regular form, to dung the 
ground, and gather in the vintage. But then, thefe rocks 
and ftones will make a good, clofe, ftrong, and lafting 
fence. On the fides of hills and mountains they are ab- 
folutely neceflaryto make low rough walls along the lower 
fide of the vines, to preferve the good foil from wafhing 
away. They ferve alfo to keep the ground moift in hot 
dry times, when, but for them, the foil would be parched 

up 



i88 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

up along fuch fteep grounds. In iTiort, there would be 
no fuch thuig as raifing vineyards on fuch grounds, were 
it not for rocks and ftones. For as it is necelTary to keep 
the foil loofe and mellow, it would all wafh away with 
hard rains, if not prevented by forming a kind of rough 
wall of ftones along the lower fide of each row of vines. 
Again, fuch lands are cheap, being unfit for other pur- 
pofes, and generally yielding but little timber or grafs. 
They may therefore be purchafed by poor people, who 
could not afford to go to the price of good land. Laftly, 
thefe fteep hills and mountains always yield the richeft 
wines, the value and price of which will compenfate for 
any extraordinary labour. 

If the ground be worn and out of heart, it muft be re- 
newed and helped with dung, with fredi mould, with 
creek mud, with the rich foil that lodges along the fides 
of brooks or rivers, or that fettles in low places at the 
foot of hills or mountains, or by foddering cattle andflieep 
upon it with good ftore of ftraw, fait hay, or corn-ftalks, 
&c. or by penning fuch cattle upon it and plowing all un- 
der it as deep as may be, till all be made fufficiently rich, 
or by any other method, that fhall beft fuit the owner. 

If your ground be ftiff, it may be mended by good ftore 
of fand, alhes, foot, the rubbiih and morter of old build- 
ings, well pounded, efpecially if fuch morter be made of 
lime and fand, by the duft and fmall coal of coal kilns, 
and the earth, that they are covered with when they are 
burnt, fea fand or fine gravel, and good ftore of fowl's 
dung and Iheep's dung, or the old dung of neat cattle. 

After your ground is brought into good heart, and has 
been deep ploughed or dug and well harrowed, fo as to be 
quite mellow, it muft be well fccured with a good clofe 
fence, fuch as is fit to turn rambling boys, as well as cat- 
tle and hogs, for on this depends the fuccefs of the whole. 
The next ftep to be taken, is to provide a fufficicnt 
ftock of vine cuttings, not only enough to plant the vine- 
yard, but a fmall nurfery too. If thefe Cannot be had all 

at 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 189 

at once, begin to lay up a year or two beforehand, and 
plant them in your nurfcry in even rows, at four inches 
diftance, and the rows three feet afundcr, that they may be 
howed and kept clean ; and fcatter fome Ihort ftraw and 
chaff along between the rows to keepthe ground moid and 
the weeds down. Let the ground of your nurfery be in 
good heart, but by no means fo rich as the foil of your 
vineyard; if it is, when the plants are removed into the 
vineyard, they will pine and dA/indle, and feldom fiourifh 
and become fruitful. The reafon of planting the cuttings 
fo clofe in the nurfery is, to prevent their fliooting their 
roots too far into the ground, which would render them 
very difficult to take up without damaging the root, and 
rnore tedious to plant out. 

Be not over fond of planting various forts of vines in 
your vineyard, if you mean to make good wine. The 
mofl: experienced Vignerons fay, that grapes of one fort 
make the beft wine; that if they are mixed, they hurt 
the wine, by keeping it conftantly upon the fret, by means 
of their different fermentations. Be that as it may, I 
fhould recommend this pradice, for reafons that operate 
more flrongly with me, which are, that the more fimple 
and pure wine is, the more perfect it is in kind. Three 
different wines may be all good in kind and very agree- 
able, whilfl diftind, but when mixed together become 
quite the reverfe, and the whole is fpoiled. If my vine- 
yard contained one acre of ground, I fhould choofe to have 
but two forts of grapes in it, if I meant to make a profit 
of it by felling the wine, if it contained two acres, I would 
have four forts in it; and if it contained three or four 
acres, I fhould not choofe more. But if it contained fix, 
eight or ten acres, perhaps I might incline to have a greater 
variety ; but then 1 fhould prefer thofe kinds that make 
the beft wines and fuch as do not come in at the fame time, 
from whence I fhould reap many advantages. Firft I fnould 
not be overhurried in the time of vintage, nor run the 
rifque of having fome fpoil upon my hands, whilft I was 

Vol. I. B b making 



I90 C U L T I V A T I O N OF the V I N E. 

making up the reft; again, if a feafon proved unfavour- 
able, and fome were cut off by the inclemency of the 
weather, others, that were later ripe, might efcape the in- 
jury. It is certainly heft to plant each fort in a diftindt 
quarter by itfelf, if we mean to avoid confufion, and to 
reap every advantage. 

The next thing to be confidered is the quality of the 
vines to be made choice of. This muft be limited, and 
adapted to the climate where the vineyard is planted. The 
moft hardy and earlieft ripe, will beft fuit the moft north- 
ern colonies, 1 mean thofe of New-Hampihire, Bofton, 
Rhode-Ifland and Connedicut. • As to thofe countries, that 
lie ftill farther north, they are not yet fufficiently cleared 
and open for the purpofe. The vines proper for thefe 
countries are, 

I. The black Auvernat,^ |^ The white Mufcadine, 

^1 The Mufcadella, 
-^ The Melie Blanc, 



2. The black Orleans, 

3. The blue Clufter, 

4. The Miller Grape, 
The black Hamburgh, 
The red Hamburgh, 



wS The white Morillon, 



The white Auvernat, 
The grey Auvernat. 

All thefe are ripe early in September. 

All the foregoing forts will do very well for the three 
bread colonies, viz. New- York, New-Jerfey, Pennfylva- 
nia, and the three Lower Counties; I mean for the clear 
and open parts of thefe countries; to which may be added 
the following forts, which I recommend by way of trial, 
they being more tender, but ripen in September; they 
fhould have the warmeft birth in the vineyard. 
The Chaffelas Blanc, called The red Frontiniac, 

the Royal Mufcadine, The black Lifbon, 

The Malvois or Malmfey, The white Lifbon, 
The grey Frontiniac, The Chaffelas Noir. 

All the forpoing forts will do very well for the colonies 
of Maryland, Virginia, and North-Carolina, to which 
I Ihall add the following forts, and recommend them for 
trial, but then they muft have a warm place. The 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 191 

The white Frontiiilac, The black Damafk, 

The malmfey Mufcat, The Chicanti of Italy, which 

The claret Grape of Bourdeaux, makes a rich wine much 
The white Oporto, admired in Italy. 

The black Oporto, 

All the abovementioned forts will do well in South-Ca- 
rolina, and in the colonies ftill farther fouth. To which 
I ihall add the following forts, as being ftill more tender 
and later ripe. 

The raifin Mufcat, The white Mufcat of 
The Alicant and Malaga Alexandria, 

Raifin Grape, The gros Noir of Spain, 

The red Mufcat of Alexan- The St. Peter's Grane. 



dr 



la, 



In many parts of Virginia, North and South-Carolina, 
and in Georgia, the foil is chiefly a hot dry fand, and what 
ftrength nature afforded has been exhaufted by tobacco, 
Indian corn, rice, &c. However thefe grounds, where 
they lie near to rivers and creeks, may eafily be recruited; 
for thefe rivers abound with rich mud, which is the beft 
kind of manure for fuch lands, and it would be no great 
expence to procure a fufficient quantity of it to cover a 
piece of ground large enough for a vineyard, efpecially if 
it be confidered, what a number of hands the gentlemen 
of thefe countries have, who might be employed at fuch 
times, when other bufmefs is not very urgent : But then 
this mud muft lie fome time upon the ground, before it 
be mixed with the foil, at leaft a fummer and a winter; 
foratfirft it will bake very hard, and be very crude; but the 
winds, dews, rains andfrofts, with the help of the Sun, will 
fweeten, mellow, and bring it into a proper temper. Then 
it muft be equally fpread and well mixed with the foil. 
Thus may the land be recruited, and kept in good heart, 
from time to time, and from a barren ufelefs piece of 
ground it may become profitable both to the owner and 
his country. 

The 



192 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

The nature and quality of the vines being confidered and 
made choice of to fuit the country you live in, the next 
thing neceH'ary to be known is, hovi^ to make choice of 
fuch parts of a vine, for cuttings to plant, as may be moft 
likely to grow and tlourifh, and alio to produce healthy 
and fruitful vines, on which the fuccefs and profits cf a 
vineyard very much depend. Know then, that all parts 
of a vine are not equally good and fit for plants. If you 
have it in your choice, avoid all branches, that have not 
born fruit, all fuckers, nephews, lateral and fecondary 
branches, and efpecially the long running barren branches. 
Thefe difi:erent forts feldom produce fruitful vines. Choofe 
therefore, your cuttings from the teeming part of the vine, 
from among thofe branches that were fet apart for bear- 
ing fruit; and among thefe, choofe fuch as are fliort joint- 
ed, and have been moft fruitful the laft fummer, fo fhall 
you be fure to have fruitful and thrifty vines. Let them 
be cut down clofe to the old wood; for here the wood is 
ripeft and moft firm. The upper part of the fame branch 
is lefs ripe, and more loofe and fpungy, and more apt to 
fail, and very feldom makes fo firm and lafting a vine. 
However, where vines are fcarce, and men have not thefe 
advantages in their power, they muft do the beft they can. 
Thefe branches muft be trimmed and cleared from the ne- 
phews and the lateral or fecondary branches; but in doing 
this, great care muft be taken not to wound the buds or 
eyes, which a carelefs hand is very apt to do. If the bud 
be bruifed with the back of the knife, fo that the cotton 
that lies under the thin bark, that covers the bud, and is 
wifely intended to preferve it from the injuries of the wea- 
ther, be rubbed off", the bud will perifli. Therefore as 
the buds lie clofe to thefe lateral branches, and are in fo 
much danger of being wounded, it is beft and fafeft to cut 
the branches off, a little above the height of the bud, that 
the little ftump or ftub left behind may be above the top 
of the bud, fo fhall the eye be left fecure, and run no 
rifque of being blinded. 

The 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 193 

Thefe branches being thus trimmed remain whole and 
at full length *till the next April, which in the northern 
colonies, is the heft time for planting. They fhould be 
feparated from the mother plant, fometime in September, 
or as ibon as the vintage is over, that bein'a; the beft time 
for the trimming of vines, becaufe the wounds which the 
mothers receive are healed up, and fecurely doled from 
the feverity of the w^inter feafon. If this work be left 
'till February or March, the parent fuffers by her frefh 
wounds in long rains, fleets and frofts that follow; or if 
the weather be favourable, fhe grows faint and exhaufted 
by cxcefs of bleeding, and her eyes are drowned in her 
own blood. 

The beft way I have found for preferving the cuttings 
through the winter, and which I therefore recommend for 
a general pradice, is as follows. At or near the north 
wefl: corner of your vineyard or garden, the fence being 
good and clofe, let a fmall trench be dug five or fix inches 
deep and wide, and fo long as may contain all your 
branches. In this plant them thick and clofe with the but 
ends down, and fill up the trench, as you go, with the 
ground, that came out of it, and prefs it down well with 
your hand, all about the bottom of your branches; let 
the dirt rife two or three inches above the furface of the 
ground, to prevent the water from fettling about the vines, 
which would rot them. Between every fort, drive down 
two fiakes and fix a label to one of them to diftinguijQi the 
vines from each other by their proper names. Before you 
plant your vines in this manner, drive down two or more 
crotches, according to the quantity of vines, at about 
three feet from the trench, and parallel with it, upon which 
poles are laid, to fupport the upper part of the branches 
about twelve or fifteen inches from the ground. Thus 
they all lie Hoping without touching the ground, which 
preferves them from growing mouldy and from rotting. 
The vines then are covered with firaw, laid lengthways 
upon them up and down a little beyond the trench, fo 

that 



194 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

that the water is carried off beyond the foot of the vines 
bv this ftraw roof; and yet the rtraw miift not be laid on 
too thick, left it continue moift too long, and occafion 
mouldinefs. Acrofs the top, a pole is laid and acrofs the 
bottom, and fattened down to prevent the ftraw from 
blowing away. Thus they remained 'till fpring. 

In the beginning of April when you are ready for 
planting, the weather being moderate and calm, the frbft 
out of the ground, and nature teeming with frelh vegetati- 
on, then cut your branches for planting. If one" cutting 
from every branch be fufficient for your purpofe, then cut 
the lower part about twelve or fourteen inches long. But 
as it is moft likely, that you will not be fo lucky, as to 
have enough of thefe, then do what neceffity requires, and 
make two or three cuttings of every branch, not lefs than 
a foot long; and having a trench made ready, place them 
in it clofe together, the but or lower end down, and cover 
them up with earth to the upper eye 'till you are ready to 
plant, carefully placing every fort by themfelves, with 
a label denoting the kind. This direction is calculated 
for the three bread colonies. The more northern colonies 
will be a month later, and the more fouthern colonies will 
be at leaft a month, fome two months earlier; they muft 
conduct themfelves accordingly. To thefe laft colonies, I 
would recommend the cuttings to be longer, that they may 
be planted deeper, the better to preferve the vines from 
exceifive heats and droughts. 

Your ground as I faid before being well manured, and 
brought into good heart if old, or being naturally rich if 
new, and having been, at leaft twice, deep ploughed and 
well harrowed the fummer before, in the fall of the year 
it muft be deep ploughed the third time, and always acrofs 
the hill or rifmg ground, and let it lie rough juft as it is 
ploughed, all winter, which will greatly prevent wafl:»ing, 
and the frofts will mellow it and prepare it the better for 
vegetation. 

In 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 195 

In the Spring of the year, as foon as the ground is dry, 
let it be well harrowed both ways, with a fharp iron tooth 
harrow laid down fmooth and even ; and take this caution 
along with you, which I now give once for all, never to 
meddle with the ground of your vineyard when it is wet, 
or even moift at top, nay, I would have you avoid as much 
as poffible, walking in at fuch a time. Your own expe- 
rience will foon teach you, the reafon of this caution. For 
you will find, that the lighter and more open and loofe 
the foil of a vineyard is kept, the more the vines will flou- 
riih, and the more fruitful they will prove. 

When your ground is in proper order, provide a fmall 
ftake of four feet longfor every vine; and begin to lay out 
your vineyard in the moft regular manner the nature and 
ihape of the ground will admit of. If you mean to plough 
and harrow your vineyard, with a fmall iingle horfe 
plough and a fmall corn harrow, you muft leave a border 
of ten or twelve feet on each fide of every fquare, to turn 
your horfe upon, leaft he tramples upon and deftroys the 
outfide vines. There will be no need of fuch borders along 
the upper or lower fide of the fquares, unlefs you choofe 
it for regularity's fake; becaufe your vineyard fhould ne- 
ver be ploughed up and down hill, but tranfverfely, unlefs 
you mean to have it gullied, and the rich foil waflied- 
away by hard rains. 

The following method of laying out a vineyard, I think 
is as eafy, as regular and as expeditious as any, for a lon^- 
fquare or a four fquare piece of ground. Your fquares 
being laid out, and having concluded how far your vines 
lliall fland every way from one another, in which every 
man is to pleale himfelf; you ftretch a line of a proper 
length, and ftitch fmall pieces of red, blue, green, or any 
other coloured cloth at fuch diilance from each other as 
you mean to plant your vines. 1 will fuppofe eight feet, 
becaufe upon the mod mature deliberation, I think that 
the befl: diftance for vines to ftand at in this country, as I 
{hall afterwards fliew more fully. 

The 



196 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

The line being ready, flretch it along the head or up- 
per part of your Iqiiare, (o that a rag appears at each 
corner, drive down a flake at every rag: This done, move 
your line down to the lower fide of the fquare, which is 
oppofite to the firft, and ftretch your line along that, having 
a rag at each corner, and drive down a ftake at every rag : 
Then turn your line the other way up and down, and faften 
your line to the upper and to the lower outfide ftakes, fo that a 
rag be at each ftake, and drive down a ftake at every rag, 
and fo go on from ftake to ftake, till the whole be com- 
pleated. If you have been careful not to difturb or move 
the line, when you drove down the ftakes, and have driven 
them all on the fame fide of the line, your fquare will be 
uniform, and the ftakes near the ground, will range exa(St- 
ly every way. 

If your vineyard be large enough to divide into four, fix, 
or eight fquares, or more, according to the dift'erent forts 
of grapes you defign to have in it, and you are not pinched 
for room, you will find it very convenient on many ac- 
counts to have crofs walks of twelve feet, between the 
fquares, not only to turn upon when ploughing, but for 
carting in of dung, and placing it handily for dunging the 
vines, which will be a great faving of labour, befides be- 
ing attended with many other advantages. 

Having ftaked your ground, which ought to be done 
when it is dry, becaufe it will fave you a i-reat deal of la- 
bour, in making it loofe and mellow again; and having 
as many vine cuttiniis as you can plant in Haifa day, foak- 
ing in rich dung water, in a pail, which fervcs beft to keep 
the plants upright, the butt ends beiui^ down, dig holes at 
everv ftake larger or fmaller, according to your own fan- 
tafy and judgment : For it matters not, fo they are deep 
enough to contain the plant. But here I muft clear up a 
point, which has led many people into miftakcs and ren- 
dered this work more tedious, and that Is the throwing in- 
to the holes, in which the vines are planted, rich mould 
mixed with old dung, thinking that this muft be a great ad- 
vantage 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 197 

vantage to the vine. This is a great miftake. For as foon 
as the vine fhoots it roots, beyond this rich mixture, 
into the common foil, which is many degrees poorer and 
colder, the roots, as it were, recoil and ihrink back at a 
coldnefs and poverty, they had not been ufed to, and the 
vegetation is flopped, and the plant dwindles into poverty 
and barrenefs; and if you examine the plant at bottom, 
you will find that inftead of extending its roots to their 
ufual length, it has fhot out a great number of frnall fibres 
like threads, which extend no farther than the good mould 
and thefe being quite infufficient to anfwer the demands 
of nature, the plant perifhes, or remains in an inadiveand 
barren ftate. Whereas, had the vine been planted in the 
common foil at firft, it would have met with no alteration, 
no fudden change to check its growth. This fliews that 
the foil fhould be well mixed; and let me tell you once 
for all, that the vine delights in a warm, comfortable, fruit- 
ful foil ; but proves unfruitful and perifhes in a foil cold 
and barren. Yet a foil may be too rich, or made too rank 
by dung, and this extreme is alfo to be avoided. But to 
return to planting our vines, the holes being dug accord- 
ing to your mind, plant your vine, fetting the foot forward 
from the ftake, and bend it a little, without cracking the 
bark, and bring it gently up againft the ftake, fo that one 
eye only remains above the furface of the ground. Let 
not the eye touch the ftake, but look from it. Then mixing 
the ground well together, throw it in and prefs it gently 
about the vine, till the hole is almoft full, and throvv' the 
reft in lightly, without prefling, fo that it may rife up to the 
eye of the vine, which ought to be about two inches above 
the common furface. By this means, the vine will be pre- 
ferved from drying winds and the hot Sun, till it begins 
to grow. Some place four or five paving ftones about the 
foot of the vine, not fo clofe but that the roots may {hoot 
out between them, and thefe they fay, and I think with 
reafon, condenfe the air in hot dry feafons, and nourilh the 
vine with moifture, and cool and refrefti it when parched 
Vol. I. C c ^^ ith 



198 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

with exceffive heats. In the northern colonies, the vines 
fhould he planted on the fouth ftde of the ftakes, for the 
fake of the Sun: In the fouthern colonies, they fhould be 
planted on the north fide to avoid too great heat. The 
upper eye only fhould fhoot out branches, from which the 
head of the vine is formed. If any fhoots fhould rife from 
below, which fometimes is the cafe, the fooner they are re- 
moved the better, thefe are called fuckers, and very much 
exhauft the vine. And thus you proceed till all be finifhed. 
When your vines are all planted, if you have any cut- 
tings remaining, plant them in a nurfery or along the north 
fide of your flakes, for you will have occafion for them, 
as many of your vines will mifcarry, and the fooner their 
places are fupplyed the better. If fome of your vines do 
not fhoot till July, do not give them up, they may grow 
notwithftanding. I have had many, that have not fhot till 
Augufl, and yet have done well. And here let me tell 
you that, the filling up all the vacancies, where the vines 
have failed or mifcarried, is abfolutely neceffary to be done 
as foon as poffible, either the fall after the vines were 
planted, with plants, if you have any growing in your 
nurfery, which are befl: planted as foon as the leaf is fal- 
len; or the next fpring, with cuttings, which is the befl fea- 
fon for planting them ; for the latter having no root fuffer 
greatly in the winter feafon, and if planted in the fall, mofl 
of them perifh. If the vacancies fhould by any means be 
negledcd for three or four years, you will find it very 
difficult to raife thrifty and flourifhing vines in mch places 
afterward; becaufe by this time, the neighbouring vines 
have fhot their roots all round the fpot, where the young 
vine is to be planted, and will fo draw away the nourifh- 
ment, and entangle the fmall tender roots, that firil fhoot 
from it, that it will not be able to fhoot forward and flou- 
rifh. Some, for this reafon, plant two cuttings in a hole, 
leaft one fliould mifcarry. To this the chief objection is, 
that hereby the regularity and uniformity of your vineyard 
is hort, many of the vines ftanding out of rank and file. 

For 



CULTIVATION OF Till: VINE. 199 

For a well regulated vineyard refemblesa fine regiment un- 
der proper and exadl difcipline. If fome of your vines 
prove weak the firft fummer, and do not recover ftrength 
the fecond fummer, though manured and cultivated well, 
root them out, for they very feldom are worth raifing; and 
plant healthy vines in their (lead, out of your nurfery; fo 
Ihall you have a healthy, flourilhing and well conftituted 
vineyard. 

By this time you fee the neceffity of having a fupply of 
young vines from a nurfery, a circumftance that is by no 
means to be neglected. 

In digging up the plants from your nurfery, be careful to 
take them up without wounding or bruifing the roots, and 
having a pail or fmall tub, half full of rich dung water, 
put the plants, with the roots down, into that, fo fhall 
they be preferved from the Sun and drying winds, which 
would foon parch and dry up thefe young tender roots and 
kill the vine. When you have dug up about a dozen or 
twenty plants, then proceed to planting, which muft be 
done in the following manner. Your holes being dug deep 
enough and fufficiently wide, for the roots to be fpread in 
at full length, throw in fome loofe earth, and fpread it 
over the bottom of the hole, and fix in your plant near 
the flake, fo high that the little branches rife an inch or 
two above the furface of the ground. The roots, you 
Vs'ill perceive, for the moiT: part grow in rows, one above 
another. The upper roots of all, which are called the 
day roots, muft be cut away; the under roots of all muft 
then be fpread at full length, and covered with earth, then 
the next muft be ferved in the fame manner, and foon till 
all be regularly extended and covered. This is purfuing 
of nature, which in thefe cafes is generally the beft direc- 
tor. So fliall the earth be well fettled about the roots, and 
the vines in the fpring will grow and flourifli, as if they 
had not been moved or tranfplanted. If a fervant, or even 
a gardener be left to manage this work, they will be iipt, 
as I have often feen, to fet the plant in the hole, in a care- 

lefs 



200 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

Icf's manner, with all the roots huddled together, and fo 
cover it with earth. This is io contrary to the order of 
natm-e, and to common fenfe, that the difference is plain- 
ly feen without farther explanation; and indeed moft of 
the mii'carriages in life are are owing to inattention and 
careleffnefs. 

Your vines being all planted as above direded, and the 
vine cuttings, with one eye only above ground, and that 
almofl covered with light eaith, to prelerve them from 
fuffering with heat and from drying winds 'till they be- 
gin to grow; this upper bud only will fhoot out branches, 
and the lower ones will throw out roots : And this is much 
better than to have two or three buds above ground, and 
branches growing from them all, which only ferve to 
weaken the vine, and to hinder the forming of a good 
head, which is the firft and chief point to be gained and 
well fecured. 

We how proceed to the management of the vine in its 
infant ftate, upon which will very much depend the fuc- 
cefs of your vineyard. 

There are but two ways of forming and managing of 
vines to advantage for vineyards, by flakes, or efpalicrs. 
In ancient times, it was common for vines to be wedded to 
trees, and they had the poplar, the afh, or the elm for their 
companions and fupports, but men foon difcovered the 
great inconveniency of following nature in this refpect. 
They found, that thefe trees were found difficult to raife 
in high dry grounds, where vines were proper to be plant- 
ed; that when they did grow, their roots were very much 
in the way of the vines, and of working the land, and al- 
fo drew away too much of the ftrength of the ground ; and 
they mounted the fruit fo high, that it became very dif- 
ficult and took up a great deal of time to gather it, for 
which reafons this method has long been laid afide. As 
for wall fruit, the vines that are fixed to walls mufi: be 
manar-^ed in the fame manner, as thofe which are defign- 
ed for efpalicrs, that is, the head of the vine is at firft 
• formed 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 201 

formed about three feet from the ground. But this I fhall 
particularly explain, when I treat of the management of 
vines for efpaliers. I fhall begin then with the proper 
culture of vines that are defigned for ftakes. 

In this cafe the head of the vine is formed near the 
furface of the ground, as I have already more than once 
obferved; and this method is now generally pradifed 
throughout wine countries, and indeed it is the only me- 
thod proper for countries, where the frofts in winter are 
fo hard as to hurt vines, by which means the next year's 
crop is dertroyed. There is no way to prevent this, but by 
covering the vines in winter, which cannot well be done,, 
when vines are fixed upon frames or efpaliers, without 
great difficulty and labour, as well as danger to the vine. 

The firft fummer after the vine is planted, you have 
nothing to do, but to tie up the little branches to the flakes 
with a foft band, as foon as they are grown about a foot 
or fifteen inches long, which will fave them from being 
torn off by hard winds, which would endanger the vine. 
Befides they grow the flronger and the better for it, and 
are out of the way of the hoe, the plough and the harrow. 
You are alfo to keep the ground clean and free from weeds 
and grafs; for they are great enemies to vines. If the 
ground be kept mellow and loofe, your vines will grow 
and flourifh the better. If you. have any litter, fhort fbaw 
and chaff, the fhives of broken hemp or flax, the chaff 
of flax feed, the duft and chaff of buckwheat, and the 
ftraw trod fine with horfes when it is dry, any or all of 
thefefpread over your vineyard after it is hoed or ploughed 
and harrowed, will keep down the grafs and weeds, keep 
the ground moifl and light, and will greatly preferve the 
good foil from wafhing away. If this be done the firft 
three or four years, it will greatly forward the vines, bring 
the ground into good heart, and finely prepare it to pro- 
duce" good crops, by keeping it loofe, airy and light, in 
v^hich vines greatly delight. 

In 



202 CULTIVATION OF THE VINE. 

In the month of September, when the leaf begins to 
wither and fall off, which is the beft time for trimming 
of vines, as I have already obferved, cut down all the 
branches, to one good bud each, and always remember 
that the lowermoft bud next the old wood, is called the 
dead eye, and is never reckoned among the good buds. 
When your vines are thus trimmed, let a careful hand 
take away the dirt from the foot of the vine, about four 
inches down, and cut away all the upper roots that appear 
above that depth. Thefe are called day roots, and muft 
be taken away every fall, the firft three years. The beft 
way is, not to cut them off clofe to the body of the vine, 
but about a ftraw's breadth from it, fo fhall they not be fo 
apt to grow again. Thefe upper or day roots greatly 
weaken the vine, and hinder the lower roots from extend- 
ing themfelves, and from firmly fixing themfelves below, 
on which greatly depend the ftrength, firmnefs and dura- 
blenefs of the vine, and alfo its fruitfulnefs, Befides by 
thefe roots running deep, the vine is preferved from pe- 
rifhing in long tedious droughts. Let the foot of the vine 
be left open, after the day roots are cut away, that it may 
dry and harden, till the hard frofts come. Then the holes 
are to be filled again, and the head of the vine covered 
with chaff and (hort draw mixed, or with bog hay, or fait 
hay, or with horfe litter, that is free from dung and grafs 
feeds; for thefe fliould be carefully kept out of a vineyard, 
which will fave the labour of rooting out the grafs that 
would fpring from them. Some cover the head of the 
vine with the ground when they fill up the holes; but this 
is wrong, it greatly endani^ers the vine, as I have found by 
experience, for I have loft many of them by this manage- 
ment, before I difcovered the danger. The ground, in 
warm rains, moulds and rots the vine. For the fame rea- 
fon, fuffer no dung to be among the ftraw, hay, or horfe 
litter with which you cover your vines. The heat of the 
dung, in warm rains or muggy warm weather, will mould 
and rot them; the cooler and dryer they are kept, the 

better. 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 203 

better. I have told you before, and I now repeat it, (be- 
caufe it is a work that muft by no means be negleded,) 
when you trim your vines, if you find that any of them 
have mifcarried, which is very common, plant others in 
their room immediately, if you have any plants of the 
fame fort growing in your nurfery; if not, then do not 
delay to provide cuttings of the fame kind, and preferve 
them till fpring, as you were before direded, and plant 
them in the vacant places, that your vineyard may be full 
and complete as foon as poffible, fo fliall it grow and fiou- 
rifh the better. 

The fecond fummer you will find more branches (hoot- 
ing from the heads of your vines, than did the firft fum- 
mer; and here the fkill of a Vigneron is neceffary for form- 
ing the head of a vine in the heft manner. Let the 
fhoots grow, till they are ten or twelve inches long, then 
. choofe eight, that are fhort jointed and much of a fize, 
that grow on all fides of the vine, and with your finger 
ftrike off all the reft. If any one branch among the whole 
number, appears much more thrifty than the reft, you may 
perhaps be tempted to fave it; but let not your eye fpare 
it. It will only prove a thief and a robber. It will draw 
to itfelf the chief nouriftiment of the vine, and ftarve the 
reft of the branches, and after all will bear but little fruit. 
The ftiort jointed branches, prove the beft bearers, and 
thefe ftanding on all fides of the head, preferve the vine 
in full ftrength and vigor. For this reafon the rounder 
the head of the vine is formed, the better. If the branches 
be fuffered to grow from one fide of the head, the other 
fide fuffers greatly, and is apt to perifti. 

This year there lliould be two ftakes to a vine, one on 
each fide, to faften the branches to, by this means they are 
fpread at a diftance from each other, and grow the ftrong- 
er and better; the Sun, air, and winds come to every part; 
the wood ripens well, and the buds fill, and they are the 
better prepared to become fruitful in due time. Whereas, 
when they are huddled altogether, and faftened up to one 

ftake, 



204 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

ftake, tbev fufFer greatly for want of the Sun and air to 
dry them after rains, mirts and heavy dews; and in clofe 
muggy weather, they will mildew and rot. Let therefore 
the branches be tied up fingly to the flakes on each fide, 
with a foft band, as foon as they are long enough, leaft 
they be torn off by hard winds, which would ruin the 
vine. I need not tell you again, that your vineyard is al- 
ways to be kept clean and free from weeds and grafs; and 
the dryer the ground is, and the hotter the weather, the 
more efFedually they are deftroyed, by hoeing, ploughing 
and harrowing. But remember never to meddle with 
your ground when it is wet, you do more hurt than good. 
This fecond fummer your main branches fhould be fuf- 
fered to grow about five feet long, and then the ends of 
them murt be nipped off, in order to curb them, to keep 
them within proper bounds, and to hinder them from 
growing wild. The lateral or fecondary branches fhould 
be nipped off at the end, when they are about a foot long, 
the nephews alfo fhould be nipped off when they are about 
fix inches long. This is much better, than the taking all 
thefe fmaller branches clean away, which is the practice 
of fome, who are more nice than wife. For I have found, 
by experience, that, when thefe fecondary branches are 
clean taken away, the main branches fuffer; they grow 
flat, and appear diftorted; which plainly fhews, that nature 
is deprived of fomething, that is effentially neceffary to her 
well being. It is quite neceffary to nip off the ends of the 
main branches, when they are grown about five feet long. 
They grow the larger and flronger, the wood ripens the 
better, the lower buds are well filled, and better prepared 
for the bearing of fruit. Befides it teaches the vines to 
become reconciled to a low and humble ftate, it curbs their 
pride and ambition, which is always to climb and mount 
up above every thing that is near them, and educates them 
to bear fruit within your reach. Some tinie after the tops 
of the main branches are nipped off, they will fhoot out 
a fecond time, and then they generally throw out, from 

near 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 205 

near the end, two branches inftead of one; fo prone is the 
vine to fhoot and extend itfclf, thefe alfo muft be nipped 
off; at the fame time the lateral or fecondary branches 
muft he looked to and nipped off, if any of them are {hoot- 
ing out anew. 

In the fall of the year, as foon as the leaf begins to 
wither and fall off, which happens earlier or later, accord- 
ing to the weather, cut the branches down again to one 
j»^ood bud each, and take away the earth round the heads 
of the vines, as before dire(fted, and cut away the day roots, 
and manage them juft in the fame manner as you did the 
fall before. Now as feme of your forward vines will bear 
fruit the third from the planting, which is the next year, 
and as it is natural for yoU to defire fruit, and efpecially to 
know what fort of fruit, and how good, your different 
vines will bear; to fatisfy your curiofity, I would advife 
you to fet afide two or three at moft, of each fort of your 
moft thriving vines for that purpofe, and inftead of cutting 
down all their branches to one bud each, like the reft, leave 
two branches on each of thefe vines, with two or three 
good buds each, which will fhew fome fruit to your fatis- 
fadion. But be perfuaded to prevent the reft from bear- 
ing fruit till the fourth year, and the weaker vines till the fifth 
year, and your, vineyard will make you ample fatisfadtion, 
for this piece of felf denial. For it greatly weakens a 
vine to bear fruit when fo young; and however fond moft 
men may be of their vines bearing much fruit, the over- 
bearins: of vines is allowed on all hands, to hurt them 
greatly. To prevent v»hich, in wine countries, where it 
is common to leafe out vineyards to hufbandmen, whom 
they call Vignerons, they have very ftridl laws, obliging 
them to leave four, fix, or eight bearing branches on a 
vine, according to the age of the vineyard, the ftrength 
of the vines, and the goodnefs of the foil, and according 
to the cuftom of different countries where good wines are 
held in repute, to prevent their hurting the vines, and the 
reputation of their wines. Thefe Vignerons are likewife 
Vol. I. D d obliged- 



2o6 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

obliged, after three fruitful years, if fo many happen fuc- 
ceflively, to let their vineyards reft one year without bear- 
ing fruit, that they may have time to recruit and gather 
frefh ftrength. 

The third fummer you are to manage your vines in the 
fame manner you did the fecond, tying up all the 
branches to the ftakes, one above another; only of thofe 
vines that are to bear fruit, the fruit bearing branches 
fliould be tied up above the reft, that the fruit may have the 
benefit of the Sun, the air and winds, all which are necef- 
fary, and confpire to bring the fruit to maturity; and this 
fhould always be the practice. This year a third ftake is 
provided, which in the fpring is drove down juft on the 
north fide of the vine, upon a line with the reft, for order 
fake. To this ftake the branches that bear fruit, there be- 
ing but few of them, will be beft faftened, becaufe there will 
be the more room for the branches of referve, which are to 
bear fruit the next year, to be diftindly faftened to the 
fide ftakes. Thefe branches of referve are now of great 
importance to the owner, as the next crop will depend up- 
on the right management of them. They are, therefore, 
to be carefully tied up at proper diftances to the fide ftakes, 
that they may grow well, that the wood may ripen, and 
that the buds may be well filled. When they are grown? 
about five feet long, the ends muft be nipped off, the la- 
teral branches kept (hort, and the nephews reftrained, if 
they grow too long, fo ftiall the main branches appear full 
and round, and in a natural, healthy and flouriftiing ftate; 
whereas^ if they are all tied up/o one ftake, as is the 
pradice with fome people, the wood remains green and 
ipungy, and does not ripen, the buds do not fill well; 
and where the band is, all the branches mildew and rot; 
which plainly fliews the badnefs of fuch management. 
As to the few vines that bear fruit this fummer, let the 
fruit bearing branches be nipped off five joints above the 
fruit, and let the fide branches and nephews be kept fliort 
as above directed; fo ftiall the fruit come to perfedion. 

In 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 207 

In the fall of this third fummer, preferve two of the 

beft fhort jointed branches of referve, one on each fide of 

the head of the vine, for bearing fruit the next year : The 

rell cut down to one good bud each. If fome of your vines 

be very ftrong and flourifhing, you may preferve four 

branches for bearing fruit, but by no means more, one 

on each quarter of the vine, fo fhall they bear fruit the 

better. As to the branches on the few vines, that bore 

fruit this year, they muft be cut down to one good bud 

each ; for the fame branch mud never be fuffered to bear 

fruit two years running, unlefs you fall fhort of branches 

of referve, in that cafe you muft do what neceffity requires, 

and let the old branch bear a fecond time, but they fel- 

dom or never bear fo large clufters, nor fo fair fruit. On 

thefe vines, that bore fruit this year, not above two branches 

on each, fhould be kept for bearing fruit the next year, 

fo fhall you preferve their ftrength from being exhaufted 

when young; they will laft the longer, and bear fruit the 

more plentifully hereafter. The reft of the management 

is the fame with that of the laft year; only fome time in 

the latter end of November, or fomewhat later, if the hard 

weather keeps off, a fmall long trench on each fide of the 

vine is dug with a hoe, and the branches that are kept for 

bearing fruit, are laid down gently into them, without 

forcing them, fo as to crack them, or fplit the bark, or 

ftrain the wood too hard, and muft be covered over with 

the earth. If any part appears above ground, it muft be 

well covered with ftraw, bog, or fait hay, and indeed if 

the whole that are buried were alfo covered in the fame 

manner, with ftraw^ &c. it would be beft; for the branches 

being of an elaftic nature, they are very apt, upon the 

thawing of the ground, to rife with their backs above the 

ground, and remain expofed to the weather, fo that your 

crop may be \oi\ notwithftanding your trouble, which a 

fmall covering of ftraw or hay will prevent. If any of 

them fhould be fo ftiff and ftubborn as not to bend down, 

then bind ftraw round them and the ftake. 

In 



2o8 CULTIVATION OF the VINE. 

In the fpring of the fourth year, the branches that have 
been preferved for bearing fruit, murt: be carefully trained 
up to the fide ftakes, the higher the better; and the 
branches that flioot out from the head this fpring, which 
are called branches of referve, and are defigned to bear fruit 
the next fucceeding year, muft be tied up to the ftakes below 
the fruit bearing branches, and one or two to the middle 
Hake, if there is room, for often times the fruit bearing 
branches, occupy the middle as well as the fide flakes, and 
efpecially in a plentiful year. The management of the vine 
in its bearing If ate, calls for a clofe and particular attention. 
Some gentlemen, and thofe who have written beft upon 
this fubje(51:, recommend the taking away all the lateral or 
fecondary branches and the nephews, clofe to the body 
of the fruit bearing branch, and to leave only the main 
leaves of that branch, thinking, by this method, that all 
the nourifhment of the vine is thrown into the fruit. 
They alfo order the top of the branch to be taken off, with- 
in three joints of the uppermoft clufter of grapes. Others 
again are for following nature, and fufFer all the branches 
tt) extend themfelves as they w^ill. Thefe I look upon to 
be, two extremes, and think that a middle way, is every 
way beft, moft rational and fafeft. The lateral branches, 
the leaves and nephews are fuppofed by naturalifts to draw 
off and perfpire the crude and thin juices and to hinder 
them from entering and fpoiling the fruit, and alfo ferve 
as lungs for refpiration; the circulation of the air through 
all the parts being neceffary to vegetation, and for bring- 
ing the fruit to perfed: maturity. That this is fo, or how 
it is, I am not fo well acquainted with the operations of 
nature, as to determine; but this I know, that when thefe 
fmaller branches are taken clean away, the main branches 
inftead of growing round, full and plump, which is their 
natural ftate, become broad, flat and diftorted, and have 
an unnatural appearance. Befides thefe branches, when 
kept within proper bounds, ferve to fliade the fruit from 
thefcorching rays of the Sun, and to fcreen them from vio- 
lent 



CULTIVATIO N of the VINE. 209 

lept \vlB,ds,.fro»il hail and beating rains, from damps and 
fo^gs ajpd cold -nights dews, which are all injurious to the 
fijuit, as. well as the cold dry, north-eaft winds, and the cold 
driving noi;tb7fiaft ftorms. .But let not this lead us into the 
other, ^extreme, for if the vine be left to herfelf, and all be 
fug^eredrto grp>v, ihe^will run wild, and ruin all by her 
own excels,: .. This is. the method of managing vines when 
the head is fqrnied near the ground, w^hich is now prac- 
tif&d: in moll vine .countries; in vineyards, (except fome 
parts of -France, where they-areftill fond of efpaliers.) and 
this method. muft be continued as long as the vines laft, 
which moft. writers do affirm, will be above a hundred 
y^^rs... (A^ to the management of vines in gardens, againft 
walls, and for forming of (hady places, and many other 
ways to pleafe the humour and phantafyof the owner, that 
is not to be regarded, it has no relation to vineyards. 

Here I would propofea new method of managing vines, 
the heads of, which are formed near the ground, by way 
of trial.; I have not yet made the experiment, if it fhould 
anfwer, it would fave a good deal of trouble, and be more 
fecjure againft the feverities of the weather; I have been 
told that it is the pradice of fome to cut all the branches 
down, and to truft to new fhoots for bearing of fruit; and 
I have read the fame account in a treatife publifhed by 
James Mortwier, Elq; fellow of the royal focicty, in the 
year 1707, but thefe accounts are fo vague, fo general 
and fuperficial, without entering minutely into any par- 
ticulars, that I could have no dependence upon them; nor 
could any man form a judgment of the manner of doing 
it. However from thence I have taken the hint, and Ihall 
now propofe a method which may be worthy on trial. If 
the fall of the third year of the vine*s age, inftead of fav- 
ing two or four branches for bearing fruit, cut dovN^n thefe 
to two buds each, and the reft cut down to one bud each; 
the upper buds of thefe branches that have two buds, are 
defigned to bear fruit, this next year, the lower buds and 
the buds of all the reft are defigned for fruit the year after, 

and 



2IO CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

and therefore if any fruit fhould appear upon them, they 
muft be taken away as foon as the clufters appear; in the 
fall of the fourth year, cut all the branches that have born 
fruit clean away, and leave thofe that did not bear fruit; 
and then according to the ftrength of the vine, cut as many 
of thefe down to two buds, as you think your vine ought to 
bear, and cut the reft down to one bud, always remembering 
that the branches that have but one bud, and the under 
bud of thofe that have two, are to bear no fruit. When 
your vines come to be ftrong and able to bear it, cut down 
all the branches to two buds, and then you will have eight 
bearing branches in one year, which are quite enough for 
the ftrongeft vines; however if you have a mind to ftrain 
your vines, and to try how much they will bear, you may then 
cut as many branches as you think fit down to three buds, 
two of which may bear fruit, while the under buds are 
kept for branches of referve. In the fall, all the fruit 
bearing branches are cut clean away. If this method 
fhould lucceed to your mind, and you think it preferable 
to the method firft laid down, I mean that of preferving 
branches of referve to be laid down and covered in winter, 
which is the German method, and the general practice of 
the Rhine, &c. then in order to bring your older vines into 
this method, cut down the fruit bearing branches to one 
bud the firft year, and the branches of referve you may 
cut down to two or three buds each, as you think your 
vines are able to bear it. In this you form your judgment, 
from the ftrength of your vine, the goodnefs of your foil, 
the diftance of your vines from one another, and the quan- 
tity of fruit they have born the three preceeding years : for 
vines, as well as men, muft have time to reft and recruit, 
if you mean them to laft, and to return to their work with 
vigour. 

Now for the covering of thefe vines in the winter feafon, 
I would advife a handful of foft hay, that is free from 
grafs-feeds, to be laid on the head of the vine, and a flight 
box made of rough cedar boards, or of pine, (which any 

fervant 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 2it 

fervant may make, only let the top piece cover the whole,) 
be put over the head, which will be a fafe and fufficient 
covering. Otherwife a fmall fheaf of ftraw, bound well 
round the flake, and the bottom brought handfomely all 
round the head of the vine, and fecured by a band from 
blowing open, will do very well. The vines fhould not 
be covered till hard weather is ready to fet in, and they 
fhould be dry when covered. 

Before I proceed to the management of vines for the 
frame or efpalier, it will be neceffary to acquaint you with 
fome things of a general nature, which you will find wor- 
thy of notice. 

When vines are trimmed in the fall, which they ought 
to be as foon as the vintage is over, or as foon as the leaf 
withers and falls off, they feldom bleed, and never fo as 
to hurt them. If vines have been negleded and not trimmed 
in the fall, and this work muft be done in the fpring, let 
it be done in February, if good weather happens, or early 
in March. If it be done later, they will bleed too much, 
and endanger the crop. Searing the wound, as foon as it 
is made, with a hot iron, it is faid, and I think with rea- 
fon, will prevent the bleeding. In trimming, keep about 
two inches from the bud, or half way between bud and 
bud : fo fhall the upper bud that is left be free from danger. 
The rule is, to cut flopping upward, on the oppofite fide to 
the bud, that the flope may carry off the tears from the eye, 
but I never found this anykindof fecurityto the eyes below^ 
If therefore fearing every wound with a hot iron be thought 
too much trouble, the only remedy, befides that, which I 
have yet been able to difcover, is, to wafh the branches 
that are wounded and bleed, and efpecially the buds, w^ith 
a rag dipped in warm water, without touching the wound, 
which in 8 or lo days will flop of itfelf ; the liquor form- 
ing a flifF jelly upon the wound, Hke coagulated blood, 
and drying by degrees, heals up the wound. The wafh- 
ing mufl be deferred till they have done bleeding. Unlefs 
this is done, the eyes below will be in danger of being 

blinded-, 



212 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

blinded. For fo glutinous is the fap, that it binds up the 
bud it reaches, lb that the leaves cannot open and unfold 
at the time of vegetation. In cutting off large limbs from 
old vines, it fometimes happens that ants fall upon the 
pith, eat their way in, and make a hollow, where the 
water fettles and rots it. In this cafe the remedy is, to 
cut fuch branches clofe down to where it is folid and green, 
and it will bark over and heal. 

It is common for large buds to Ihoot out two or three 
branches each. One only on each lliould be fuffered to 
grow; if you expert fruit on them, be not in a hurry to 
ftrike them off 'till you know which is moft fruitful, and 
fave that. Vines that are clofe planted in a vineyard, can- 
not be expedled to bear fo much fruit, as fingle vines, or 
as thofe that are planted at a diftance. Their roots are too 
much confined, fo that they cannot gather nourifhment in 
fo fmall a compafs of ground, to fupport and bring to per- 
fedion a large quantity of fruit ; and this is a fufficicnt 
reafon for reftraining them, and for limiting the number 
of bearing branches, if you mean to make good wine, to 
keep your vines in full vigour and to preferve them for 
many years. Befides the deficiency is fully made up, by 
a greater number of vines; and the planting them clofe, 
enables you the better to keep Ihem low and within pro- 
per bounds. _ ' 

Vines that bear black or red grapes generally flioot forth 
a greater number of ^branches, and more vigorous than 
thofe that bear white grapes, and therefore the latter require 
more caution in trimming, and more care in the cultivation 
and management of the foil, that it be kept clean and in 
good heart. ... 

When vines Iiave been covered with earth during the 
winter feafon, let them not be 'uncovered in the fpring, 
till the hard frofls are over, and then let it be done in a 
fair, warm, drying day, that they may dry before night, 
for if they fhould freeze before they are dry, it would 
greatly hurt, if not ruin the crop. 

The 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 213 

The head of the vine, properly fpeaking, when it is 
formed near the ground, is compofed of the but ends of 
the branches, that are cut down to one good bud each, 
which ought to be eight at leaft in number. Thefe 
branches, the fecond year of the vine's growth, (hoot from 
the folid wood chiefly, and then is the critical time to pre- 
pare for forming a proper head to a vine; therefore pre- 
serve eight of the beft (hort jointed branches, that grow 
on all fides of the ftock, and much of a fize, and thefe 
muft be carefully tied up fingly to the flakes, that the buds 
may fill well, and that the wood may ripen, on which 
greatly depends the future fuccefs of your vineyard, as 
this is the foundation of the whole. If more than eight 
branches have grown from the head, the reft muft be ftruck 
off^with the finger. If one of the branches outgrows the 
reft and appears more flourifhing, that in particular muft 
be ftruck off^. For if fuff'ered to grow. It will rob the reft 
of their due proportion of nouriftiment, and ruin the vine. 
Eight branches are fufficient for a thrifty young vine, four 
of which are intended for bearing fruit, when that time 
comes, and the other four are defigned for branches of re- 
ferve. The third year, which is the firftyear of the vine's 
bearing, the lowermoft good bud on the bearing branches, 
will produce one or two clufters of grapes each. The 
fourth year, two or three of the lowermoft buds will bear 
fruit, and after that five or fix of the lower buds will bear 
fruit, but feldom more ; fo ftiall you have five or fix branches, 
growing from each bearing^l)ranch, producing fruit, which 
makes twenty or four and twenty bearing branches upon 
one vine, and each of thefe branches yieldin.s: two three 
or more clufters, according to the fruitfulaefs of the year, 
and the due cultivation of your vineyard. 

Nay if your vines are #^1 chofen; as I have diredled, 
and properly cultivated, and your foil kept clean and well 
improved, you ftiall, in a fruitful year, fee fome of the 
fecondary branches and even the tendrils bearing fruit. 
This happened to fome of my vines in the year 1767. I 
Vol. I. E e had 



214 CULTIVATION OF THE VINE. 

liad four fucceflive crops hanging on fevcrni of my vines 
at one and the fame time, one under ano:her, which I 
fhewed to feveral gentlemen, who admired, and were fur- 
prized at fuch a production : But I took: away all but the 
firfi: crop, leaft my vines might be too much weakened by 
over bearing. I mention this to fhew what nature will do 
in a favourable year, under proper management. And 
here I muft remark, that the greater the vintage, the better 
the wine, but a meagre thin crop produces thin weak 
wines, which require dexterity and art to make them fit 
for ufe; but this 1 fhall inftrud you in, when I come to 
the making of wine. 

In tranfplanting vines or trees of any kind, I have by 
long experience found, that removing them in the fall, 
after the leaf is fallen, is much furerand fafer, than doing 
it in the fpring. For if trees are well ftaked, fo as to ftand 
firm againft hard winds, the' ground will be fo well pack- 
ed about the roots, that they will grow in the fpring, as 
if they had not been removed, and arc in no danger, if a 
dry feafon (hould happen, efpecially if fome horfe litter or 
old hay be thrown round them in the fpring, fo as not to 
touch the ftem. Whereas if they are removed in the 
fpring, and a drought fuccecds, before the ground be well 
fettled about the roots, many of them will mifcarry. 

As vines are beft planted upon rifin,^ grounds to prevent 

too much wet, and as it is neceflary to keep the foil loofe 

and mellow, it thereby becomes the more liable to wafhing 

away by hard rains, which muft be a great injury to a 

vineyard; now if by any means fo great an inconveniency 

might be avoided, it would be a great point gained, and 

therefore it very well deferves our attention : For it is no 

fmall coft and labour to renew the foil, that is fometimes 

carried off by fudden floods of rain. I have tried feveral 

ways to prevent this evil, fo as neither to injure the vines, 

nor hurt the crop. The following method, where a per- 

fon has the conveniency, I find to be tiie moft effedual. 

Lay broad flat ftones, not exceeding two inches in thick- 

nefs. 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 215 

nefs, clofe along the lower fide of the vines, after the 
ground has been made loofe and mellow. Thefe ftones 
being broad, and not very heavy, do not prefs hard upon 
the roots of the vines, nor pack the ground too clofe. They 
refled great heat up to the vine and fruit, which helps to 
bring it to full maturity; they preferve the foil from wafh- 
ing away, they keep the ground moirt: in the drieft times, 
and hinder too much wet from penetrating down to the 
roots near the head of the vine, which chietiy occafions the 
burfting of the grapes when they are near ripe, after a fhower 
of rain. To prevent this evil, is one reafon for cutting 
away the day roots, which extend themfelves along near 
the furface of the ground. But where fuch flat ilones are 
not eafy to be had, I would recommend ihort Rraw mixed 
with chaff, the {hives of flax and hemp, the chaff of flax- 
feed, which is alfo an excellent manure, old half rotted fait 
hay, or bog hay, free from grafs feeds, fpread thin between 
the rows; if it be fpread thick, it keeps the .^ round too 
long wet and cold in the fpring, which retards or keeps 
back the growth of the vines. Thefe I have experienced 
to be profitable, and very much to hinder the foil from 
walliing away. On the fide of ffeep grounds, of hills and 
mountains, flones in proportion to the defcent, or logs of 
wood, where ftones are not to be had, muft be laid along 
the lower fide of the vines, to keep the foil from wafhino- 
away, which otherwife it will do, to the great damage, if 
not the ruin of your vineyard, and therefore when you be- 
gin a vineyard, remember that, this is one, and an eifen- 
tial part of the coft. 

A vineyard will thrive the better, and the crops will be 
more fure, if it be well fcreened, by fome good fence, 
buildings, mountain, or thick copfe of wood at a fmall dif- 
tance, from thofe points that lie to the north of the eaft, 
and to the north of the north-weft; the winds from thofe 
quarters, in the fpring of the year, being very unrriendly 
to vines. But then a vineyard fhould be quite open to all 
the other points of the compafs. For vines delight much 

in 



2i6 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

in an open^ clear, pure warm air, free from cold damps, fogs, 
mifts, and from condenfed air, arifing from bogs, fwamps, 
and wet clay grounds, and from large tracts of neighbour- 
ing woods. The north-weft winds, indeed are rather ad- 
vantageous to a vineyard : For although in America, they 
are extremely cold in winter, and occafion fevere frofts, 
yet as the vines are then covered, they do them no harm. 
Befides thofe winds are generally drying and feldom bring 
wet; in the fpring and fummer they are always cool, and 
I find by long experience that they are quite neceflary, to 
brace up, harden and confirm the leaves and tender new 
Ihot branches of all trees and vegetables, which otherwifc 
remain languid and weak. 

There are three feafons when careful and experienced 
vignerons deny accefs to their vineyards, firft when the 
ground is wet, becaufe then the weight of a man prefles 
down and packs the earth too clofe and hard upon the 
roots of the vines. Secondly, when the vines are in blof- 
fom, becaufe if they are then difturbed by handling, Ihak- 
ing or rubbing againft them, the farina or fine duft that 
is formed on the bloflbm, which impregnates or gives 
life to the fruit, is (haken off and the fruit mifcarries. 
Thirdly, when the fruit grows ripe, becaufe the tempta- 
tion is too ftrong to withftand, and people will pluck off 
the f aire ft ripeft grapes, which vignerons do fay is an inju- 
ry to the whole bunch,; be that as it may, it certainly is a 
great injury to the owner, for the faireft ripeft grapes 
make the richeft and fineft flavoured wines. 

I now pafs on to the management of vines upon efpaliers : 
But then you arc to remember that, the training up of 
vines to thefe frames, is only fit for the fouthern or warm- 
er climates, where the winter frofts are not fo fevere, as 
in our more northern regions; for as they are to ftand ex- 
pofed to all weathers, the germ or bud, from which the 
grapes do ipring, are apt to be chilled and deftroyed by the 
feverity of a ftiarp feafon, and efpecially by moift flick- 
ing fiiows freezing hard on the branches. 

The 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 217 

The firft year the young vines are trimmed and ma- 
naged in the fame manner you have been before directed. 

The fecond year when they always (hoot forth a great- 
er number of branches, is the time for making choice of 
the beft branchCvS for ftandards. Set apart, therefore, two 
of the beft fhort jointed branches, on each vine, for that 
purpofe, that you may be fecure of one, in cafe the other 
lliould fail, as thefe branches when young., are fubjecSt to 
many accidents : So fhall you ftand a fair chance of hav- 
ing fruitful vines; for all vignerons well know, that vines 
fhoot forth more barren and unfruitful branches, then, 
fruitful ones, therefore, as experience hath' taught them* 
they always fet apart fhort jointed branches for bearers,, 
becaufe thefe feldom fail yielding much fruit; all the reft 
of the branches you ftrike off with your linger: Again,, 
would you ftill more efFe(ftually avoid barren vines, if you- 
have it in your power, choofe your vine cuttings for 
planting, from fruitful vines; not only fo, but choofe fruit- 
bearing branches, that grow from the teeming part of the 
vine, that is as near the head and fhoulders as poffible, 
and then if you cultivate them well, you. ihall be fure of: 
having fruitful vines; and this, let m€ tell you, is gain- 
ing a very grand ai>d eflential point: I have here repeat- 
ed this inftrudion, that you may not neglect it, nor mifs 
of fo great an advantage. 

Having thus chofen two branches for ftandards, train 
them up as ftraight a^ you can, one on each fide of the 
ftake: When they are grown about fifteen inches longv 
bind them gemly with a foft band to the ftake; for they 
are then yet very tender: And as they grow longer bind 
them a fecond and a third time; and when they are grown 
up to the top of the ftake, which muft be five feet high, 
nip off the ends, and they will grow the thicker and 
ftronger. When you have taken away the tops of the 
vine fhe will try to recover herfelf, and will fhoot out two 
branches at the top inftead of one; but thefe you mufl 
alib nip off, and keep fhort, but take away none of the 

lateral 



2i8 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

lateral branches or nephews till you come to trim them 
in the fall, only nip them off, to keep them within pro- 
per bounds. In the fall when the vine leaves begin to 
wither and fall, cut away one of thefe ftandards from each 
vine, dole to the ftock, leaving fuch as you beft like, which 
is now out of danger, and trim away from her all the 
branches and nephev.s, and cut off her top within three feet 
and an half of the ground ; leave four buds at the top, and cut 
off all the ends of the buds below them; all thefe wounds 
will be healed before the hard weather comes on, which 
fhould not be over fevere where efpaliers are ufed ; the two 
upper buds will be the arms of the vine, the two lower 
buds will be the two fhoulders, and juft under thefe the 
vine is faftened to the efpaliers, and is called the head 
of the vine. Now it requires the greatelf (kill of the moft 
experienced vigneron to manage and cultivate vines thus 
educated and trained up to efpaliers; and therefore they 
are more fit for gentlemen's ^'ardens and the vineyards of 
rich men, wiio can afford the expence of thefe frames, and 
to employ vignerons to manage vines in this manner, in 
order to obtain the richeit wines, than for common men 
and men of fmall fortunes, who muff chiefly manage thefe 
affairs with their own hands, and for whofe lakes I have 
taken the pains to write this treatife;^ but that I may do 
honor to the rich and great, and fhew them that refpedt, 
which I think due to their diftindion and high ftations, I 
will proceed and give fuch inflrudtions as (hall anfwer their 
expedations; but then I muft beg leave to guard them a- 
gainft pretenders to this art, for there are pedants, and 
not a few, among vine dreffers, as well as among men of 
letters. The greateft difficulty, as experienced vignerons 
know, is fo to manage a vine, as to keep her within the 
height and compafs of a frame, and yet to caufe her to 
bear fruit plentifully. 

The third fummer the efpaliers bein^ regularly fet up 
fix feet hi^j^h, in a line with the vines, the polls beini!; of 
fome lafling wood as of red cedar, locuft or of mulberry, 

which 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 219 

-which are cheapeft in the end, or for want of thefe, of good 
thrifty chefnut, that is not worm eaten; and heing firmly- 
fixed in the ground, in the middle fpace between vine and 
vine, and the rails, being four in height, well nailed to 
the ports, and placed on the north fide of the vines, the 
lowermoft about three feet from the ground, or juft below 
the lowermoft bud on the vhie, the vine muft be faftened 
with a foft yet ftrong band to a ftake firmly fixed down 
near the foot of the vine, and faftened to the frame, near 
the lower rail, the four buds rifing above it. When thefe 
buds Ihoot forth their branches, they muft be regularly 
trained up to the rails above, and faftened to them with 
a foft band ; as foon as they are long enough to reach the 
firft above them, they muft be faftened to that, and fo to 
the next, &c. as they grow; and this muft be done by a 
careful hand, becaufe thefe branches, at firft, are very 
tender; if they fliould be negleded, till they are grown 
longer before they are tied, they will be in great danger of 
being torn off^ by hard winds, to the great damage of the 
vine. When the branches are grown up to the top of the 
frame, the ends muft be nipped ofi^even with it, and when 
from the tops they ftioot forth again, they muft again be 
nipped off^ and kept down even with the frame, and this 
not fo much for beauty and order fake, but that they may 
be properly educated and taught to be humble and keep 
within the limits afligned them. The lateral branches 
and nephews alfo muft be kept within proper bounds and 
notfufferedto grow too long, for fome of thefe fide branches 
w ill fteal away to a great length, and rob the vine of her 
ftrength. If any fruit ftiould appear this third year, which 
may happen, let it be taken away, as foon as it appears, 
and your felf-denial fliall be amply rewarded the fucceed- 
ing year; For it greatly weakens a vine to bear fruit fo 
young. Befides not only the durablenefs, but the fruit- 
fulnefs of vines, very much depends upon the proper cul- 
ture of them when young. 

In the fall of this third year, the lateral branches and ne- 
phews muft be carfuUy cut away from the main branches, 

fo 



220 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

fo as not to hurt, or rub agalnft the lower buds, with the 
back of the knife, -A-hich is frequently done, by cutting 
off the branches too near the germ or bud. For if the thin 
bark, that covers the bud, be rubbed off, under which is 
a foft warm garment of cotton, to preferve it from violent 
colds, the wet gets in, freezes and deftroys the germ. The 
four main branches, that fprung from the four buds, muft 
now be cut down to two good buds each; the lower bud, 
next the old wood is never looked upon as a good bud, it is 
called a dead eye, or barren bud; becaufe it bears no fruit, 
at leaft: not the firft year of its growth : And yet notwith- 
llanding you will be obliged fometimes to make ufe of it, 
as I fhall prefently (hew. In cutting off the main branches, 
cut flanting upward, fo that the wound appears in the 
fhape of the nail of a man's finger, and let the flope be on 
the oppofite fide of the bud, that if it ihould weep, the 
tears may drop free of the bud; this is the rule, but I have 
given my opinion on this precept before, to which I refer 
you. In cutting, approach not too near the bud, that is 
left, but keep at two inches diflance from it, lead you en- 
danger it, by letting in the cold air and wet upon it, be- 
fore the wound can heal. 

The chief point, in managing thefe vines, is, the pro- 
viding branches of referve for recruiting the arms in fuch 
manner, as to confine the vine within the compafs of your 
frame; for if you raife new arms from the old ones, your 
vine will foon outfhoot the frame. You muft, therefore, 
feek for new arms from the fhoulders: If a branch grows 
in a proper place, any where between the arms and the 
head, and happens to be broken, clip it into a thumb, that 
is, cut it down to two or three good buds, as foon as you 
difcover it, and this is called a keeper, and very well fup- 
plies the place of a branch of referve. Sometimes you 
will be glad to make ufe of the half ilarved branch, that 
fprings from the dead eye beforementioned; nay fometimes 
you are drove to the neceffity of nurfing up a fmall bud of 
two leaves, or a knob or wart for that purpofe; and when 

none 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 221 

none of thefe are to be found, you muft wound the vine 
in a proper place, fomevv^here about the fhoulders, with a 
bodkin or (harp pointed inflrunient, in twoor three places, 
from whence it is ulhal for a branch to (hoot, if it be done 
fometime in the fpring: But if all fliould fail, you then 
will be obliged to raife your frame higher, and make ufe 
of fome of the branches, that grow out of the arms, the 
nearer to the fhoulders, the better: But if you have been 
drove to this neceffity before, and your frame has been al- 
ready raifed to a fufficient height, there then remains no 
remedy but a defperate one, fince the difeafe is become def- 
perate, that is, to cutfuch vines down even with the ground, 
and from thefe ftumps frefh Ihoots will fpring and bear 
fome fruit, the fecond year after, if a proper choice be 
made : They muft be cut when you trim your vines. 

If any fruit fhould appear on any of the branches, that 
grow from the fhoulders, which is often the cafe, let them 
be taken away as foon as they appear, for thefe being 
branches of referve, they are defigned to bear fruit the 
fucceeding year, the arms only are to bear fruit the prefent 
year: Thefe diredions will ferve for the fourth, the fifth, 
and the fucceeding years. 

In the fall of this third year, I have above direded you 
to cut the four main branches, that grew from the four 
buds, down to two good buds each, but this is defigned 
for the ftrong vines only; thofe that are weak, muft be cut 
down to one good bud, each branch, fo fhall they flourifh 
and gather ftrength the better, and if any fruit fhould ap- 
pear on the weak vines the fourth or even the fifth year, 
ftrike them off as foon as they appear, and they will after- 
wards make you ample fatisfadion for this prudent ma- 
nagement of them when young and weak ; and once for 
all be perfuaded not to overload young vines with fruit; 
if from a fondnels to outdo your neighbour, you run into 
this error, your vines will pine and be at a ftand, and will 
not recover for fome years; and then your neighbour, who 
has cultivated his vines with more prudence and cautioni 
Vol. I. F f will 



222 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

will triumph in his turn, with greater reafon, and with 
much greater advantages. 

The fourth vear when you trim your vinos in the fally 
you may cut the arms do .\ n to one good bud each, inftead 
of taking them clean a-.vay, for the vines. being yet young 
and low, theie two buds will in a manner become part 
of the Ihoulders, being fo near them; thefe will bear fruit 
the next, which is the fifth year; and then you can fave 
the two lower buds, that gresv on the branches that fprung 
from the Ihoulder, for branches of referve, by taking 
away the fruit as foon as they appear, and thefe will bear 
fruit the year after; fo fliall you have four branches bearing, 
fruit the fifth year, which is quite fufficient. 

The fixth year you may have three good buds on each 
branch for bearing fruit, and the feventh year you may 
have four buds on each branch, which will make eight 
bearing branches, which are thought by the beft judges> 
to be quite fufficient for the ftrongeft vines, if you mean 
to make good wine; and to this number vignerons are 
generally confined. 

Vines that are defigned for efpaliers, muft be planted- 
further afunder than thofe, that are intended for flakes; 
for as they rile much higher with the ftem, they require 
more nouriihment, and more room to extend their roots;, 
ten feet is by no means too much : twelve would be better : 
Suetonius, a learned man, well known to men of letters^, 
made this remark as he travelled through the wine coun- 
tries, that the farther vines were planted from each other, 
the better he found the wine. 

One general rule is neceflary to be laid down, ^in order 
to give young vine-drelTcrs, a clear idea of the nature and 
manner of trimming vines, which is very apt to puzzle- 
young be^^^inncrs; know then, that the young wood that 
grew this year, muft be preferved for bearing fruit the 
next year, and thofe branches, that did not bear fruit, are 
better for the purpofe, than thofe that did bear fruit; and 
for this reafon, you are above direded to ftrike off, with 

your 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 223 

your finger, the young clufters, as foon as they appear, 
from thofe branches, which you referve for bearing fruit 
the fucceeding year. When I meniion a branch, I mean 
a main branchof young wood, not a fide or lateral branch, 
that grows upon thefe young main branches. 

When the arms have born fruit, they are cut clean away 
in the fall of the year, as foon as the vintage is over, pro- 
vided you have branches of referve, growing on the ihoul- 
ders, to fupply their places: But if you have been fo un- 
lucky, as to have failed in thefe, notwithftanding all your 
attempts to procure them; you muft then do what necef- 
Ijty requires, and cut the arms down to two, three, or four 
good buds each, according to the ftrength of the vine ; 
but then remember, not to fuffer any fruit to grow on the 
branches, that fpring from the lower bud on each old arm, 
thefe being now abfolutely neceffaryfor branches of referve, 
in order to recruit the arms the next year. According to 
thefe rules you conftantly proceed with vines on efpaliers. 

As fome of our fouthern colonies have a hot fandy foil, 
and are fubjedt to great heats and parching droughts, and 
thereby find it very difficult to raife and preferve vines, fo 
as to become fruitful ; I fhall here offer fome thoughts and 
directions, which I imagine mofl likely to fucceed in thefe 
parching hot countries; as Imofffincerely wifh comfort and 
happinefs to every colony on the continent and that the whole 
may become as beneficial as poffible to the mother country. 

Firft then, I think it neceffary to fhade the young vines 
the firft two or three years, during the hot dry feafons, 
by driving down firmly in the ground, branches of trees 
thick fet with leaves, on the fouth fide of the vines; thefe 
are better than matts, or pieces of thatch work, as the 
air and winds can pafs more freely through them; it will 
alfo be neceffary to water thefe young vines twice a week, 
during the hot dry feafons, in the evening, that the water may 
have the whole night to foak dowai to the roots of the vines, 
to cool and refrefh them; the branches, in thefe hot countries, 
fhould not be tied up to ffakes, but ihould be fufrered to run on 

the 



224 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

the ground to fhade and keep it moift and cool. Thefe 
vines muft be trimmed in the fame manner, as thofe which 
are defigned for ftakes, as foon as the leaf falls, or the vin- 
tage is over. The third year inftead of driving ftakes down 
to faften up the branches to them, let fhort crotches be 
drove down about fix feet afunder, and pretty ftrong poles 
laid acrofs upon them, fo that they may lie about fourteen 
inches from the ground, and fo near to each other, that 
the branches of the vines may conveniently run upon the 
poles without dipping down and running upon the ground ; 
if the ends of the vines fhould run beyond the fides of this 
bed of poles, they muft be turned in and confined to their 
proper bed; becaufe it will be neceflary to have a walk or 
path of two feet wide between bed and bed to regulate the 
vines, to cutaway the luxriant fuckers, that rob the vine 
and the bearing branches of their due nouriftiment, to ga- 
ther in the vintage, and to trim the vines. 

This bed of poles ftiould be fo placed, as to extend three 

feet on each fide of the row of vines, fo that the rows of 

vines ftanding eight feet afunder, there will be a path of 

two feet between row and row for the neceflary purpofes 

before-mentioned. Particular care muft be taken, not to 

take away too many branches from thefe vines, unlefs 

there fhould happen an uncommon wet feafon, nor to keep 

them too fhort, becaufe they are defigned to fhade 

the ground as much as polTible, in order to keep it cool 

and moift, which is neceflary for the growth of the vine, 

and for bringing the fruit to perfedion; but then in the 

beginning of Auguft, or about a month before the difi^erent 

forts of fruits begin to grow ripe, each in their proper 

time, you fhould take away the lateral branches and cut 

off the tops of the main branches, but this muft be done, 

not all at once, but by degrees, fome now, fome then, and 

that according to the drynefs or wetnefs of the feafon, for 

this m.uft be done to let in the Sun and the air, v^hich, at 

this feafon of the year, become neceffary to bring the fruit 

to perfect Mnaturity; the wetter the feafon, at this latter 

part 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 225 

part of thefummer, the more branches muft be taken away 
and the fhorter the main branches muft be cut, and if ne- 
ceflary moft of the leaves muft alfo be plucked off; thefruic 
will ripen the better, and make the richer wine, and all 
this may be done without any injury to the vines. 

Here I would obferve that the fame management with 
regard to the thining the branches and the leaves at this 
(ealon of the year, is neceffary for vines that are faftened 
to ftakes or efpaliers, in order to meliorate and haften on 
the full ripenefs of the fruit; and remember that the long- 
er white grapes hang on the vines, even after they are 
ripe, if the feafon be dry,.the richer wine they make. But it is 
other wife v>?lth the black grapes; when they are full ripe, 
they milft be gathered and made up into wine,, if not, they 
rot and dry away fuddenly, and perilh in lefs than a week. 

The Portueuefe form the head of the vine near the 
ground, but whether through careleflhefs, the love of eafe, 
or the want of proper materials, I cannot determine, but 
they have a method peculiar to themfelves of managing 
their vines; they drive crotches into the ground, upon 
which they fix ftrong poles, which lie about three feet 
from the ground, fome more fome lefs, according to the 
fteepnefs of the hill, for their vineyards generally grow 
upon the fides of hills and mountains. The branches of 
the vines, when grown long enough, they throw over the 
poles and faften them; they trim rhem and nip off the 
ends of the branches according to art, and in the be- 
ginning of autumn, they cut away the lateral branches and 
nephews at different times and by degrees pluck away all 
faperfluous leaves, fo that the fruit becomes much expol- 
ed to the fun, the air and winds, that they may arrive at 
full maturity. They then gather them, takeaway all the 
rotten and unripe fruit, throw them into the vat and tread 
them luftily, fmging all the while fome Bachanalian fon.;s, 
according to the Portuguefe dullnefs; and when they are 
fufHciently trod, they take them out and prefs them as dry 
as they can; they then turn the hufks into the vat a ie- 

cond 



226 CULTIVATION OF the VINE. 

cond time, and although they appear quite dry, yet they 
trample them over fo long that the very hufks feem to 
diflblve into wine, this they prefs a fecond time, and this 
is laid by for the richeft Madeira wine; which in other 
countries is dafhed with water and made into a thin wine 
for common ufe. 

If you mean to have plenty of grapes, your vineyard 
muft be well dunged every three years, but hot dung muft 
not be thrown near the ftock of the vine; poor people 
who cannot come at fo great a quantity of dung at a time, 
mav dung one third of their vineyard every year; I fhall 
BOW take notice of the different foils and dungs that are 
beft and fit for vineyards; a vineyard planted on a piece 
of good ftrong new ground needs no dung the firft feven 
years. The beft manure for a vineyard is fuch as is warm 
and free from grafs feeds, for grafs is a great enemy to 
vines; Fowl's dung of every kind, except water fowl; 
foap afhes, or other afhcs fprinkled thinly between the 
rows of vines, but not too near them, for this manure is 
very hot and lliarp, and is beft fpread on the ground in 
the fall, that it may mix with the foil and be properly 
tempered before the heat of the next fummer comes on, 
otherwife it w^ould burn up the plants the rich foil that is 
walhed down and fettles along the fides of brooks and 
rivers and in many low places along roads and high- 
ways, which poor and induftrious people may eafily come 
at;' lea land, mixed with common foil that might be taken 
up along the high ways, would make an excellent manure; 
in fhort, fand of every kind mixed in large proportions 
with good foil, is very comforting to vines, for thofe vines 
produce the fweeteft and richeft grapes, and the ftrongeft 
and beft flavoured wines, that grow in rich fandy foils: 
The morter of old buildings, that has been made of lime 
and fand, pounded fine; the duft of charcoal, the fmall 
coal and the earth that the coal kilns are covered w^irh 
when burnt; the foot of chimneys; the fmall cinders and 
black dirt found about fmith's fhops, all thefe are excellent 

manure 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 227 

manure for loomy or clay grounds to warm, to open and 
to dry them, and efpecially if a large quantity of fand, be 
mixed with it; creek mud, or the mud along the fides of 
rivers thrown on in the fall, or thrown up and fweetened all 
winter and laid on in the fpring, is a rich manure for fandy 
lands, or for clay and loomy lands if mixed with a good 
quantity of land. All warm rich untried earth is excel- 
lent, fo is ftreet dirt of cities. Come we now to what- 
may be for the moft part in every farmer's powder to pro- 
cure: And firft it will be proper at certain feafons of the 
year, when the grafs is free from feeds to pen his cattle 
and flieep in fome convenient place, where the dung will- 
not walli away, and as near to his vineyard or houfe as 
may be; into this pen let him thrOA' his ftraw of all- 
kinds, that is free from grafs feeds, his buckwheat flraw, 
chaff and dull, his old fait hay or bog hay; if he lives • 
near to marfhes or i'alt meadows, let him cut good (lore of 
reed, when it is near ripe, thatch, courfe three fquare and^ 
fedge, let it be dried and brought into the pen; then- 
let him get rich black foil, that fettles in low places and the 
bottom of ponds, that are dry or partly dry in fummer,. 
and what fettles along the fides of brooks and rivers, and- 
throw thefe in, let him get good (lore of leaves of every 
kind, and throw all the foap fuds, chamberlye, the blood 
of beads, pork and beef pickle, cyder and beer emptyings^, 
^nd greefy difh-water, the water that fait meat has been 
boiled in all thefe contribute greatly to make very rich- 
man' ire. 

The next beft method for making good ftore of manure 
is to throw moft or all of the above materials into a pretty 
large ho^ pen ; (if the hogs are fed with red clover, cut^ 
o-reen, when it is about two thirds nrown, and fo on till 
the feed be gro.vnbut not ripe, this mowed twice or three 
times a day, and given to the hogs is an eafy and cheap 
wav rf feeding them, and will make a rich manure,) hogs 
will champ with their mouths and trample with their 
fharp pointed hoofs thefe materials, and make them fine 

in 



228 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

in a fhort time, and by rooting, will fo tumble and mix 
them together, that they will Toon rot and make good ftore 
of manure. Then again, if corn ftalks, hufks and cobs, 
fuch as the cattle do not eat, be throv»^n into a hollow place, 
where they may be wet, alfo tb.e chafF of flaxfeed, the 
fliives and hurls of flax and hemp, where they will rot 
in a year's time, thefe make a good manure. Here let 
me remark, without giving offence to my dear countrymen, 
whofe good I have always ftudied, and whofe interefl: I 
would willingly promote, that with a little more induftry 
and application, and fome eafy and proper contrivances, 
take the whole country in general, I am pretty certain, 
that ten times the manure might be made and faved, that 
is made at prefent, and how much our old lands ftand in 
need of it ; every farmer very well knows ; and give me 
leave farther to aflert, that where a man has it in his power, 
and can employ a hand and team altogether in cutting and 
bringing together as many of the above materials, as can 
conveniently be had, at the year's end, he would find him 
by much the moft profitable employed of any man and 
team upon his plantation : For I am clearly ot opinion 
that, ten acres of land well manured, will produce a much 
greater profit to the owner than forty acres of common 
old lands as they are now managed ; the whole charge of 
manuring, tilling, and of the feed for fowing, together 
with the fencing, reaping, threfhing, &c. being fairly* 
calculated. For the ten acres will produce four good crops 
fucceffively, one of barley, then one of wheat, the next 
of oats, and the laft of rye; and with afprinkling of dung, 
It may be laid down with red clover : The charge of plough- 
ing for thefe four crops, amounts to no more than the 
charge for ploughing the forty acres for one crop, the ex- 
pence of fencing the latter is much greater : The forty acres 
in the common way of working, lies fallow for three fum- 
mers, and generally yields but very little grafs, the fourth 
fummer it is ploughed again and yields no grafs at all; 
whereas on the plan propofed, the ten acres in the fall af- 
ter 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 230 

ter the wheat and the rye will yield plenty of grafs. Par- 
don this digrelhon, I hope it will not be altogether un- 
profitahl-e. 

Grapes are delicious fruit and very tempting to people 
of every age and fex, the rude and unthinking fort will 
take all advantages of your abfence or negledl at the time 
of the fruit's beginning to grow ripe, to rob and pilfer; 
fuch therefore muff be carefully guarded againft, by a good 
clofe high fence without, and a fmart watchful dog within, 
and efpecially by the vigneron's appearing now and then 
with a gun in his hand walking about his vineyard in an 
evening, particularly when there are idle people without; 
this will effedtually prevent any attempts, when they fee 
what they apprehend to be fo very dangerous. 

But thefe are not the only enemies we have to fear and 
guard againft, there are others which appear lefs formida- 
ble, and yet are full as deftrudtive, namely birds: The 
robins are very numerous, and devour abundance of grapes ; 
the beft and moft effectual method I ever difcovered to get 
rid of thefe, was to deftroy their food, that ripens about 
the time that the grapes do, which confifts of wild cherries 
and poke-berries chiefly; there are other fmall berries 
which robins feed upon, but they chiefly grow in fwamp 
and wet places, which are now generally cleared and de- 
fl:royed. One year 1 cut down all the wild cherry trees on 
my plantation, and rooted up all the poke bufhes, and not 
a robin appeared near my vineyard till all my grapes were 
ripe and gathered ; more than that. In order to fave my 
Engllfli cherries, I made my boys go through my orchard 
tv/ice when the robins had laid their eggs, and pull down 
their nefts, by this means they hatched their young fo late, 
at which time they take away the fruit, that I faved my 
crop of cherries. The cat-bird and the thrufli are not fo 
numerous, and therefore they are apt to be overlooked, 
and efpecially as they give you a fine fong for your fruit; 
but they are both lly, cunning and very artful thieves, and 
devoyr grapes in great abundance, nothing that I have yet 
Vol. I. Gg difcovered 



231 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

difcovered, but a good gunner, will get the better of thefe i 
But then again wafps are great enemies to grapes, they 
pierce them in feveral places, with their fharp pointed bills, 
and that the faireft, ripeft and moft forward grapes, which 
make the heft wine, thefe rot or dry away, which is a 
great lofs to the owner; the heft way I have yet met with, 
to deftroy thefe pernicious vermin, is to hang up phials 
here and there, along the outward rows of vines, filled half 
full of water well fweetened with honey, melaffes, or coarfe 
black fugar, the mouth of the phial muft be fo wide as 
eafily to receive a wafp into it, and not much wider, the 
wafps foon find out the melaffes by its fcent, and getting 
into the phial, are drowned in the fweetened water; ano- 
ther way 1 have difcovered, which comes very near to the 
former, if it does not exceed it, which is to cover flat wide 
earthen pans, all over the bottom with honey or melaifes 
without water, if there be three or four of thefe pans 
placed at a good diftance, the whole length of the vine- 
yard every wafp to leeward, that is within fmell of them, 
will come to the feaft, they will foon fo entangle them- 
felves in the melaffes that, if you attend them, you may 
make it a deadly feaft to almoft all that come; when the 
wind comes from another quarter, place your pans along a^ 
nother part or fide of your vineyard, that fo the wind may 
blow from the vineyard to the place, from whence you would 
draw the wafps, and fo go round till you have deftroyed 
them all. 

One circumftance I have omitted with regard to birds, 
and that is, if poles be ftuck up here and there, near that 
quarter where the birds harbour and have their haunt, and 
fmall branches with three or four twigs on them, be faf- 
tened to the top of the pole, and the twigs well daubed 
over with birdlime, the birds will perch upon them, and 
will be fo entangled by the bird-lime that if they are fuf- 
fered to continue upon them fome time, if they then get 
away, they will hardly return again that feafon : and as if 
they could communicate to each other their grievances and 

their 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 232 

their dangers, few or none of the fame fpecles will come 
into the vineyard that feafon. 

The fame grub, which is a fhort fmooth earth worm, 
that cuts off the Englifh beans, &c. is very hurtful to 
young vines, often cuts off the choiceft branches; if the 
earth were taken away round the foot of the vine, about 
two inches down, and fome tar and hog's lard, mixed in equal 
quantities, were daubed round that part of the vine, I 
think, though I never have made the experiment, it 
would prevent the mifchief. 

Vine fretters alfo are often injurious to vines; they are 
very fmall animalculse, or infeds, of what fpecies, I have 
never examined, but they appear in great numbers, in 
mere clufters, upon the young tender branches, upon the 
juice of which they feed ; the only remedy I know, is to 
take away the branch with them upon it, and fo deftroy 
them bodily ; but if the branch cannot be fpared, they muft 
be mafhed and rubbed off by a careful tender hand ; if 
they are chiefly deftroyed the firft two or three years, they 
are not fo numerous nor fo troublefome afterward. 

It is common with gardeners and vignerons, who can- 
not bear to fee a good piece of ground lie idle, to raife a 
crop of cabbages, colliflowers or brocoli, between vines 
vv'hen young. This is very wrong and very injurious to 
vineyards, for it not only cramps the growth ol the vines, 
but robs the foil of thofe rich falts and fulphureous oils, 
which are neceffary to bring the fruit to perfed:ion when 
the vines begin to bear. The foil cannot be too frefli for 
a vineyard, provided it be not too rank, and therefore a 
frefli new foil, that has never been ploughed, at leaft not 
in many years, is alvays recommended as moft proper 
for a vineyard. A clean, light, warm, rich foil, that has 
a great mixture of fand is beff ; a rank, heavy, ftubborn 
foil is not good, it is apt to rot the vines, unlefs it lies 
high along the fouth and fouth-eaft fides of hills and 
mountains, the drynefs of the fituation and the intenfe 
heat of the fun greatly alter fuch a foil, and meliorate it, 

the 



233 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

they open, warm and fweeten it, by drawing out its cold 
four bitter nature, and render it fit for the richeft produc- 
tions, fo that here the ftrongeft and higheft flavoured 
wines are made. 

I have already mentioned the planting of vines at a 
proper diftance, and in this I have exceeded the common 
diftancc pradifed in moft wine countries; and that for 
reafons which I fhall prefently alTign. 

When 1 firft undertook a vineyard, I can without the 
leaft fpark of vanity fay, I did it for the good of my coun- 
try, and from a principle of love to mankind; I confider- 
ed that too many of the people of America were unhap- 
pily drawn into great exceifes in the ufe of diftilled fpiritu- 
ous liquors, which ruin their conftitutions, and foon ren- 
der them unfit for the fervice of God and their country, 
as well as for that of their own family and friends. 
Wine on the contrary is a more homogeneous liquor, more 
wholefome and much better adapted to the fpirit, and con- 
fiitution of man; and although men will run into excelTes 
in the ufe of it, yet it works itfelf off better, and does 
not deftroy the natural vital heat and animal fpirits, in fo 
great a degree and in fo fudden a manner, as fiery diftilled 
liquors do; for thefe reafons I went on, and endeavoured 
to make myfelf mafter of the fubjeft, and by many expe- 
riments to fatisfy myfelf of the truth of things. I was 
determined not to take up with things upon truft; for 
thefe things are generally conducted according to the ufage 
and cuftom of our forefathers, whofe method we fol- 
low with the fame implicit faith, that too many do the re- 
ligious tenets, cuftoms and worfhip of their church, with- 
out examining into the nature, rcalonablenefs and found- 
nefs of them: But as reafonable creatures and free agents, 
I think we have a right to examine things, to fearch into 
the nature and reafon of them, and to judge and act for 
ourfclves; and ought not to be tied down to arbitrary 
rules and rigid cuPioms which have been laid down and 
eftabliflicd in times of ignorance and fuperftition. To af- 

fume 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 234 

fume then a perfed: liberty in planting of vineyards and 
making of wines, as well as in all other parts of hufbandry, 
I fhall now proceed to give fuch reafons for planting vines 
at a diftance, as are obvious and clear to me from feveral 
experiments which I have made. If a vineyard lies on a 
floping ground and is not too deep to plough, the vines 
fliould be planted eight feet fromeach other every way; the 
advantages of this manner of planting I think are many; 
with a fingle horfe plough, having a foot fixed in the fore 
part of the beam, by way of gage, to prevent the plough 
from going fo deep as to cut the roots of the vines; a man 
vnih the help ofa careful boy to ride and guide the horfe, the 
horfe always fuppofed to be tame and under good govern- 
ment, may plough a full acre or more in a day, which is as 
much as fix men will generally dig up with hoes, and is every 
way much better done, the furrows lying acrofs the de- 
fcending ground, will very much prevent wafhing away by 
hard rains; the ground lies light hollow and loofe, by 
which means it readily receives all the benefit of the atmo- 
fphere, the dews, the winds, and night air, the mifts and 
foft defcendlng rains, which meliorate and impregnate it 
with nitre, volatile and fixed falts, and with oily and ful- 
phureous matter, fit for vegetation and the richeft produc- 
tions, and the Sun more effevSlually draws out the four and 
bitter nature of the foil, and by its genial heat prepares it 
for a plentiful production. After this it requires no more 
culture for twelve or fourteen days time, or more, accord- 
ing to the weather. If a drought fucceeds the ploughing, 
it will need no other ftirring 'till rain comes, provided the 
ground turned up mellow and crumblv, which it v/ill do if 
it was not wet when it was ploughed, which a judicious 
farmer will at all times carefully avoid, for nothing hurts a 
crop of any kind morethan ploughing or harrowing ground 
when it is wet; Columella fays, that it renders the ground 
carious, and that it will not recover a proper temper again 
that feafon, and this I once found by woeful experience, 
which effectually cured me of ftirring ground when wet, 

for 



^;^^ CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

for any culture whatever. I fay, that the ground will not 
want ftirring again till rain comes, unlefs by the help of 
<Treat de-A'S the weeds fhould appear, it mult then be har- 
rowed with a Iharp iron tooth harrow; which the fame 
man, boy and horie can manage; the man if careful and 
diligent, can with eafe harrow three acres a day, and if 
this be repeated three, four or five days, after every rain, 
or upon the firft appearance of weeds, they may with great 
eafe be kept down : All then that is to be done with the 
hoe is, to keep the rows between the ploughings free from 
grafs and weeds, which are foon run over and the ground 
kept loofe and light, fo as to let in the air, which is of 
great fervice to vines; and the more mellow your ground the 
better itftands a drought; when the vines ftand too near, 
the work muft be done altogether by hand ; this requires 
many more hands, which is very expenfive, the work is 
tedious and almoft endlefs; the carelefs hard working man 
often ftrikes too deep and wounds or cuts off the roots, the 
lazy and indolent will not ftrike deep enough, befides they 
all mufl trample down good part of what they dig, fo that 
the ground cannot be left fo loofe and light as by plough- 
ing. Again, when the rows are at a good diflance, the 
vines will not interlock nor (hade one another, which is 
very pernicious, the wind and air will pafs freely through 
them, which are very refreihing, and greatly help forward 
the growth, ripenefs and fweetnefs of the fruit; then the 
morning Sun, which is comforting and vivifying, will have 
free accefs to every plant, will warm the ground, which 
grows cold by the abfence of the Sun, and by the night 
air; all will lie fairly open to the more exalted meridian Sun 
which by its heat brings forward the fruit to full maturity. 
Again, when the rows are at a proper diftance each way, 
the roots of the vines will not fo greatly interfere v*^ith 
each other ; they v\ ill have more room to fpread and extend 
thcmfelves, and collect more nourilhment and food for 
themfelves and their offspring. Vines of four and five 
years old extend their roots fix and eight feet from their 

flocks; 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 236 

flocks; as for the root that fhoots downward, nature, for 
the prefervation of the plant from excefTive droughts, darts 
them down fo far as to reach a moilbire below fufficlent 
to fecure them from perifliing. If then in four or five 
years they extend their roots fo far, how muft they inter- 
fere and rob each other, when they are planted near, and 
efpecially when they grow old, their roots then are fo in- 
terwoven that they appear like a piece of net work; this, 
I think, (hews, and plainly proves, that vines planted three, 
four, five, or even fix feet apart, are quite too near, fo that 
they greatly hurt each other and cannot produce fo good wine. 
Again, when vines are planted at a proper difiance, a wheel 
or a hand barrow may pafs freely through them, which 
will greatly facilitate the dunging of the ground and the 
gathering in of the vintage; or a horfe with panniers on 
each fide, made flat on the fide next his body, or a loni- 
fquare bafket fixed on a hand-barrow and flung acrofs two 
hardy boys flioulders, would give difpatch to either work. 
But farther, men of learning and obfervation fay, that vines 
planted at a diftance produce the befl: and richeft wines, 
and to crown all, it is the opinion of men knowing and 
experienced in thefe things, that a vineyard planted at 
eight or ten feet diftance each way, will produce as many 
grapes, as one planted within half that diftance, though 
there be twice as many vines; that it will produce larger 
and finer grapes; will bring its fruit to greater perfedion, 
and make better wine. 

If a man be poor and cannot procure a horfe 
and a plough, or if his vineyard be fmall and he 
choofes to cultivate it with his own hands, or 
if his vineyard lies along the fide of a fteep hill 
or mountain and cannot be ploughed, in either 
cafe the German double pick, or farklino-iron, is 
the beft inftrument for digging a vineyard; the 
fl:\ape you have in the margin : This inftrument 
digs the ground with more eafe than the hoe, 
and neither cuts nor wounds the roots. It is 
fixed on the handle like a hoe, and bends 
dov/nward as that does. As 







7 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

As flakes are a neceiTary article, and as on rhe choice of 
them depends very much their durablenefs, I Ihall men- 
tion fome forts that are moft likely to laft and do the greateft 
fervice. Red cedar, locuft, mulberry, thrifty chefnut, that 
is free from worm holes, faflafras, or the heart of oak, the 
heart of yellow pine, fuch as grow in New-Jerfey in dry 
fandv grounds, I am told will laft long in fome grounds. 
The ilakes mufl: be about an inch and a quarter fquare, and 
not lefs, the biggefl: end muft be fharpened, they ftand 
the firmer in the ground; if both ends were dipped in 
boiling tar, the head not above two inches, the lower end 
fb deep as that the tar may appear above ground when the 
luake is drove down firm, this will greatly help to preferve 
the flakes from rotting; the beft way to fave your flakes 
from being battered to pieces by driving is, to have a fpike, 
with a long tapering focket, an inch and a half bore at top, 
with a long taper point, well fleeled; the whole about 
fourteen inches long, with a ftaff fixed in the focket four 
feet long, the whole fhaped as in the margin: With this 
the holes for the flakes are made a foot deep, and with a 
flroke or two of a mallet, the flakes are firmly fixed, v/ith- 
out being fplit or battered. The flakes fhould be fix feet 
long, fo as to ftand five feet out of the ground, and fhould 
be drove by a line and fland flrait. 

The Roman frame, which ferved inflead of efpaliers in 
antient times was plain, cheap and frugal, fit for farmers, 
\ and fuch as every farmer can find, on his own plantation, 
without any other expence befides his own labour: This 
fliews the oeconomy and prudence of that great and wife 
nation, whilft they were a commonwealth. It confifted 
of flrong flakes or fmall pofts fixed well in the ground in 
a ftrait line fix feet high, and three rows of poles tied fall 
to them one above another, and fifteen inches apart, the 
upper pole being four, five or fix feet from the ground, 
according to the age of the vine, over the upper pole the 
bearing branches were laid, looking toward the fouth, and 
werefaflened to the pole ,and this they called precipitating 

a vine, 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 235 

a vine, when the branches were grown long enough, they 
were faftened to the middle pole, and then to the lower- 
moll, and when they came near the ground they were cut 
off. The branches were regularly diipofed Co as each 
might have the benefit of the Sun and air, by being faften- 
ed to ftakes drove down here and there, along the frame • 
they were trimmed and managed in other refpeds, juft in 
the fame manner as thofe direded for efpaliers; and indeed 
from thefe frames the efpalier was taken. 

The materials proper to make bands of, to bind the 
vines to the ftakes are, the fweet flag, otherwife called the 
calamus aromaticus. Thefe long flat leaves cut in June 
and dried in the ftaade, and then bundled up and kept^in a 
dry place for ufe do very well, but then they muft be made 
wet when you bind with them. The long fiat leaves of 
reed, the rufties and three fquare that grow in rnarfhy or 
meadow ground preferved and ufed in the fame manner 
do as well. 

Having now gone through the neceflary diredions for 
planting and managing vines for vineyards, I proceed to 
the making of wine, a fubjed though Ihort and eafy, yet 
calls for great nicety and exadnefs. The making, ferment- 
ing and preferving of wine is a myftery to the people of 
America, but when the methods of managing thefe things 
are brought to light and explained nothing appears more 
Ample and eafy ; but before I proceed to this work, it will 
be neceflary to give fome diredions about gathering the 
grapes, fince that work muft be done before we can make 
wine. As my countrymen are generally ftrangers to all 
thefe things, I hope they will bear with me, if fometimes 
I am more particular than to fome it may feem neceflary; 
flncc I would willingly remove every obftacle out of the 
way, and communicate every the moft minute circum- 
ftance to thofe, who are altogether ftrangers to this new- 
undertaking in America, fo that any man of common fenfe, 
that can read, may faiely undertake and go through with 
the whole aff^air fuccefsfully. 
Vol. I. H h I have 



239 CULTIVATION OF the VINE. 

I have already obferved, that the black grapes differ from 
the white in the manner of ripening, but whether your 
grapes be black or white, they muft be fully ripe before they 
are gathered, otherwife they will not make good wine; 
gather them in a fair day, when they are perfedly dry; 
lake away all the rotten and unripe grapes from every cluf- 
ter, for they fpoil the wine: If your vintage be large and 
you gather more grapes than you can mafh and prefs out 
in one day, let them be gathered without bruifmg, for 
bruifed grapes foon contract an unfavory tafte and hurt the 
wine in proportion; if they are maflied the fame day they 
are gathered, the bruifing will do nohurt; neverthelefs I 
would advife the gathering of them to be directed by fome 
grave difcreet perfon, for as this work is done generally 
by fervants and children, it is made matter of paftimeand 
frolic, rather than prudent labour, and fo many grapes are 
torn off, and either bruifed or fcattered on the ground, to 
the no fmall damage of the owner, both in the lofs of 
fruit, and in hurting the wine, and thefe things fhould be 
impreffed on the minds of the gatherers before they begin, 
that every thing may be done regularly and in order, by 
which means more work will be done, and to much better 
purpofe. 

The black grapes are befl known to be ripe, when here 
and there one of the forwardeft grapes begins to fhrivel 
and dry ; then fet to and gather and make them up into 
wine as fafl as you can. 

If white frofts happen before fome of your grapes are 
fully ripe though very near it, fo as to want no farther 
feeding, you need be under no apprehenfions about them, 
let them flill hang on the vines, they will grow ripe, rich 
and high flavoured nothwithftanding; but then they muft 
be gathered before the weather be fo hard as to freeze the 
grapes, for that will fpoil them; the light frofts that only 
kill the leaves do not hurt the fruit, unlefs it be fuch as 
are late ripe, thefe fhould be carefully covered from all 
frofts, they fliould grow againft walls or board fences front- 
ing 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 240 

ing the fouth or fouth-eaft, and at night be covered with 
mats or frames thatched with ftraw, which (hould be fo 
contrived as to be fet up to cover the fruit or let down at 
plealiire. 

A pretty good judgement may be formed of the good- 
nefs or badnefs rf your wine, and of a plentiful or thin 
vintage, by the feafons of the year; if the fpring and for- 
mer part of the fummer prove generally dry, with now 
and then moderate refrefhing rains, if the I'eafon in Auguft 
and September be hot and dry, if in the month of June 
the weather be calm, ferene and dry, when the vine is in 
bloflbm, and the fruit is forming, your crop or vintage 
will be plentiful, and your wine rich and good: But if at 
the time of bloflbming, the feafon be wet and ftormy, the 
vv'inds high and bluftering, if the fpring be cold with much 
wet, and backward, if the latter part of fummer and fall 
be ftormy, raw and wet; your crop will be thin, and the 
wine fmall and bad; when this happens, it will be necef- 
fary and for your advantage, to boil one half of the muft, 
and to manage it as I fhall hereafter diredt you. 

As the wine made from black grapes has a different ma- 
n3gement from that made of white grapes, I fhall begin 
with the white; thefe then muft be gathered as I mention- 
ed before in a fair day, when the grapes are perfectly 
dry; and both the rotten and unripe grapes being carefully 
plucked off from every bunch, the clufters are then thrown 
into the mafh vat, and two or three men, according to the 
quantity, having waflied their feet and legs very clean in 
bran and water, get into the vat and trample and mafh the 
grapes thoroughly fo that none efcape, the more they are 
trampled and mafhed the better; about Paris they let the 
murk, that is the fkins, ftalks, muft and all ftand together 
in the vat eight and forty hours and then prefs it off, but 
in other parts of France they prefs off as foon as the grapes 
are mafhed: The laft method I fhouM prefer-, provided 
the hufks be trod over again in the Portuguefe manner, 
otherwife I fhould prefer the firft method pradifed by the 

people 



241 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

people about Paris, for this reafon, becaufe there is a rich 
pulp that adheres to the (Idn of the grape, which is not 
feparated by the firfl: treading; bat by lying eight and 
forty hours in the murk, and the vat covered with flieets 
or blankets, which is the practice, a pretty ftrong fermen- 
tation has begun and continued fome time, which partly 
diffolves and partly loofens this rich pulp, that ftuck to 
the fKin, which then chiefly comes away by preffing; 
however I am of opinion that, the treading of thefe hufks 
after the fermentation, the muft having firft run off into 
the receiver, would do the work more effectually if they 
were well preffed after it. But then we muft take this 
caution along with us, that if vines are young, which al- 
ways afford a thin weak wine, or if the feafons have been 
wet and bad, fo that the juices are not rich, in thofe cafes 
the muft ftiould be boiled before any fermentation, in order 
to preferve the wine (as I ftiall farther direct you when we 
come to the boiling of wines) in that cafe the Portuguefe 
method muft be purfued, becaufe the boiling of wine af- 
ter the fermentation has begun, would entirely fpoil it; 
the fweet muft only, as it runs from the treading into the 
receiver, muft be boiled. The firft and fecond preffmg 
being mixed together is put into hogflieads, which muft 
be filled within four inches of the bung, that it may have 
room to work and ferment, the cafks being placed in fome 
warm room or dry cellar. Then having a fmall fpile 
fixed in the middle of the head of the cafk, the third or 
fourth day, draw a little of the wine in a glafs, and if it 
be pretty fine, draw it off immediately into a clean dry 
well fcented cafi^, the larger the better, fo you have wine 
enough to fill it, which you muft do within two inches of 
the bung, and ftop it clofe, leaving only the vent hole 
open for a fecond fermentation; after a tew days it will 
work a fecond time, but not fo much as at the firft; if your 
wine be ftrong and good, which you may know by the 
age of your vineyard, and by the goodnefs of the feafons, 
it will be beft to leave the bung hole open for this fecond 

working. 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 242 

working, the v/lne will be the better : for ftrong wines re- 
quire a greater fermentation than v/eak wines, and the 
flopping of the bung hole, is a check upon the working, 
and prevents weak vines from Ipending themfelves too 
much, which muft greatly hurt them; on the contrary if 
rtrong wines have not a thorough working, they are apt to 
grow thick and ropy, v/hich hurts them as much the 
other way; by this you may form a proper judgment what 
degree of fermentation is proper for the wine that is 
under w^orking and govern yourfelf accordingly. Three 
or four days after the iecond fermentation begins, which 
you muft carefully Vv^atch by vifiting your wines every day, 
again try your wine in a glafs, and if it be pretty fine, 
prepare a cafk fweet and good, burn a qood large brimftone 
match in it, and as foon as the match is burnt out, whilft 
the cafk is full of fmoke, draw off the wine into it; now 
fill up your cafk to the brim, and bung it up tight and flop 
the vent hole; the fmoke or the brimftone will hinder any 
further fermentation; and this is called ftumming: then 
make a morter of clay and horfe dung mixed up with flrong 
flaxfeed tea, and cover the bung and vent hole clofe with 
it, and fo let it ftand till it is fit to fell or to ufe. 

When you firft rack off your wine, if you have any old 
wine that is rich and good, of the fame kind or colour, 
put four or fix gallons of it, and two gallons of good 
brandy into your cafk (this quantity is fufficient for an 
Englifh hogfhead) and then rack off your wine into it for 
the firft time, this will greatly firengthen and preferve 
your wine, and if your wine be weak, it will hinder too 
great a fermentation the fecond time, and fo preferve the 
purer fpirits from flying off. 

When wine is in fermentation, all the grofs parts are 
thrown up to the top of the cafk, or veffel that it ferments 
in, and there meeting the air, they undergo a very great 
change for the worfe, they contra(!l a harfhnefs and become 
rancid. If then they are fuffcred to pafs down through 
the body of the wine, which they certainly v»ill do, as 

foon 



243 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

foon as the fermentation is over, they will communicate 
thofe evil qualities to the wine, and it muft be a ftrong 
wine indeed that will ftand fuch a fhock. It the wune be 
weak it wall foon turn four; if the wine be ftrong and has 
a fufficient ftock of native fpirits to defend it from thofe 
bad impreffions, yet it will contrad: an unfavoury harfh- 
nefs, which will not be removed for fome time, nor will 
it be fit for drinking till age has fmoothed and made it 
mellow\ For this reafon it is that you are to draw off 
your wine both times before the fermentation be quite 
over, and as to weak wines, they fhould by no means 
work too much, either time, three days are quite fuffici- 
ent for each working; ftrong wines fhould work longer 
for the reafon above afligned; they are better able to ftand 
it, befides it prevents ropinefs and they fine the fooner 
and better for it. 

I now pafs on to the making of red wines from the 
black grapes. Red wines have a diff^erent managment 
from the white; the whole of one or even two days tread- 
ing or maftiing, (when the vintage is great) is thrown in- 
to a large vat, the muft, ftalks, fkins and all, and ftands 
in fome warm dry place or cellar. The vat is covered 
clofe with fheets or blankets, or both, and thus it remains, 
according to cuftom from four to feven or even ten days, 
according to the coldnefs or heat of the weather. This is 
done to obtain a ftrong fermentation, in order to give a 
deeper colour to the wine, and this is the only end pro- 
pofed by it; the manager of this work, vifits the vat twice 
a day, and in a glafs views the colour of the wine, and 
taftes it; if the tindure be not deep enough to his mind, 
he knows by the tafte of the wine, whether it will ftand 
a longer fermentation: if it will not, he contents himfelf 
with the colour it has and draw sand preffes itoff^, and fills it 
into calks, leaving about two inches from the bung, for a 
fecond fermentation. When the fecond fermentation is 
over, which generally happens in four or five days, he then 
draws it off" into clean well fcented calks, and adds to it fix 

gallons 



CULTIVATION op the VINE. 244 

gallons of good old wine and two gallons of brandy to an 
Englifh hogftiead, which contains from 60 to 6;^ gallons. 
Where the fame kind of wine is not to be had, he makes 
ufe of port wine. He then fills the calk quite full and 
bungs it up tight, leaving only the vent hole open to let 
out the generated air. Note, when I fay, where the fame 
kind of wine is not to be had he makes ufe of Portugal 
wines, this is mentioned for our practice, not that the 
French make ufe of fuch wines, for they always have wines 
enough of their own of the fame kind. 

This management of red wines, which perhaps with 
little variation, is almoft as ancient as the making of wine 
in France, deferves fome attention and a clofe examination, 
in as much as I am fully perfuaded that it is capable of 
an effential improvement. 

To underftand the nature of this affair rightly, we mufl: 
know that, befides the main pulp or core of the grape, 
which is white in black grapes as well as others, there 
flicks to the infide of the fkin, a confiderable body of rich 
pulp, which is perfedly red, of a deeper die in fome than 
in others. This pulp gives the colour to the grape, accord- 
ing to the lightnefs or deepnefs of its tindure: thus we 
fee fome grapes of a light red, fome of a full red and fome 
of a deep red, fome again are almoft black, fome quite 
black and fome of a fhining jett; this fame pulp alfo 
gives the tincture or colour to the wine, for the fame grape 
is capable of making white wine as well as red wine; if 
the main core which is firft trod out, be only ufed, the 
wine will be white; thus they make white Burgundy, &c. 
but if the red pulp be mixed with it, it makes it of a rich 
purple colour; as this is a clear cafe and lies expofed to 
every difcerning eye, the great point of improvement to 
be gained, is to diffolve or extrad this rich pulp, without 
injuring the wine. That the prefent method is the beft 
andmoft effectual to that purpofe, I can by no means think; 
the violent fermentation through which the wine is made to 
pafs, in order to procure the tindure, muft exhauft the 

fpirits 



245 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

fpirlts in a very great degree, and leave the body in a 
weak and languid rtate, and fubjed it to harfhnefs, to turn 
eager or vapid in a fhort time; theie wines grow worfe 
not better by age; many inftances of this kind we meet 
with in the French clarets, among which, vv^hereone hogf- 
head proves good, found and wholefome, ten, not to fay 
twenty, prove harfh, eager and difagreeable : Theie con- 
fiderations lead me to think, that the prefent raanajment 
calls loudly for a reformation; one experiment I have made, 
and but one, which I fliall offer with fome farther thou_^ht8 to 
confideration for farther improvement; but I moil heartil/ 
recommend this affair to fome public fpirited and worthy phi- 
lofophers of the age, who by repeated experiments might 
bring to light this important fecret, which when known 
would be very beneficial to the nation. The experiment I 
made was this, in a clean ilone pot, wide and open, containing 
two gallons, 1 fqueezed as many Burgundy grapes as nearly 
filled it, with the liquor and ikins; the ftalks 1 left out. It 
ftood in a dry room covered with a coarfe dry towel four 
double, four days and nights fermenting, I then ilrained 
it off and with my hands mafhed the (kins very well, by 
this means I obtained a full deep tindure of that kind of 
purple that is peculiar to the Burgundy wine; I then left 
it to ferment, in a large cafe bottle, after the firft and 
fecond fermentations were over, I found about a quart of 
rich fediment at the bottom and a pretty thick {kin form- 
ed on the top, the fmell was very pleafant and truly vinous, 
the juft indications of a found healthy wine. By this ex- 
periment I found that, three days fermentation, allowing 
the firft day for heating, which is preparatory to fermen- 
tation, (the degrees of heat are mentioned by Boerhaave, 
Hoffman and others) was fufficient to obtain a tindure, 
with the help of fqueezing the fkins a fecond time, without 
injuring the wine, and I found what red pulp remained 
adhering to the fkins, feparated from them very eafily, 
and by the colour of the wine, before the fecond fqueezing, 
that the fermentation had diffolved moft of this pulp, or 

cxtraded 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 246 

extracted a great part of its tm(fture; fromthe whole then, 
1 think I have reafon to conclude, that if the huflcs or 
i'kins, after four days lying in the murk, were taken out 
and thrown into the malli vat, and heartily trod over again, 
and efpecially if fome of the muft, or rather wine, for it is 
wine after fermentation, he now and then thrown over 
thehufks, as they are trampling it in order to walh away 
the pulp, that a full tindure may be obtained, without tor- 
turing the wine, as the prefent manner is, and without 
running fo great a rifque of fpoiling it. 

As this is a very important point, upon the right ma- 
nagement of which depends the goodnefs of the wine, 
and as a farther improvement is hereby deiigned, I have 
dwelt the longer upon the ibbjecl:, and therefore hope it 
v/ill not be looked upon, as a uielefs digreillon. 

Wine made from young vineyards is always thin and 
weak, and fo are wines from old vineyards, when the 
feafons have been cold, ftormy and wet, and without forne 
affiftance, they will not hold found long; now this is given 
two ways, either by the help of fome old llrong wine, one 
fourth part at leaft, and four gallons of brandy to an Eng- 
lifh hogfhcad, or if that is not in your power, then half 
of the rauft is to be boiled away to one half of its quantity, 
that is, if one half of your muft contains forty gallons, 
that muft be boiled away to twenty, this greatly enriches 
it, and makes it of the conftftence of liquid honey. As 
foon as it is cool, mix it with the reft of the muft, and let 
it ferment together, and then manage it as before direded 
of other wines ; when your vineyard comes to be ten or 
twelve years old, it will yield much ftrouger wines. 

The boiling of your muft is managed in the following 
manner, which muft be carefully attended toj your cop- 
per or kettle being well cleaned, rub the irifidc all over with 
a woollen rag dipped in fweet oil, which prefcrycs the 
wine from contrading a naufeous, copper or brals tafte; 
then throw in your muft, and kindle a gentle fire under 
the copper with brufh or fmall fplit wood, your cop-per 
Vol. L li ftanding 



247 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

ftandlng fo high, that the wood need not touch the bottom 
of it, when you put large wood under it to make it boil 
faft; for if at any time your wood touches the bottom of 
your kettle or copper, the wine will be burned, which will 
fpoil it; as the fcum rifes skim it off, and gently raifeyour 
fire by flow degrees, ftirring your muft often from the 
bottom, and take off the fcum as it rifes, till all be clear, 
than raife your fire by larger wood, and make it boil fafter 
and fafter, as it fettles down or boils away, till one half 
be confumed, being always careful and upon the watch 
that none of the wood touches the bottom of the copper; 
the muft thus boiled away is called defrutum, or the rob 
of grapes. If you negledl to raife the fediment from the 
bottom of the copper, it will burn and fpoil the wine, for 
it turns bitter. 

And now once for all I muft caution every one, who at- 
tempts to make wine, to be ftridtly careful to have all the 
vefiels and inftruments made ufe of in this work, per- 
fedlly clean and fweet ; for if they have any four, unfavoury 
or offenfive fmell, they will communicate it to the muft 
and fpoil the wine; and every thing that has an ofi^enfive 
or difagreeable fmell, muft be removed from the place 
where wine is made, and from the cellars where it is kept ; 
the cellar ought to be dry and warm; for damps or wet 
hurt wines exceedingly. It muft alfo be free from mufti- 
nefs, and in good weather, the windows next the fouth and 
weft muft be opened, to admit the warm dry air, which 
will prevent muftinefs and dangerous damps. 

Hogftieads well bound with iron are the only fafe cafl^s 
for wine, if you truft to old wine pipes, or to hogflieads 
with wooden hoops, it is ten to one but they deceive you; 
they conftantly want repairing every year, but iron bound 
calks will hold many years without any expence at all, fo 
that in three years time they become by much the cheapeft 
caflcs ; I mean for ftanding cafks, out of which the wine is 
racked into other caftcs for fale; but then as foon as they are 
empty, the lees muft be taken out and faved for diftilling 

into 



CULTIVATION OF THE VINE. 248 

into brandy, and the fame day the cafk muft be filled with 
water, or elfe they will be deftroyed by a fmall worm, 
which will pierce it like a five. 

Every man that has a vineyard fhould have a fi:ill and 
good worm, that he may diftil all the lees, the husks and the 
fcum into good brandy, which he will want for theprefer- 
vation of his wines, the fame ftill will do to make peach 
brandy and the fpirits of cyder, which will foon pay for 
it. A ftill that holds a barrel is quite large enough, un- 
lefs your vineyard and orchards be very large indeed. 

I now pafs on to the different management of wine af- 
ter fermentation; one method I have already mentioned; 
fome after the fecond fermentation, leave the v/ine in the 
fame cask upon the lees, and adding the old wine and 
brandy to it (for which they make room) they fiop up the 
bung hole, and leave only the vent hole open to let out 
the generated air, till the month of March, filling up the 
cask from time to time as the wine fubfides or waftes, and 
then draw it off into a clean, well fcented and well hum- 
med cask, and fi:op all clofe with roorter. 

Others again in the month of March, before they rack 
it off and ftum it, roll the cask backward and forward in 
the cellar to mix the lees thoroughly with the wine, think- 
ing thereby to communicate the ftrength of the lees to the 
wine, and then let it ftand and fettle till it is fine, and rack 
it off into clean well ftummed casks, and fl:op and plaifter 
all upclofe. 

Here I think it proper to take notice, that the lees of 
ftrong wines may be of advantage, and communicate fome 
firength to weak wines, that are racked off upon them, 
but it does not therefore follow, that all lees are beneficial 
to the wines that produce them; for, as I have already ob- 
ferved, the lees, in the time of fermentation, being thrown 
up to the top of the veffel, there meet with the air, and 
being expofed to it for four or five days, contract a harih 
and rancid nature, if they do not grow quite four, and then 
fubfiding, as foon as the fermentation is over, and fettling 

to 



249 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

to the bottom of the cask, where they are left for the wine 
to feed upon, I leave it to any man to judge what kind of 
food this muft be^ and what manner of good it can com- 
municate to the wine. But what fhall we fay, fo rigid 
and arbitrary is cuftom, that we even look upon it next to 
rebellion, to deviate or depart from the cuftoms of our fa- 
thers. The cyder that has been made in America for 
above one hundred years paft, has till very lately, been 
conftantly fpoiled by this fame miftake. Every man that 
makes cyder very well knows, how foon the pumice cor- 
rupts and grows four by being expofed to the air, and yet 
no man in all that time ever prevented the pumice, after 
fermentation, from fettling down through the whole body 
of cyder, but there left it to remain for his cyder to feed 
upon all winter, and indeed all the next fummer too, if it 
lailed fo long; with this additional advantage, that in the 
fpring upon a frefh fermentation, the fame body of pumice 
riles again to the top of the cask and there contrads a ftill 
greater acidity or rancid nature, and by finking down again 
through the body of liquor, communicates a ftill liigher 
degree of thefc rare qualities to it, and then the owner 
complains of the hardnefs of his cyder, and fo does every 
body elfe that drinks of it; and yet this has fo long re- 
mained without a remedy, becaufe our fathers did fo. 

From what experiments 1 have made, I am clearly of 
opinion that the fasces or lees which are left in wine or 
cyder is the true caufe of their frequent fermentation ; na- 
ture appears to be loaded with, and fick of them, and like 
a man with a foitl ftomach, often ftrains hard for a dif- 
charge, and the neglecting to eafe and clear nature of this per- 
nicious, this deftrudive load, is the chief caufe of all the 
ill effedls it produces. In this, the juice of the grape re- 
fembles the blood, the vital juice of man, if by a foul fto- 
mach any quantity of crude, indigefted or vitiated matter 
be thrown into the blood, it is prefently fet into a 
ferment, which rifes and increafes till either the matter be 
fully difchargcd, or the vital union be diflblved; if the 

man 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 250 

man recovers the {hock, and gets the better of the mighty 
ftruggle, yet how weak, ho.v low and faint does he ap- 
pear! Thus it fares with wines, the ftrong bodied wines 
that are replete with fpirits, often get the better of thefe 
ftruggles, but I believe not without confiderable lofs and 
damage; but the weaker wines generally fink under them. 
It is from this idea of the thing, that 1 have all along fo ftrongly 
infilled upon the removal of the lees in the beginning, upon 
the tirft as well as the fecond fermentation. I fhould be 
greatly pleafed if the ingenious and Reverend Dr. Hales, 
of Teddington in Great-Britain, would, by experiments, 
bring this matter into a clearer light; the world would be 
obliged by him, as they have already been, by a difcovery 
v^'hich he was fo good as to make not long fince in a cafe 
that bears fome relation to the prefent one; I fhall tranf- 
cribe it as it is related by the ingenious Mr. Philip Miller^ 
in his Gardener's Dictionary : viz. " A great complaint 1 
received from a curious gentleman in Italy, of the fpoiling 
of their beil and linefl: wines there; who fays, fuch is the 
nature ot this country wines in general, (nor are the 
choiceft Chianti's excepted) that at two feafons of the year, 
viz. the beginning of June and September, the firft, when 
the grapes are in bloifom, and the other when they begin 
to ripen, fome of the beft wines are apt to change, efpe- 
cially at the latter feafon; not that they turn eager, but take 
a moO: unpleafant tafte, like that of a rotten vine leaf, 
which renders them not only not fit for drinking, but alfo 
unfit for vinegar, this Is called the feptembrine, and what 
is moft ftrange, one cafk drawn out of the fame vat, fhall 
be infected, and another remain perfedly good, and vet 
both have been kept in the fame cellar. As this chan^-e 
happens not to wine in bottles, though that will turn ca;:er 
I am apt to attribute it to fome tault in filling the casks, 
which muH; always be kept full; which either by letting 
alone too long, till the decreafe be too great, and the fcum 
thereby being too much dilated, is fubjedl to break, or elfe 
being broken by filling up the cask, and being mixed 

v.'Ith 



251 CULTIVx\TION of the VINE. 

with the wine, gives it that vile tafte : But then againft 
this there is a ftrong objed:ion, i. e. that this deted: only 
feizes the wine at a particular feafon, viz. September, over 
which, if it gets, it will keep good many years : lb that 
the cafe is worthy the inquiry of naturalifts, fince it is evi- 
dent that moft wines are more or lefs affected with this 
diftemper, during the firft year after making. 

" ITpon receiving this information from Italy, I con- 
fulted the Revd. Dr. Hales of Teddington, who was then 
making feveral experiments on fermenting liquors, and 
received from him the curious folution of the caufe of this 
change in wine, which I fent over to my friend in Italy, 
who has tried the experiment, and it has accordingly an- 
fwered his expectation, in preferving the wine, he thus 
managed, perfecStly good. He has alfo communicated the 
experiment to feveral vigneronsin Italy, who are repeating 
the fame; which take in Dr. Hales own words, viz. 

" From many experiments which I made the laft fum- 
mer, I find that all fermented liquors do generate air in 
large quantities, during the time of their fermentation; for 
from an experiment made on twelve cubic inches of Ma- 
laga raifins, put into eighteen cubic inches of water the 
beginning of March, there were four hundered and eleven 
cubic inches of air generated by the middle of April; but 
afterward, when the fermentation was over, it reforbed a 
great quantity of this air; and from forty two cubic inches 
of ale from the ton (which had fermented forty four hours 
before it was put into the bolt head) there were generated 
fix hundred and thirty-nine cubic inches of air from the 
beginning of March to the middle of June, after which it 
reforbed thirty-two cubic inches of the fame air; from 
whence it is plain, that fermented liquors do generate air 
during the time of their fermentation, but afterwards they 
are in an imbibing ftate, which may perhaps account for 



the 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 252 

the alteration in the nice Italian wines,* for wine during 
the. firft year after making, continues fermenting more or 
lefs, during which time a great quantity of air is generated, 
until the cold in September puts a ftop to it, after which 
it is in an imbibing ftate, that is, it draws or fucks in air; 
the air thus generated is of a rancid nature (as the Grotto 
del Canno) and will kill a living animal if put into it, fo 
that if there be, during the fermentation, two quarts of 
this air, fo rancid, pent up in the upper part of the cask, 
when the cold flops the fermentation, the wine by abforb- 
ing this air becomes foul, and acquires this rancid tafte; 
to prevent which I would propofe the following experi- 
ment; 

* Had Dr. Hales been alked what he thought was the true caufe of thofe frequent fermenta- 
tions, and was deCred to apply a remedy ; I think he would have fought for the caufe where 
it was to be found, and upon removing that, the effeds would naturally have ceafed; but be- 
ing put upo n the fearch of fecondary caufes, caufes far removed from the original, in order to 
prevent or cure the evil efFeAs of them, he refolved that difficulty, I do fuppofe in the beft 
manner it could have been done, and with great ingenuity applied a remedy. And now, 
fnould thefe pages fall within his ken, or fome friendly letter comprehending my full mean- 
ing, the Dodor, as a true philofopher, from a pubhc benevolent fpirit, would foon find out 
the true caufe of thefe miichiefs, and apply a remedy, truly fpecific. 

The gentleman in Italy, who makes the reprefentation to Mr. Miller fays, "And what is 
moft ftrange,^ one calk drawn out of the fame vat, fhall be infedied, and another remain per- 
fedly good;" in this cafe it is certain, that the firft andfecond calk drawn out of the vat, and 
the third and fourth, if the vat be large, were drawn off fine and clear, being perfedly free 
from the faces or lees below, but when the laft calk comes to be drawn, a good deal of the 
lees comes with it, and this is not much regarded, as the lees were fuppofed to nourilh the 
wine; fuppofe the gentleman cortiplaining had the firft and the laft calk drawn out of the vat, 
and one of them fpoiled, the other remained perfedly good, which fliall we fuppofe to have 
been the cafk .'' That which was perfedly fine, or that which has the lees? Whoever will tafte 
the firft and the laft drawings, will find fo feuCble a difterence in the wine, that I think he 
cannot be at a lofs to detemiine the queftion. 

«a^^a Secluding the air from wine or cyder, is a great means of preferving them long 
found and good ; nature itfelf points this out to us; wine forms a fcum upon the top ■ 
to fecure itfelf from the bad impreffions of it, and we daily find that thefe Hquors 
put into bottles, keep much better than when left in calks; fome think that ftrong 
old Madeira is an exception to this rule, but I think it has not had a fair and impar- 
tial trial. That cyder drawn out of a barrel grows v/orfe and worfe as the air gets to 
it, everyone is fcnfible of, wnereas fome of the fame cyder bottled, remains good a 
long time, if well corked and rofmed, as every body knows; and that this is the 
I X cafe with common wines, no man will difpute. For this reafon the hning of 
the infide of the calks with rofin, as the Romans did with pitch, prepared as hereafter 
direded, would be a great means of preferving wine, not only from the air but 
from great wafte; and the bung and vent-hole Ihould be wellfccured with clay and 
horfedung: if you are under apprehenfions that the rofin will communicate a bad 
tafte to the wine; melt it, and wafli it with lye, and that will prevent it. The 
Dodor's method of keeping the calks full is very ingenious and of great fervice. 

The tubes, reprefented in the margin, perhaps may be a fmall improvement 
upon his, this double tube is fuppofed to be made of pewter or tin, well foldered to- 
gether; the fmall tube enters the large one at bottom, below the wine, and does 
not break the fcum that is on the top of the wine in the large tube; the large tube 
fhould be well flopped with a good clofe fcrew head, and this muft be opened when 
wine is poured in through the fmall tube, and prcfently ftopped again, that the caik 
may always be kept full, and to keep out the air. 



B 




2S3 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

ment: Suppofe the vellcl A, filled with 
wine, in the bung-hole B, of this veflel I 
would have a glafs tube of two feet long 
and about two inches bore fixed with a 
pewter focket clofely cemented, fo that 
there may be no vacuities on the fides; and 
in this tube fhould be another of about half 
an inch bore, clofely fixed; the lower tube fhould be al- 
ways kept about half full of wine, up to X, which will 
fupply the veflel, as the wine therein fhall wafte or fubfide, 
ib that there will be no room left in the upper part of the 
veflel to contain generated air, which will pafs otf through 
the upper fmall tube, which mufl: always be left open for 
that purpofe; and the tube being fmall, there will be no 
danger of letting in too much air to the wine : As the 
wine in the large tube fliall fubfide, it may be repleniihed, 
by introducing a flender funnel through the fmall tube 
down to the fcum upon the furface of the wine in the 
large tube, fo as to prevent its being broken by the wines 
falling too violently upon it; this will be prevented by the 
wines being poured in gently with a fmall ftream. This 
experiment being tried with glafs tubes will give an oppor- 
tunity to obferve what im.preflion the diff^erent ftates of the 
air have upon the wine, byitsrifing and falling in the tubes; 
and if it fucceeds it may be afterward done by wooden or 
metal tubes, which will not be fofubje<5l; to break. 

This curious experiment having fucceeded, where ever 
it has been tried, will be of great fervice in the manage- 
ment of wines; there being many ufeful hints to be taken 
from it; particularly with regard to fermenting wines; 
for fince we find that wines too long fermented (efpecial- 
ly thofe which are made in cold countries) do feldom keep 
well; fo by letting them ftand in a cool place, the fermen- 
tation will be checked, which will render the wines foul, 
and fubjed: to turn eager; therefore great care fhould be 
taken to keep the Vkine in an equal temperature of air, 
which may be known by hanging a thermometer in the 

vault. 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 254 

vault. But after the wine has pafled its fermentation in 
the vat, and is drawn off into cafks, it will require foine- 
thing to feed upon: And when the wine has remained 
one year upon the lees it is commonly drawn off 
into other veffels, it will then alio be proper for it to have 
fomething to feed upon; about four pounds ofthebeft 
Malaga raifins picked clean and ftoned, and thrown into 
each hogfnead, will be fufficicnt and beft for that purpole, 
more would be dangerous, by raifing a new fermentation, 
which always hurts the wine more or lefs according to the 
greatnefsof it. As the wine will fubiide by wafte as long 
as it continues In casks, it is the ufual method to fill them 
up from time to time,Avith Tome wine, as nearly like the 
fame fort as may be; for if it be of a different nature or much 
newer, fuch as has not thoroughly fermented, it will often 
raiie a new fermentation, which will endanger the wine: 
Therefore, if you have no fuch proper wine, it will be beft 
to throw in as many clean walhed pebbles and well dried, 
as will raife up the wine to the bung: This I have known 
pradifed with fuccefs.'* Thus far Mr. Miller, 

Here I muft beg leave to make fome obfervations, which 
may either ferve to throw a light upon this afl^air, or lay a 
foundation for farther experiments, in order to come at the 
truth, which in all cafes is worth purfuing,.and efpecially in 
this, where it has lain dormant for fo many ages, andthedif- 
covery would be of great importance to the prefent defign. 

The principles of wine are an inflammable fpirit, a 
phlegm or watry liquor, an acid fait or tartar, and a ful- 
phureous oily fubftance; wines therefore greatly differ in 
their tafte, fmell and virtue, according to the various pro- 
portions and manner in which thefe principles are com- 
bined. Perhaps the difference of flavour, tafte, colour 
and body in wines may be owing as much to the time of 
gathering, manner of preffmg, the different degrees of 
fermentation, &c. as to any difference in the grapes 
themfelves; In Hungary, whence Tockay and fome of the; 
rlcheft and higheft flavoured wines do come, they are cx- 
VoL. L K k tremcly 



2SS CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

tremely curious in thefe refpeds; for their prime and 
moft delicate wines, the grapes are fufFered to continue on 
the vines till they are half dried by the heat of the fun, 
and if the fun*s heat fhould not prove fufficient, they are 
dried by the gentle heat of a furnace. Wines that are 
thin may be improved by freezing, by this means the v^a- 
try parts adhere to the cafk, and the ftrong fpirituous parts 
are left in a body, in the middle of the calk, and being 
drawn off by themfelves, prove ftrong and good, and will 
keep well. See Boffman, and the celebrated Dr. Stahl on 
the fubjed; fee alfo Dr. Sbaiv^s comment on Stahl. 

If thefe be the real principles-, and fome of the effential 
conftituent parts of the grape, or if a proportionable quan- 
tity of nitre be allowed to come into the compofition, 
which might perhaps be difcovered by an accurate ana- 
lyfis, it will not be hard to account for the fermentation; 
heat and air both are neceflary to it; now thefe principles 
whilft confined to the grape, are fo difpofed by the wife 
Author of Nature as to" be confined diftindly in their pro- 
per cells or tubical ramufculi, and they are fo clofely fe- 
eured by the covering of a fkin, of fuch a compad: tex- 
ture, like that of bladders of feveral kinds, that the air 
cannot come at them, but they are effedually fecured 
a^^ainft the impreftions of it ; if this, or fomething like 
this be the cafe, then thefe principles remain in a neutral 
or inadive ftate, whilft thus confined to the fruit, but 
when the fruit comes to be maftied, and thefe principles 
come in contad of each other, and are expofed to- the warm 
air, which is of a veryadive and elaftic nature, the whole 
body, by degrees, is put into motion, the motion begets 
heat, and the heat increafes the motion, (this heat and the 
increafe of it is plainly difcernable by the touch, 'till it 
increafes to fuch a degree, as according to Boerhaa'ue, is 
neceftary to a full fermentation. The heat then increafing 
to a farther height, the fermentation gradually abates, and 
thus ends the firft fermentation: By this operation a fpirit 
is generated, and the mild, foft, lufcious juice of the grape, 

which 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 256 

which is called muft, is changed inlo a brisk, lively, in- 
flammable fpirit, which is then called wine; which has, if 
clofely and attentively confidered, a ftrange and wonder- 
ful effect upon thofe that drink it, according to their dif- 
ferent difpofitions, humours and conftitutions. 

By the violent motion of this firft fermentation, all the 
fa!ces or grofs parts are thrown up to the top of the veffel, 
and this is a proper time, at the end of three, four or five 
days, according to the ftrength of the wine, which is then 
pretty clear, to draw it off from thofe groffer parts ; which 
will be done without lofs, and the lees mull be preferved 
for diftilling into brandy. If this be negledted, this grofs 
body having been fo long expofed to the air, contrads a 
rancid nature, or turns four, and as foon as the fermenta- 
tion is over, it gradually finks down to the bottom, and 
pafling flowly through the body of the liquor, communi- 
cates thofe evil qualities to it: This is fo clearly dircernible 
in cyder, which alfo is a tolerable good wine, when pro- 
perly managed, that no man can be miftaken in the cafe. 
Since I have taken this method with cyder, it has proved 
more like wine than common drink, but then I racked it 
off a fecond and a third time, as foon as it appeared fine, 
and then ftummed the cask that received it the lafttime: 
This cyder will keep found all fummer in a cask, and grows 
ftronger, and may be bottled at any time, it will foon 
ripen, and be very brisk when poured into a glafs, and 
that without endangering the bottles fo much, its brisk- 
nefs proceeding from fpirit, and not from fermentation. 

Weak wines will by no means bear fo great a fermenta- 
tion as fl:rong wines, let them therefore be drawn off after 
three days fermentation the firft time, and adding two or 
three gallons of brandy, and five or fix gallons of good 
old wine; flop up the bung, and leave only the vent hole 
open, and when the fecond fermentation isjuft over, and 
when the wine is pretty fine, draw it off a fecond time in^ 
to a well ftummed cask, fill it up to the brim, and ftop all 
clofe, and keep it fo 'till you fell or ufe it, and then bottle it. 

Some 



257 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

Some cuftoms among the ancients, I think, are worthy 
of notice, and tit to be revived and retained by us; how 
many of them came to be laid afide, when they appear fo 
ufeful and beneficial, I cannot fay, perhaps for reafons 
which I am not able to difcover: I fhall here mention one, 
which I think pertinent to our prefent purpofe, which was 
for the prefervation of their wines; they took a firkin, or 
eight gallons of pure clear tar, of the firft cool running 
from the kiln; to this they added half as much good clean 
pitch pounded fine, and put it all into an iron pot, and 
melted it by a gentle lire; when hot they put to it four 
gallons of ftrong lye (that is a lixivium of afhes,) this 
they ftirred altogether, at leaft for half an hour very well, 
it was then left eight and forty hours for the tar and pitch 
to fubfide, the lye was then poured off; the tar and pitch 
was heated till it melted a fecond time, and four gallons of 
frefh lye were poured on, and ftirred and managed as be- 
fore; this was done a third time; they then took four gal- 
lons of fea water, as fait as could be got, (for people who 
cannot eafily come at the fea water, a good clean brine, 
made of fait and water, may do as well) the tar and pitch 
being juft melted, but not made too hot, they put the fait 
water to it, and ftirred it very well, this was put in the 
fun, and ftood open all day, but covered at night to keep 
off the dews, and when it rained; this ftood expofed to the 
fun till all the water was exhaled, and then it was put up 
for ufe. With this they payed or daubed over the cafk, 
into which they put the wine, in this manner : They took 
out one head of the cafti, and in the fame manner as our 
coopers do, they heated the cafk thoroughly, and having 
fome of the pitch and tar, (now more refembling pitch a~ 
lone) melted, they threw in as much as they thought would 
daub the cafls: all over, and alio the head that was taken 
out, they then took a broom and rubbed the pitch well 
over every part of the infide of the cafl^, fo that no fpot 
efcaped, turning and winding the caflc about very brilkly; 
for this work muft be done in hurry, leaft the cafl^ and 

pitch 



CULTIVATION of the VINK. 25^ 

pitch cool, in which cafe the pitch grows (o thick and hard 
as to refufe to be fpread : By this managment of the calk, 
it was made perfedly tight, all the pores of the wood were 
flopped, the wine was preferved from wafle, which wine 
merchants very well know is a great faving, and well de- 
ferves the trouble and expence, and the fpirits of the v/ine, 
which are always adive, and driving to fly off through 
every pore, are greatly preferved, and the air without, 
which preiles hard to infinuate itfelf through every pore, 
is effectually prevented, if men that fell rum, or any 
other (pirituous liquors, could at firft afford to have good 
iron bound casks, for conftant flanding casks to keep their 
liquors in, and draw it off as they fell it, they would foon 
find themfelves great gainers by this pradlice. I think 
rofm and turpentine well wafhed with lye in the fame man- 
ner, would be fweeter, and better anfwer all the purpofes ; 
or indeed rofm alone would do as well. 

I fhall now propofe the managment of fomefmall quan- 
tities, in different manners, by way of experiments, in 
order, if poffible, to arrive at fome tolerable perfection in 
this new undertaking. 

I ft. Let a keg of four gallons be filled three-fourths 
with murk, that is, with the mufl: and skins of black 
grapes, for making of red wine, (the skins having been 
well fqueezed) before any fermentation; let the bung hole 
be flopped clofe, and leave the vent hole open, to let out 
the venerated air, and after the fecond fermentation fill up 
the keg with old wine, and let the vent hole remain open, 
and let it ftand fo till February, then draw^ it off, and 
manage it as occafion fhall require; if it be clear, fweet 
and good, bottle it, fo fhall you have pure genuine wine 
with its owm peculiar flavour; if you find it thin and weak, 
you muft help it as in other cafes. 

2d. Let a kc^ of four gallons be filled with the wine 
that is drawn off, after thefirft fermentation is over, the keg 
having firft been w^ell ftummed, flop all clofe, and let it 
fland till February, if it then be fine bottle it, if not, ftum 



259 CULTIVATION of the VINE. 

a fecond keg well, and draw It off, and ftop all clofe, and 
let it ftand till the next winter; if it then be fine, bottle it; 
if not fine it down, and then bottle it for ufe: If, at the 
fecond racking, you find it thin and weak, add fome 
brandy and old wine to it. 

3d. Let white grapes hang on the vine a month after the 
vintage is over, let others hang till they fhrivel, make trial 
of thefe at different times; let them be maflied as much as 
poffible without breaking the grape ftones, let them ftand 
in the murk two, three, or four days, well covered with 
a blanket three or four double, then drain off the wine, 
and mafh the fkins very well over a cullender the fecond 
time; then ftrain out the ftones, wafliing the fkins very 
well with the wine, till all the pulp, that fticks to the in- 
fide of the fkins, be got off, fill your keg with this wine 
three-fourths, and fill up the reft with good old wine, ftop 
up the bung, leaving the vent hole open till the fecond 
fermentation is over, then ftop the vent hole, and let it 
ftand till February: I think this wine will be good; but 
then in all thefe cafes the vent hole muft now and then be 
juft opened, to let out any generated air, left the keg be 
in danger of burfting. As foon as the air puffs out ftop it 
again, that as little air as poflible, may get in. 

By varying thefe experiments, you may at laft come at 
the moft perfedt way of making, fermenting and preferv- 
ing of wines : It is now faid, that wines cannot be preferved 
without brandy, how then did the ancients preferve them ? 
I think they may be preferved pure and perfect by their 
own ftrength, when a vineyard comes to a proper age 
(which I will fuppofe to begin at twenty, and fo laft till 
feventy or eighty) if the grapes are fuffered to hang on 
the vines till they are perfectly ripe; but people, partly 
from a fondnefs of getting done before their neighbours, 
and partly from a defire of making a little more wine, and 
fome from the apprehenfions of a rainy feafon, hurry on 
this work before its time, and often, very often, become 
great fufferers by it. 

The 



CULTIVATION of the VINE. 260 

The reafon tor my being filent about vines that are na- 
tives of America, is, that I know but little of them, having 
but juft entered upon a trial of them, when my very ill 
ftate of health forbad me to proceed : From what little ob- 
fervation I have been able to make, I look upon them to be 
much more untra6table than thofe of Europe, they will 
undergo a hard ftruggle indeed, before they will fubmit to 
a low and humble ftate, a ftate of abject flavery: They 
are very hardy and will ftand a frame, for they brave the 
fevereft ftorms and winter blafts, theyfhrink not at fnow, 
ice, hail or rain; the wine they will make, I imagine from 
the aufterity of their tafte, will be ftrong and mafculine. 

The fox-grape, whofe berries are large and round, is 
divided into three forts, the white, the dark red and the 
black; the berries grow but thin upon the bunches, which 
are plain without ftioulders. They delight moft in a rich 
fandy lome, here they grow very large and the berries are 
fweeteft, but they will grow in any grounds, wet or dry; 
thofe that grow on high dry grounds generally become 
white, and the colour alters to a dark red or black, accord- 
ing to the lownefs and wetnefs of the ground; the fitu- 
ation I think muft greatly aff^ed: the wine, in ftrength 
goodnefs and colour; the berries are generally ripe the be- 
ginning of September, and when fully ripe they foon fall 
away; thus much I have obferved as they grow wild. 
What alteration they may undergo, or how much they 
may be improved by proper foils and due cultivation I 
cannot fay. 

There is a fmall black grape, a iize bigger than the win- 
ter grape, that Is ripe In September; it is plcafant to eat,, 
and makes a very pretty wine, which I have drank of. It 
was four years old, and feemed to be the better for its 
age ; the colour was amber, owing to the want of know- 
ing how to extrad: the tindure; this grape Is feldom to be 
found ; there is a vine of them near John Taylor, Efq. at 
Middletown, Monmouth, and there are fome of them in 
Mr. Li%nngfton\ vineyard at Pifcataqua in New-Jerfey. 
I think they are well worth propagating. Th= 



26i CULTIVATION of the VINE, 

The frofl or winter grape is known to every body, both 
the bunches and berries arefmall, and yield but little juice, 
but the richnefs of the wine may make up for the fmallnefs 
of ihe quantity ; the tafte of the grape is auftere till pretty 
hard frofls come, and then it takes a favourable turn and 
becomes very fvveet and agreeable; this vine Ihoots forth 
great numbers of flender branches, and might do very well 
for the fouth and fouth-eaft fides of a fummer-houfe or 
clofe walk, if all the ufelefs and barren branches were cut 
away. 

The vines of America are fit for ftrong high efpaliers, 
but if I miftake not, he rnufl watch them narrowly, muft 
take away every unneceffary and unprofitable branch, and 
trim them fharp and clofe, that means to keep them with- 
in bounds. 

We fee that the vines of this country have a covering of 
bark of fo clofe and firm a texture, that they ftand all wea- 
thers without injury, they fear nothing but a froft after 
they put forth the tender bud : We fee that cold winds 
and winter blafts have a great effed upon the human body, 
they brace up and confirm all the folids, harden and 
ftrengthen the whole frame, and renders a man adtive, 
brifk and lively in all his motions: They have likewifea 
wonderful effed: upon the brute creation ; the covering of 
fheep, cattle and horfes, in hot countries, is very thin and 
cool, remove them into a cold region, fheep foon acquire 
a covering of wool, horfes and cattle a thick coat of hair. 
Why then fliould not vines by being tranfplanted from a 
warm into a cold region, acquire a firmnefs and covering 
fuitable to their new fituation ? I believe by a proper ma- 
jiagment they may by degrees be inured to colder coun- 
tries, but fuch a hardinefs muft not be fuppofed to be ac- 
quired all at once, but by being winter after winter, a little 
more and more expofed to the feverities of the weather, 
they may in a few years, in a great meafure, be reconciled 
to fuch a climate as ours : But then I would have it re- 
membered that, late ripe fruit will not do as yet to the 

northward 



CULTIVATION OF the VINE. 262 

northward of the capes of Virginia; it Is the early ripe 
fruits, that the bread colonies miift propagate, 'till the cli- 
mate becomes more temperate, by the country's being clear- 
ed further back ; none that ripen after October will fuit uu 
at prefeat, and the lateft we raife, fhould arrive at full ma- 
turity by the end of that month. In twenty years I make 
no doubt November will be as favourable a month as Octo- 
ber is now. 



?v1ethod of curing grapes for RAISINS. 

ARR RAISINS or Raifins of the Sun cured in the 
moft perfe(5l manner, fo as to retain their full flavor, 
and keep long without candying, is done in the following 
manner: 

Build a hurdle or ftage two feet from the ground, or two 
feet high, and fo long as to hold all the bunches you intend 
to cure at a time, fo as to lie fmgle without touching each 
other, the bed of the ftage is made of fplit reeds, of wil- 
lows, or any other fhrub, that will lie level and fmooth, 
and for want of fuch it may be made of long rye ftraw, 
the ends of which only has been threflied. Then thatch 
two fides a little longer than the ftage, with fmooth ftraw, 
fo clofe as eafily to turn off a ftiower of rain, and yet fo 
light as to be fixed up upon the ftage, and to be taken 
down at pleafure, the ground under the ftage muft be co- 
vered with ftraw to keep the damps from rifing, and to 
refled heat : This being done prepare a lixivium of afhes, 
that is, a lye, about half as ftrong as that you make foap 
of which bears an egg; this you put into a broad fliallow 
iron kettle, the quantity according to the number of grapes 
you intend to cure. Set it a boiling, and throw into it a 
handful or two of clean fait to four gallons of lye, and one 
pint of fweet oil, or a pound and half of good fweet 
butter; then having tied three or four bunches of the fair- 
eft and full ripe grapes together, taking away the rotten, 
and all the unripe ones, and ftirring firft the oil or butter 
. Vol. I. L 1 very 



263 Method of curing GRAPES 

very well into the lye, the lye now boiling, you put as 
many bunches in as will near cover the furface, and let 
them fcald pretty well, but not too much fo as to be boiled ; 
take them out gently into a wide fiat cullender, with- 
out bruifing, and lay them gently upon the ftage, unbind 
them and lay every bunch fingle by itfelf, fo as not to 
touch each other; if your ftage he large fo that you fcald 
a great many bunches to fill it, and beiore you have done, 
or near done, you have reafon to believe that your oil or 
butter is expended, you throw in as much more as you 
think will finifh your quantity, for this adds richnefs to 
the raifms, and preferves them long without candying; if 
you have hands to hold the bunches by the firings whilft 
they fcald, it would be beft, becaufe they would be handled 
without bruifmg, and indeed this is the defign of tying fo 
many bunches together, but if you are alone, or have but 
one hand with you, and cannot well hold bunches enough 
to cover the furface of the kettle, the beft way would be to 
caft the bunches in fingle and to take them out with a flice or a 
fkimmer. When your ftage is full, about three hours after you 
have done, turn the bunches into a dry place on the ftage, fo 
that no wet may touch them, and that they may dry as 
foon as poftible; before fun fet, at leaft half an hour, fet 
up your roof and cover them from dews and rain ; the next 
morning as foon as the dews and damps are exhaled, un- 
cover them, and turn them twice that day, and fo on till 
they are pretty moderately dry, fo as to be fit for keeping; 
then put them into jars with covers and plafter them over 
with clay and horfe dung, and fet them away in a dry 
cool place till you ufe or difpofe of them; but beware of 
damps: And obferve that you are to begin this work in 
the wain of the moon, your grapes muft be fully ripe and 
taken from the vines when quite dry. All fruits gather- 
ed in the wain of the moon will keep longer found and 
good, than thofe gathered in the increafe. Note alfo that 
thefe raifins thus cured, are fit for princes, for the rich and 
great, and ought to fetch a good price, fmce no raifins can 

be 



FOR RAISINS. 264 

be more delicious. The common raifins muft be fcalded 
the fame way, and about the fame time, and may be fpread 
upon hurdles, laid on draw on the ground, and hauled in 
under fome Ihed or covering, at night, before fun fet, and 
brought out in the morning, and when dried put into 
fmall cafks, fuch as raifms come in. The Malaga grape 
is efteemed the fineft for raifins, but as the northern colo- 
nies, I mean the bread colonies, will not as yet produce 
them, they being too tender and too late ripe, we may 
however be fupplicd among ourfelves from the red Fron- 
tiniac, which is a very rich fweet grape, is early ripe and 
makes very good raifms. 

And now to conclude the whole, as my countrymen 
are unacquainted with the utenfils that are neceflary for 
making of wine, it is neceffary that I fay fomething on 
that head. 

Firft then according to the fizc of your vineyard, you 
muft have a number of cheap crooked knives, the fhape 
of pruning knives, but a little more bending, to cut off 
the clufters from the vines; for pulling them off, is very 
difficult, it is attended with great wafte of fruit, and is 
very deftrudive to the vines; you muft alfo have a num- 
ber of handy bafkets, to put the grapes into, as you cut 
them, and alfo a large wicker baiket or pannier, which is 
of a long fquare form, fit to place on a good light hand- 
barrow, with leather ftrops at each end to hang on the 
fhoulders of two hardy boys, who may trot away with it 
to the mafh vat, as foon as it is full ; or elfe it may be car- 
ried in a wheel-barrow, if hands are fcarce, or you may 
have two panniers made fit to hang acrofs a horfe's back, 
being made flat on one fide for that purpofe. Then you 
will want a mafti vat big in proportion to your vineyard 
and the age of it, this muft have a falfe bottom full of holes 
mr.de with a twenty-penny gimblet, but not larger, leaft 
the grapes get into them, it muft lie upon a curve firmly 
fixed, about fix inches above the true bottom; you will 
alfo want a receiver, which is a pretty large tub, placed 

partly 



265 Method of curing GRAPES 

partly under the mafh vat, to receive the muft as it runs 
from it; if your vineyard be large you will alfo want a 
kedlar, which is a large vat or ton, for fermenting the 
murk that you make red wines of, and perhaps for that 
of white wines, if you choofe to make wine of them after 
the manner of Paris. If your vineyard be not large the 
mafh vat may anfwer the purpofe. You will alfo want 
pails and dippers and a large funnel to ton wdth: A fmart 
clofe fcrew prefs, to go with one or two fcrews as you like 
beft, with a wicker frame and hair bag to fit it, and proper 
followers to prefs clean and dry, mult be had without fail ; 
and laft of all good found ftrong iron bound butts or hog- 
ilieads, which are really cheapeft and the only cafks you can 
depend upon, v-zhat makes them far preferable to others, is, 
they are always tight, they want no trimming, only a little 
driving once a year, if they ftand empty any time and they laft 
good for many years, if they are well painted and dried 
till the fmell of the paint goes off, otherwife they would 
communicate that ill fmell to the wine. And here my dear 
countrymen I muft repeat to you what I have already endea- 
voured to inculcate, which is, that every thing muft be 
kept fweet and dean; if by careleffnefs, inattention or 
hurry of bufinefs, you fuffer your prefs or any of your 
veffels, your tubs or cafks to grow four or mufty, they will 
certainly ruin your wine, for nothing in nature is fooner 
tainted than muft or new made wine. And let me per- 
fuade you to avoid one great error, which moft farmers 
run into, about their cyder, leaft that cuftom be put in 
pradice alfo with wines; they put their cyder into frefh 
rum hogfheads, under the notion of preferving the cyder 
ftrong and good, but they deftroy the fine flavor of the 
apple, and inftead of an agreeable vinous liquor, your 
nofe is offended with a ftrong hogo, and you tafte nothing 
but the fumes of a rum hogfhead, fo that no gentleman, 
no man of tafte or delicacy, will buy it; now fhould you 
make the fame miftake with your wines, you would cer- 
tainly fpoil them, were they otherwife never fo good, fo 
that no man w^ould buy them. It 



FOR R A I S I N S. 266 

It has been the general opinion of makind that wines 
ought to have foraething to feed upon, but this notion is 
very wrong, for moft things that are put into wine raife a 
fermentation in a higher or lower degree; and it is agreed 
that every after fermentation hurts wine more or lefs; if 
wine be weak put in brandy and old ftrong wine, thefeare 
the proper ftrengtheners and prefervers of wine; ftrong 
wine wants nothing but clean racking, and all whines (hould 
be racked till they are fine. A double handful of clean 
coarie fait may do good. 

Perhaps I have not faid enough upon taking away day 
roots from vines the firft three or four years of their age, 
but let me now tell you that, it is of great confequence, 
and it is the chief means of preventing the grapes from 
burfting. 

And now my dear children, countrymen and fellow- 
citizens, I have faithfully led you by the hand throughout 
this new undertaking; take my bleffing and cordial advice 
along with it, be not drunken with wine wherein there is 
excefs, but be ye rather filled with the fpirit of wifdom, 
for too much wine, like treacherous fin, ruins and deftroys 
the true happinefs of the foul. And may the God of wif- 
dom crown all your honeft labours with fuccefs, and give 
you a right underftanding in all things. 



The Method of curing FIGS; by the fame Gentleman. 

GATHER the fullefl: and plumpeft figs when ripe 
" and fit to eat, in a dry day, when the dew is off, and 
in the wain of the moon, fpread them on the fame hurdle 
you cure your raifins upon, turn them twice a day and an 
hour before fun fet cover them from the dew, and from 
rain: When the figs are dry, they muft be taken from the 
fl:age in the middle of a dry clear day, when they are yet 
warm with the heat of the fun, and put them into earthen 
jars and prefs them down flat clofe, putting a little dried 

fennel 



267 Method of curing FIGS. 

fennel at the bottom and on the top, the cover of the jar 
muft be daubed all round with clay and horfe dung and 
put away in a dry cool place where they wall keep the year 
round found and good, or may be tranfported to any place 
abroad. 




OBSERVATIONS on the raiftng and drejjiug of HEMP; 
communicated to the American Philosophical 
Society, ^7 Ed w a rd Antil, Efquire. 

EMP is one of the moft profitable produdions the 
earth furnifhes in northern climates ; as it employs 
a great number of poor people in a very advantageous 
manner, if its manufacture be carried on properly : It may 
alfo furnifti a ready remittance to the mother country, and 
become a reciprocal advantage to both; and therefore it 
becomes worthy of the ferious attention of the different 
legiflatures of the northern colonies, of every trading man, 
and of every man, who truly loves his country. 

But as the people of America do not appear, from their 
prefent management, to be acquainted with the bell and 
moft profitable method of cultivating and managing this 
valuable plant, I beg leave to inform them of fome things 
that may be of advantage to them. 

Whoever would raife hemp properly and to advantage, 
fhould fet afide two pieces of ;i;round, of fuch dimenfions 
each, as he (hall be able to cultivate every year, and fow 
the one whilft he is manuring and preparing the other for 
the fucceeding year's crop; the higher and dryer the ground 
the better, provided it be w ell dunged and made ftrong and 
mellow; the ground fhould not he too Hoping, leafl the 
good foil be wafhed away with hard rains; if it droops to- 
ward the fouth, fo that it may have the full intluence of 
the fun, it will be an advantage; low, rich, warm, dry 
grounds will alfo produce good hemp; hut wet land, though 
never fo rich will by no means do. The ground being pre- 
pared and made very mellow, 1 now come to that part 

which 



Raising *AND dressing of HEMP. 26^ 

which mull: be particularly and exacStly attended to, fince 
the fuccefs of the crop greatly depends upon it. Sometime 
In May, the ground being moiftand in a vegetating ftate, 
but by no means wet, it muft be well ploughed, the fur- 
rows clofe and even, the foil lying light and mellow it 
muft be fowed very even with two bufhels of feed upon 
one acre; a man with an iron tooth harrow follows the 
fower, and harrows in the feed with tw^o horfes without 
any balks, for the lefs the ground be trampled the better; 
if harrowing one way be not fufficient to cover the feed, 
thouah it would be beft if that could be done, it muft be 
crofs harrowed. The ground being moift as I faid before, 
but by no means wet fo as to clod, which would ruin the 
crop, the feed will all ftart and come up together, which 
is a fure fign of a good crop, and nothing after that, but 
too much wet, will hurt it; for hemp thus come up, bids 
defiance to weeds and grafs of every kind; its growth is fo 
quick and it fo effedually fhades the ground, that nothing 
below can rife or fhew its head, and it fo preferves all the 
moifture below, that the hotter and dryer the weather the 
fafter it grows. Whereas if the feed be fown, when the 
ground is dry, the feed that lies deepeft where the moifture 
is, will come up firft, and thefe will ftiade and ftarve thofe 
that come after, by which means the firft comers will be 
too large, and the laft will be much too fmall, fo that the 
crop will be greatly damaged every way : So much depends 
upon this one circumftance, of fowing the feed when the 
ground is moift and fit to receive it : The crop thus rightly 
managed will ftand as thick as very good wheat, and be 
from four to fix feet high, according to the ftrength of the 
ground ; and the ftems will not be thicker than a good 
wheat ftraw; by this means the hemp will be the finer, it 
will yield the greater quantity, and it may be plucked 
from the ground like flax, w^hich will be a very great fav- 
ing : But if it be fowed thin, that is one buftiel to an acre, 
which is the common pradice, it grows large, the hemp 
is harfti and coarfe, and then it muft be cut with hooks, 

which 



269 Raising and dressing op HEMP. 

which occafions great wafte, for four or ^ve inches juil 
above 2;round is left, by way of ftubble, Vv^hich contains 
the befi and heavieft part of the hemp. 

When the hemp has got its growth, and is fit to be 
plucked which you will know by the under leaves of the 
carle, or he hemp, turning yellow and falling off, the 
fooner it is pulled the better ; it muft then be bound up 
whh ftraw bands, in fingle band fheaves, rather fmall than 
large, and each fheaf muft be bound in two places ; and 
the fooner it is carried to the water to rot the better : Wa- 
ter rotted hemp, if it be rightly managed, is every way 
better than that which is rotted on the ground : there is 
lefs wafte in it, when it comes to be drefled ; it looks brighter 
and fairer to the eye; it is efteemed to be ftronger and more 
durable, and it always fetches a better price; befides it is much 
fooner done, and it is rotted more even and alike, and with 
greater certainty and exadnefs. Many people in America are 
acquainted with the method of rotting hemp in water, but as 
many more are not yet acquainted with it, I (hall, for their 
information, fet down the method of doing it. Hemp may be 
rotted in ftagnated or ftanding water, fuch as ponds, pools,or 
broad deep ditches, and in fuch water it is generally four 
or five days and nights a rotting, and fometimes longer, 
according to the heat or coolnefs of the weather ; it may 
alfobe rotted in rurining water as in a brook or river; and 
in fuch water three or four days and nights are fufficient, 
according to the weather; to know whether the hemp be 
rotted enough in either cafe, take a middling handful, out 
of the middle row, and try with both yoUr hands tofnap 
it afunder, if it breaks eaf^, it is rotted enough, but if it 
yet appears pretty ftrong, it is not, and muft lie longer, till 
it breaks with ea'fe, and then it muft be taken out and dried 
as foon as poffible; in handling the ftieaves, take hold of 
the bands, and fet them up an end againft a fence, if one 
be near, or lay them down upon the grafs, for the water 
to drain off, and then unbind them carefully, open and 
fpread them to dry thoroughly; then bind them up again 

and 



I Raising and dressing of HEMP. 270 

and houfe them in a dry tight place: the reafon of hand- 
ling the hemp in this careful manner is, that when it is 
well rotted, whilft it is wet the lint comes off with the lead; 
touch, therefore if it be handled roughly, or if while it is 
wet it be thrown into a cart and carried to a di Ranee to be 
unbound and dryed, it would be greatly hurt, and the 
owner would receive great damage by it, but when it is 
dry, it is handled with fafety. 

If the hemp be rotted in a brook or running water, the 
fheaves muft be laid acrofs the ftream, for if they be laid 
down lengthways with the ftream, the current of the wa- 
ter will walh away the lint and ruin the hemp: It muft be 
laid down heads and points, two, four, or fix thick, accord- 
ing to the depth of the water and the quantity of hemp; 
if the bottom of the river be fand, gravel, or mud, three 
good ftrong flakes muft be driven down at each end, above 
and below, and three long ftrong poles muft be laid on the 
hemp and faftened well to the flakes, in fuch manner as 
to force down the hemp under water, where it remains till 
it be rotted enough ; though if a muddy ftream could be 
avoided it would be beft, becaufe it is apt to foul and ftain 
the hemp. If the bottom of the ftream be rocky or ftony, 
fo that ftakes cannot be drove down tofecure the hemp 
under water and from floating away, then a rough wall 
muft be made at the lower end of the hemp, and along 
the fide, to keep it in, and ftrong poles or rails muft be 
laid upon the top of the hemp, and pretty heavy ftones 
upon them fo as to fink the hemp under water, where it 
muft lie 'till it be rotted enough. 

What hemp is intended for feed, fliould be fowed on a 
piece of ground for itfelf, which muft be made very rich 
and ftrong; it muft be fowed in ridges fix feet wide, and 
the feed muft be of the largeft and beft fort and fown very 
thin, at the rate of a peck upon an acre, or rather fix 
quarts; for the thinner it is fown, the more it branches, 
and the more feed it bears; it fliould be fown fometime 
the middle of April, and then the feed will not be ripe, 
Vol. I. Mm till 



271 Raising and dressing of HEMP. 

till fome time after the other hemp is done with. If you 
have no convenient place to fow your feed hemp by itfelf ; 
then fow a border of fix feet wide along the north and weft 
fides of your hemp field ; the reafon of fowing your feed 
hemp in fuch narrow ridges or borders is that, when the 
carle or he hemp is ripe, and has fhed its farina on the 
fimble or female hemp, by which the feed is impregnated, 
and the leaves of the carle hemp fall off and the ftem 
grows yellow, you may eafily ftep in along the fides, and 
pull up the carle hemp without hurting the female, which 
now begins to branch out, and looks of a deep green co- 
lour and very flourifhing, and when the feeds begin to 
ripen, which is known by their falling out of their fockets, 
you may all along both fides bend down the plants and 
fhake out the feed upon a cloth laid on the ground, for as 
they ripen they fcatter upon being fhaken by a hard wind, 
or otherwife ; then it muft be watched, and the fowls and 
yellow birds kept from it, for they are immoderately fond 
of the feed; as the firft ripe feeds are the fulleft and bcft, 
they are worthy of fome pains to fave them; and the beft 
way to do that is, to bend down the plants all along, on 
each fide of the border or ridge, as is faid above, and 
fhake them over a cloth fpread on the ground to receive 
the feed ; if one fide of the plant be rooted out of the 
ground by forcing it down to fhake out the feed, there will 
be no damage, for the feed that remains will ripen not- 
withftanding; and the plant muft thus be ftiaken every 
two or three days, 'till all the feed be ripe and thus faved; 
and this is much better than pulling up the plants by the 
roots, and fhaking them on a barn floor, and then fetting 
them up againft a fence, or the fide of the barn, for the 
feed to ripen, and fhaking them morning and evening ou 
the barn floor; for by this method, which is the common 
practice, one third of the feed at leaft never comes to ma- 
turity. 

It is well known to every farmer, that in the three bread 
colonies at leaft, the fpring and fummer feafons are of late 

years 



Raising and dressing of HEMP. 272 

years become very dry; fo that a crop of flax is become 
very precarious, fcarcely one year in feven producing a 
good one: This is a conftant complaint in the mouth of 
every hufbandman: Now hemp does not require half the 
rain that flax does; this is a circumftance that is well 
worth the notice and attention of every farmer ; and there- 
fore by his raifing hemp in the manner before diredled, 
and by preparing it in the befl: manner for fpinning and 
weaving into good cloth, he can with greater certainty fup- 
ply all the neceflary ufes of his family; and by felling the 
overplus, he can purchafe fuch things as his wife and 
daughters may think convenient on extraordinary occafi- 
ons. This however need not hinder him from raifing fome 
flax every year: But I think that it is more for his intereft 
to fix his chief dependence upon his crop of hemp, as that 
is more fure, and every way more profitable, the general 
run of feafons confidered. And let him not be difgufl:ed 
and think that I am about to perfuade him, his wife and 
daughters to wear oznabrigs, for I can aflure him that I 
have feen dowlafs, which is made of hemp, worth five 
and fix fhillings the yard, which no farmer need be alham- 
ed to wear. 

I fliall now endeavour to infl:ru£t the honeft hufbandman 
in a few eafy rules, for preparing his hemp, which he 
has raifed and managed in the manner before directed. 

Know then that the beft preparation of hemp for the 
manufaduring of cloth is to render it as foft and as fine as 
poflible, without leflening its ftrength, and the eafiefl: and 
cheapeft way of doing that, is certainly the beft. This 
is to be found out by a variety of trials and experiments; 
but till a better way be difcovered, which I hope will 
not be long firft, and with which I fliould be greatly pleai- 
ed; take the following method, which is the beft I have 
yet been able to difcover. 

If you have a large wide kettle, that will take in your 
hemp at full length, it will be the better; but if your ket- 
tle be fmall, then you muft double your hemp, but with- 
out 



ij'^ Raising and dressing of HEMP. 

out twilling, only the fmaii ends of every hand muft be 
twifted a Uttle, to keep them whole and from tangling; 
then firft of all lay fome fmooth flicks down in the bottom 
of the kettle, fo as to lie acrofs one another, three or four 
layers, according to the bignefs and deepnefs of your ket- 
tle; this is to keep the hemp from touching the liquor; 
then pour fome lye of middling ftrength, half as 
ftrong as what you mak^ foap of, gently into the kettle, 
fo much as not to rife up to the top of the fticks, they be- 
in j kept down to the bottom; then lay in the hemp each 
layer croffing the other, fo that the fteem may rife up 
through the whole body of the hemp, which done, cover 
your kettle as clofe as you can, and hang it over a very 
gentle fire, and keep it fimmering or ftewing, but not 
boiling, fo as to raife a fteem for fix or eight hours; then 
take it off, and let it ftand covered till it be cool enough 
to handle; then take out the hemp, and wring it very 
carefully as dry as you well can, and hang it up out of 
the way of the wind, either in your garret or in your barn, 
ihutting the doors, and there let it remain, turning it now 
and then till it be perfectly dry; then pack it up in fome 
clofe dry place, till you want to ufe it ; but you will do well 
to vifit it now and then, left any part of it might be damp and 
rot. You muft know, that wind and air weaken and rot 
hemp, flax and thread very much. Then at your leifure, 
twift up fome of the hands, as many as you intend for pre- 
fent ufe as hard as you can, and with a fmart round fmooth 
hand beetle, on a fmooth ftone beat and pound each hand 
by itfelf all over very well, turning it round from fide to 
fide, till every part be very well bruifed; youthen untwift it, 
and hatchel it, firft through a coarfe, and then through a fine 
hatchel : And remember that hatcheling muft be perform- 
ed in the fame manner, as a man would comb 3 fine head 
of hair, he begins at the ends below, and as that untangles, 
he rifes higher, till at laft he reaches up to the crown of 
of his head. The firft tow makes good ropes for the ufe 
of the plantation, the fecond tow wdll make very good oz- 
nabrigs or coarfe fhecting; and the hemp itfelf will make 
excellent linen. The fame method of fteeming foftens flax 
very much. OB SERF- 



[ '-^74 ] 

OBSERVATIONS concerning the FLY-WEEVIL, 

that dejlroys the ivheat-, ivith fome ufefiil difcoueries 
and conclafions ^ concerning the propagation and prog refs 
of that pernicious infetl^ and the methods to be ufed to 
prevent the dejiru^ion of the grain by it. 

^j/Co/ow^/LANDON CARTER, o/Sabine-Hall, Virginia-, 
tranfmitted by Colonel LEE. Read, and ordered to be 
publi/Jjed, November i^th, 1768. 

IT is not in my power to oblige you with the paper that 
I fome years ago publifhed in our gazettes, upon this 
little deftrudive infed:, called the moth or fly-weevil. 
However, as you are very earneft in your enquiries as to 
its particular nature, in order, if poffible, to fave fo bene- 
ficial a commodity as wheat to America, which perhaps 
in a few years (unlefs fuch defi:rud:ive infects do infeft itj 
might become a kind of granary to moft parts of Europe ; 
I will from my diaries, put together thofe discoveries that 
led me to write that paper; and alfo what has fince occur- 
red to me in the attacks that our country has lately met 
with from thofe infeds; for it is a certainty they continue 
amongft us, juft as the feafon favours or not their propa- 
gation; although fome will fancy they have their periods 
for coming and going away. 

It is but fomething more than twenty-five years ago, 
that I heard any thing of fuch an infect that injured our 
wheat; but fince then I have had frequent occafions to take 
great notice of it; and have had great reafon to be very 
anxious to examine into the nature of that fly. It is with 
much propriety called a weevil, as it deftroys the wheat 
even in our granaries, though it is not of the kind termed 
by naturalifts the curculio, of which they have given a 
very long lift; for it is not like a bug, it carries no cal'es 
for its wings; neither has it any feelers, with which the 
curculio is always diftinguiflied; and perhaps (as I fancy it 
will turn out in the courfe of this letter that they never at- 
tack grain when hard) they really have no occafion for 

fuch 



275 OBSERVATIONS concerning 

fuch feelers. For from the make of it, to my judgment 
It appears an impoflibility that it fhould ever perforate into 
a hard grain, being furnifhed with nothing in nature, from 
the moft minute examination by glafles, that could make 
fuch a perforation; and feems indeed a fly itfelf, confifting 
of nothing fenfible to the flighteft touch with the finger, 
nor to the eye, afTifted with glafles, leaving only a little 
dry pale brown gloffy duft, on being fqueezed. 

Having oblerved the wheat from my Northumberland 
quarters, never affeded by it; but conftantly found and per- 
fect, through many years that I have been obliged to keep 
it for my own ufe, even in the fame granary with weevil- 
eaten wheat; I was, and am ftill, inclined to conclude, 
the enemy is fome how lodged in the grain before it grows 
hard. It might not have been then too late to have had 
that better proof of this, which I have fince been able to 
get, by difcovering little eggs and maggots half formed 
into flies in the grain. But as I had nothing particular at 
firft to lead me to fuch an examination, I w^aited till the 
next crop; and at all times, between day and dark in calm 
weather, during the feveral days of growth from the 
blooming time, till the livery or hardening ftate of the 
grain, I vifited a field, ifpoffible, to difcover whether any 
of thefe flies appeared amongft the heads of the wheat 
during the foft ftate of the grain. Accordingly, in a plea- 
fant evening, after the fun was down, and every thing 
ferenely calm, I found the rafcals extremely bufy amongft 
my ears, and really very numerous. I immediately in- 
clofed fome of them in a light loofe handkerchief; and by 
the mag;nifiers of my telefcope, I took occafion minutely 
to examine them. 

They are a pale brownifti moth, w^ith little trunks or 
bodies, fome trifle ftiorter than their wings; and as fome 
of their little bodies appeared bulging as if loaded, I ap- 
plied the preflure of a fine ftraw upon them, and faw them 
fquirt out, one after another, a number of little things 
which I took to be eggs, fome more, fome lefs; fome 

emitted 



THE FLY- W E EVIL. 27^ 

emitted fifteen or twenty of them, and others appeared 
extremely lank in their little trunks, which I could not 
make difcharge any thing like an egg. Whether they had 
done this in the field before, or were of the male kind, I 
could not tell, but from this difcovery I find in my diary, 
many years ago, this conclufion, " that there need not be 
above two or three flies to an ear of corn, to lay eggsv 
enough to deftroy the greateft crop.'* 

I muft obferve, at that time, that the bloom or farina- 
of the ears had for fome days difappeared, and the grain 
was nearly filling, though in a kind of milky ftate ; and 
at fuch a time the hufks or capfi.iles are generally fufficient- 
ly open to admit the entranceof fuch flies; for I imagine, 
that as nature certainly intends that farina to impregnate 
the grain, and as that could only be done by its falling 
into the capfule, fhe muft neceflarily favour fuch a procef* 
by opening the mouths of thofe vefiels. 

Some agree with rne, that the fly does not perforate the 
grain, but they fay it lays its eggs upon the top of the hufl?:, 
and when they are hatched into maggots, thofe eat through 
the hufk into the grain; but I muft think fuch a fuggeftioa 
certainly liable to many objections, even in the pea, from 
whence fuch gentlemen have drawn their arguments : The 
egg of that bug, they tell us, is laid upon the back of the 
pod, next the pea ; and from thence it hatches, and eats 
through the pod into the pea. The fettling of fuch a point 
feems to be of little confequence, but to juftify nature or 
providence in the wifdom as well as perfection of its modes. 
Can it then be prefumed that an infedt fhould, by particular 
inftinCt, be directed to depofit its eggs for its fpecies into 
a proper nidus, which fhould be alfo a pabulum for the 
young as that egg hatches, and yet that they fhould only 
be permitted to do this upon the outfide of the coat of the 
nidus, from whence it may be liable to be removed by num- 
berlefs accidents ? For where one egg only is laid, the vif- 
cus matter that might furround it, cannot reafonably be 
thought a cement fufficient for a grain or hufk in adual 

growth, 



277 OBSERVATIONS concerning 

growth, as it might be with a number of eggs ftudded to- 
gether on a leaf, or roimd a twig, according to the nature 
of fome flies. Again, fliould even fo fmall a vifcous mat- 
ter confine the ego^ to the outfide of the pod or huOc, againft 
many accidents, yet what can we fuppofe will preferve the 
maggot, juft hatched, from thole accidents, when it lies 
on the outfide, on the back of the pod, or hullc? Befides, 
I mufi: think I have dilcovered an egg as well as a maggot 
under the fkin of the pea, without any vifible lead to it, 
which muft be a convidion it is not a maggot *till it is 
hatched in the pea; therefore it feems reafonable that the 
parent of that bug, perforates the pod, and then into the 
pea, in its tender and foft ftate. 

I wifh then fiich a fuggeftion may not have arifen from 
the callous fpeck that may beobferved, with which nature 
clofes up the wound made in the pod, by the parent of that 
bug. But how is this bufinefs of the worms eating through 
the hufk of the wheat, and then the grain, 'till they come 
out in a fly, a little above the germ, at the other end of 
the grain, to be thus conftantly performed, if the egg 
only is laid upon the end of the hufk? For we clearly fee 
thole eggs do not all hatch at once ; and after the wheat is 
thraflied out, in which operation, to be fure, it mufl: en- 
dure a pretty rough ufage (effect that bufinefs as you will) 
how can it run fo many chances, without being diflodged 
or defl:royed ? I may further afk, what fhould fupport the 
maggot from its hatching, 'till it gets through the huflc 
into the grain ? We fee in moft other ipecies of infeds, the 
worm, maggot, or catterpillar, begins to eat as foon as it 
can twift about, and certainly the hufli cannot be the firft 
pabulum intended by nature for this maggot. Befides, 
from the obferved tendernefs of fuch maggots, if they are 
not well preferved from fcorching fun beams, wind, or rain, 
they muft be fubjeded to various deftrudions, if the egg 
can be fuppofed to be hatched but in the grain; and it could 
not in any wife be the intention of nature, that theyihould 
be deftroyed by their own mifcondud; for we difcover, 

in 



THE FLY-WEEVIL. 278 

in other inftances, that her tendernefs to flies, which pro- 
pagate by eggs, direds them to depofit their eggs on the 
under fide of leaves, that are a good fecurity againft the 
force of fun beams and weather ; and as foon as they hatch, 
thofe leaves become the immediate food for thofe maggots, 
worms or catterpillars. 

The fame arguments muft hold good againfi; the eggs 
being laid on the end of the grain; and it is no new thing 
to advance that hundreds of bufhels have been carried very 
fair to every eye, from the barn or treading floor, into the 
granary J where, if thrown into a heap, the colledted 
warmth vivifies the egg, and, in proportion to the growth 
of the maggot within the grain, the warmth is increafed; 
and even whilft the middle or lower parts of the heap (hall 
be alive, and ready to fly away, the upper parts fliall be 
quite fair, and yet neverthelefs hatch even at fome diftant 
day, with a proper warmth, if not perifhed by any cold- 
nefs or other excefs in weather, or by art: I fay then, in 
fuch a length of time before hatching, the odds are greatly 
againfl: the egg or worm's flicking to the grain till it 
hatches or eats in. 

Thefe things being confldered, I thought that I had ad- 
vanced far enough in inveftigating this point, to be con- 
vinced the evil was effeded by laying the egg in the grain, 
and in the foft ftate of it; and that thofe obfervations, faid 
to be made of the egg being laid on the hufls:, or on the 
outfide of the grain, were inaccurate, and efpoufed with- 
out a due confideration. But, in order to make it as clear 
to others as myfelf, I muft here beg leave to aflfert, that I 
have diftindly feen with my glafl'es the egg in the grain 
of wheat, at the upper end of it, beneath the fkin, and 
round it a fmall yellow flain, as if the milky fubftance had 
received a tindure from the egg] and as a further con- 
firming circumflance that thefe eggs are laid in the foft flate 
of the grain, I find in my diary, that many years ago I 
vifited a field of one of my neighbours, who having been 
extremely late in his harveft, in very warm and temperate 
Vol. I, N n weather, 



279 OBSERVATIONS concerning 

weather, had his wheat all eaten out ; the flies were 
crawHng out of the ears, and this whilft the wheat was 
(landing. 

A'j;ain, that the convidion may be as full as poffible, 
it is an indifputable certainty, that this maggot eats from 
the upper end of the grain, as it ftands in its hulk, down 
to the lower end, and comes out in a fly a little above the 
germ. Now to fuppofe that thefe eggs are laid conftantly 
upon that end of the grain, is to believe this fly capable 
of diftinguifliing fuch particular end, in every confufed 
direction that the grain may be thrown into after it is 
thraflied out; and therefore the notion of the fly's laying 
its e^rg upon the outfide of the grain, and that egg's never 
being diflodged, and the maggot's hatching upon that end, 
and eating into the grain, without being removed from 
that particular end, mufl: be an abfurdity of the firft mag- 
nitude. In the hu{k indeed the fly might find that certain 
end of the grain, becaufe in that it always lies in its pro- 
per dired:ion, and it is reafonable to conclude that inftindt 
would ferve a fly for fuch a purpofe; but then this cannot 
remove the abfurdity before taken notice of, that of laying 
its egg upon that end of the grain confl:antly, as well be- 
fore as after it is thraflied. 

Nature, I may fay, from the minutenefs of her ways 
in efFed:ing her intended purpofes, is frequently out of 
the comprehenfion of man, and although his microfcopical 
improvements upon vifion have helped him to many dif- 
coveries, numerous are the things that feem ftill to remain 
as a fecret to him. We can fee in fome flies their imme- 
diate changes from the firft procefs of propagation, quite 
through their periods of life; and from thence we are in- 
clined to pronounce a rational hiftory of their continuance, 
brood after brood : Yet in fome flies, though we can carry 
them through all thefe feveral changes, there are certain 
phenomena not to be accounted for; particularly, how 
the length of time between their changes into flies, and 
their laying their eggs for the continuance of their fpecies, 

is 



THE FLY^ WEEVIL. 280 

is employed by them. This defedt we generally fupplyby 
conjeifture, that the time is fpent in fome torpid ftate: But 
there are fome difcoveries as to certain infedlsj that make 
it extremely difficult to fuppofe fuch a ftate; and if vjq 
regard what naturalifts tell us of fome of the moth flics, 
and indeed our own obfervations upon them, " that after 
they become a fly, they never attempt any kind of fufte- 
nance, but are feemingly folely employed in the bufinefs 
of fecundation, and the females in particular, in depofiting 
their eggs for a new brood," we fliali be puzzled to ac- 
count how infeds, that never eat after their change into a 
fly, can exift through fo long a period as a great part of 
the fall, and generally of a long winter, till the period of 
the foft ftate of the new grain; and to what ftielter they 
can retire from fuch a feries of weather, generally too 
fevere for fuch tender forms. We may imagine fom.e in- 
termediate brood, but what fhall we fancy to be the nidus 
or food to bring them to this fly weevil again, ready for 
that new period of foftnefs in the fucceeding crop of grain ? 
From hence, perhaps, it is that fome gentlemen have grown 
fond of the opinion, of their eating out of one grain, and 
then flying to another grain, and laying their eggs upon 
the ends of them, for a new brood; but as even weevil 
eaten wheat is generally confumed one way or another, 
long before the kerning of the new crop, the difficulty 
(by fuch a fuppofition) will have many long months to 
contend with. Therefore others tell us, they He about in 
barns, &c. However, the ftanding crop eaten up, before 
taken notice of, is with me fufficient to confute fuch a fo- 
lution of that difficulty : And I might add my own flrong 
fumigations of my barn and granary (though enough to 
deftroy a world of infedsj have been unfuccefsful, w^ith 
refpedt to this fly weevil, in the new crop. 

I muft here ftep aftde to inform you, that though my 
wheat would, when weevil eaten, pretty generally come 
up in the field, yet when I was obliged to fow it, if I did 
not double the ufual quantity (which the feafon always go- 
verned 



28i OBSERVATIONS concerning 

verned me in) the ground would be fcanty, and extremely 
bef>-?ared for want of feed. I readily concluded the caufe 
of this to be, that the grain was too much eaten (that is) 
the maggot was too far advanced in it, and therefore fuch 
<Trainsperi{hed; and indeed for fatisfadion in this point, I 
twice tried, after wafhing the grain, and drying the light 
chaffy fluff that fwam at top, to low thofe grains, and con- 
ffantly found all that I could fqueeze flat with my fingers, 
never fprouted, fow them how I would. This, I hope, will 
be looked upon as a very good anfwer to both of thole hafty 
affertions, that fuch w^heat will nevertheleis grow when 
fovvn, and likewife make a tolerable flour; for grind it how 
you will, I muft be bold to fay, it can produce no flour at 
all ; and the flour imagined to be got from weevil eaten 
wheat, is only from fuch grains of it that have efcaped the 
weevil, or are but half eaten, perhaps by the maggot's not 
having run it's courfe in nature before it was deftroyed; 
which is the prelumed caufe of that prodigious clamminefs 
in bread, from wheat that has the weevil in it, as the 
moifture of the maggots continues in the flour; but in bif- 
cuits that clamminefs may be dried up, by the heat of the 
oven, as thofe cakes are generally very thin. 

The author of the Complete Body of Hufbandry, voL 
IV. page 347, of the odlavo edition, fpeaks of a fly in Eng- 
land, that Ibmetimes attacks the wheat in it's foft ftate; and 
calls it a fmall black fly, not bigger than a large pin's 
head. He fays they faften on the car in numbers, eat in- 
to the corn, and lay their eggs, which hatch into mag- 
gots, and devour part, and fpoil the refl of the grain. — 
He further fays, the fly may be diilodged whilft it crawls 
on the ear, for they are lb tender, that a very little force 
will deliroy them, and that they only appear indryyears, 
for rains in any quantity deftroy them; and from thence 
recommends the Irilh method of rope hauling the wheat in 
dewy mornings, to brufli tlie fly off-, which will then be 

deftroyed. 

I cannot 



THE FLY- WEEVIL. 282 

I cannot readily agree with him here; for certainly as the 
fly got to the car before, it is reafonable to think it could, 
after falling off, crawl up again, unlefs the fall could be 
fuppofed to cruih fo fmall an animal as a pin head. There- 
fore I was perfuaded, unlefs the difturbance of rope-haul- 
ing w^as conllantly given, the fly would return again fo 
often, as to make it a tedious work of many days, at lead 
every morning and evening, from the calling of the bloom, 
to the hardening of the grain. I have fince fancied, that 
by the lame author's method of fumigating turnips, juft 
come up, in his 3d. vol. page 348, with orpiment, every here 
and there, thrown about on live coals, to windward of a 
wheat field, in a gently moving air, the prodigious thick 
foggy fmoke railed by that drug, might kill the moth-fly, 
as he fays it will do the turnip-fly, without injuring the 
turnips, even in vegetation. I fay, I imagined the doing 
this pretty often in the wheat field might be of fervice; for 
though orpiment is of an arfenical nature, as I found it fo 
flrongly recommended, and have aUb read, that though 
poifonous, it had been fuccefsfully prefcribed to be worn 
round children's necks, as a defl:royer of worms; I at firfl 
thought that might do: Yet as fire often renders things 
(really fafe and innocent when crude) very noxious, there 
might be a poffibility of danger in it; and reading of many 
bad fymptoms occafioned by it to the fhot cafters, who ufe 
it to increafe the fluidity of their lead, that it may run 
quicker or more certainly into globules, I could not think^ 
(upon better reafoning) to m,ake ufe of fuch an experiment. 
My end in all this enquiry, was to prevent the deftruc- 
tion made in wheat, by deftroying this infecft in its eg^; 
and I imagined I had foundation enough to conduct me to 
that point, from the accounts given of hatching in Egypt, 
and what we may colledt with certainty from DiiReaumer*z 
elaborate treatife upon raifing fowls; befides many little 
family obfervations, that correfponded with the common 
fenfe of things. Experience fhews, that a fowl greafed 
(as they fometimes are under the wings to kill the lice) 

can 



283 OBSERVATIONS concerning 

can never hatch an egg. I alfo remember a ladvj curious 
in turkevs, in order to produce a forward brood, fet her 
hens in her fmoke-houfe, whilft her meat was hangings 
but the eggs did not produce one pout; and it was difco- 
vered that the hens had been greafed by the accidental 
drippings of the meat. 

As thefe difcoveries fquared with the French method of 
preferving eggs, by tallowing them over, founded certain- 
ly upon the principle of keeping out the air, which would 
otherwife give them, in long voyages, a noxious and dif- 
agreeable tafte of ftalenefs ; I thought I might conclude, 
that befides w^armth, air w^as eflential to the vivifying or 
hatching an egg ; and the hen-houfe wives confirm me in it, 
by their conftant obfervation, that hens, &c. not only 
turn their eggs, but leave their nefts, at proper periods; 
and thofe that hatch well, cool themifelves frequently with 
water, w^hilft others perpetually brooding (if they do not 
die themfelves) addle their eggs. 

Upon thefe two principles then of heat and air, I thought 
myfelf pretty certain of effed:ing the deftrudtion of thefe 
eggs in the grain; and therefore I endeavoured to hit up- 
on fuch a method for their deftrudion, which fhould be 
attended with the leaft labour and expence. Too much 
warmth, or too little, or an entire exclufion of the air, 
muft do the bufinefs — Could it be confiftent with the pru- 
dence of a farmer to thrafh out his grain as foon as reap- 
ed, to be fure a drying kiln might be fo conftruded as to 
deftroy thefe eggs, by communicating too much warmth; 
but as there are many reafons for a farmer (befides his o- 
ther necelTary bufinefs) not to thrafli out his grain fo foon, 
left ,he introduce the other inconveniency to his crop of 
muftinefs and bad fcent, I was obliged to bend my thoughts 
wholly to the exclufion of the air; for wheat, I know, will 
contradl a degree of v/armth in the mow, which is often- 
times of great fervice to plump out the grain, by fomething 
like an after circulation in the ftraw ; and to increafe that de- 
gree of warmth, fo as to deftroy the eggs of the weevil, 

might 



THE F L Y - W E E V I L. 284 

might be a means to mould the ftraw, and funk the grain ; 
therefore I lay, I fell folely upon the exclufion of the air 
as m.uch as poffible; and this I was happy enough in ef- 
fecting with great fuccels to my crop for many years, till 
my old age and infirmity prevented my attending my fer- 
vants whilft they were purfuing my dirediions; and not 
till then had I the leaft reafon to complain, whilft others 
were eaten up in their crops; but villainy and negligence 
are fuch concomitants in fervitude, that I have been again 
•deftroyed, plainly to be accounted for from the vifible 
abufe of my conftant directions. The method I have tak- 
en is this. 

I reap as early as I pofTibly can, refpeding the drynefs 
of the grain, as well as the ftraw, which would otherwife 
funk it: At leaft two feet quite round the mow I leave a 
vacancy, which is to be well trod with foft hay, or beaten 
ftraw; therefore I keep perfons conftantly treading down 
thofe margins as the mow rifes; and when I reach the 
eves of my barn, I lay on and tread down a very thick 
covering of the fame ftraw or hay, and weighed it well 
down at top. Had I not found this eff'eCtual, I would have 
gone to the expence of filling in and plaiftering my barn, 
being convinced that the exclufion of air, as much as pof- 
fible, could be the only eff'ediual method of killing thofe 
eggs, which as they are fo veryfmall before hatching, could 
not give the leaft difagreeablenefs in either look, tafte, or 
quality, in the flour. This method I publilhed many 
years ago; and many gentlemen have afllired me, they 
have practifed it ever fince, and continue to do fo now 
with the greateft fuccefs. The farmer that chufes to try, 
if he fufi^ers nothing to prevent an early harveft, will I 
am perfuaded, confefs the juftice of what I have fuggeft- 
ed; but if, by any means, he ftiould be late in his harveft, 
and the temperature of the weather ftiould be fuited to the 
principles of hatching ; or if he fhould be too early in 
beating out his grain, it cannot then be of any real fervice, 
but by accident, as the mifchief may be done in the field, 

and- 



285 OBSERVATIONS concerning 

and an egg not deftroyed in the mow, may hatch in the 
granary. 

You muft here permit me to tell you, I have conftantly 
laughed at all thole ridiculous noftrums of brining, &c. 
to prevent this injury of the weevil, as well as that other 
deftrudive evil called the ruft. They may be of fervice 
to quicken the vegetation of the grain; and it is reafona- 
ble to conclude they will deRroy all vermin that lie in the 
ground when it is fown; but that this brine, or any other 
folution, can remain and pafs through the courfe of circu- 
lation, in a very long feries of winter months, and preferve 
its virtue to the kerning time of the grain, fo as to prevent 
thefe flies from invading it, or indeed to check or corred 
the corrofive moifturc of particular airs, which produce 
ruft, is an abfurdity below the dignity of a rational man; 
notwithftanding many writers have given into it. I always 
looked upon thofe gentlemen, as forgetful of the philo- 
fophy upon which they fet out within the firft parts of their 
works; and I fuppofe to make a book of bulk, they ftuff 
in the errors of old and obftinate farmers, from one cen- 
turv almoft to another. I remember I had an afs of that 
kind, and for the fake of convidion, I indulged his pro- 
jeO: of fteeping and brining; and went fo far as to leave 
him a parcel of wheat which he might put up or mow as 
he pleafed ; and though his obftinacy would not fuffer him 
to be convinced, I was, to my coft, whilft the reft of my 
grain, conduded by my diredion, was good and ufefuj. 
Quickfilver, we are lately told, will circulate with the juices 
of a plant in vegetation, without injury to it, and it has 
been fuccefsfully applied that way to kill the flugs and 
fnailson wall fruit; yet if the difficulty of inferting it, or 
impregnating wheat with it, before fowing, could be got 
over, 1 cannot fuff'er myfelf to embrace any perfuafion, that 
the virtue or fubtility of the quickfilver could continue fo 
many months in the wheat, by any kind of innate quality, 
in fuch a long ftage of growth, through a very bad winter. 
Therefore even that difcovery, in my opinion, has not re- 
moved 



THE FLY-WEEVIL. 2S6 

moved the abfurdity hinted at. I have mentioned the ruft, 
as prefumptively occafioned by fome corrofive quality in 
the air; and though it is out of my prefent fubject, I will 
juH hint that Du Pratz, in his hiftory of Louiiiana, takes 
notice of fuch a deftrudtive obftrudion to the raifing of 
wheat in that country, though he does not call it by any 
name that conveys an idea of ruft. He fpeaks of it as a 
brown red pearly drop, found at the lower joint of the 
ftalk, which, in a fhort time, pervades the whole ftalk 
upwards, and perilhes the grain: As this is pretty fimilar 
to what vi^e difcover here, it may not be amifs to look upon 
it as a corrofive fubftance, communicated by the air; and I 
do believe it will be found to be the better opinion, upon a 
more accurate inveftigation; for I have long been fatisfied, 
that the afcenfion of the juices are thereby prevented; and 
the rufty duft feems to be nothing more than thofe juices 
oozing out of thofe corroded parts, or wounded pores, that 
turn to that colour on drying; however 1 muft declare, I 
never yet difcovered Du Fratz^s brown red drop on any 
wheat of mine, notwithftanding it has fometimes been de- 
ftroyed with the ruft. This rubigo was a diforder obferved 
in wheat ot very ancient date, and the writers, from one 
to the other, recommend preventing it by brining, &c. as 
before; fome indeed juft hint at the truth, by calling it by 
the general term a blight; but why they Ihould think of 
curing blights by an application before ibwing, is a curi- 
ous myftery, it fhould ieem as if fuch men fancied, that 
the poffible conftltutions of air can as eafily be prevented 
by their brine, as it can be kept out, or exhaufted by an 
air pump. Some, indeed, impute both w^eevil and ruft to 
certain foils; but as wifer men than I, have feen caufe to 
complain of the abfurdities that have been adopted by 
writers that were good philofophers in other matters, I fhall 
not give myfelf any trouble to endeavour at an explofion 
of fuch an opinion, well knowing that all lands, where 
air and moth can come, may be, and are fubjed to thofe 
evils, when they arc about; and indeed every fort of wheat 
Vol. L O o that 



287 OBSERVATIONS concerning 

that 1 have tried, has been attacked by them both ; but 
from barley and rye's conftantly efcaping the weevil, I 
am at prefent perfwaded their protedion happens only 
from their beards or awns ; therefore a long bearded wheat 
would be w^orth propagating for a trial, as I never heard 
the bread made from fuch ever objedted to, nor indeed its 
increafe complained of. This I fay, believing that thofe 
o-entlemen who tell us that bearded wheat has been deflroy- 
ed by the fly weevil, are fome how miftaken, from the 
improbability of the fly's getting into the capfules through 
thole awns. They give for a reaibn, that the awn in 
wheat never flicks to the grain, as it does in barley ; but 
as I never faw rye the leaft aff^eded by the fly, which is 
of a fimilar growth with a grain of wheat, and has no 
awn growing to it, though the huik has ; I muft conclude 
it may be ftill fome miftake in the aflerter; for certainly 
thofe awns, even on the hufls, if any thing long, mufl: 
embarrafs the fly, and prevent his mifchievous purpofe. 

Having thus, my good friend, endeavoured to comply 
with your requeft, it remains that I fliould make fome apo- 
logy for the length of it; but if we confider enquiries in- 
to nature muft be more or lefs prolix, according to the 
helps that can be got, you poflibly will think any endea- 
vour to be fliorter, might have left my own concluflon lefs 
clear and intelligible. I know not how convincing my ar- 
guments may be, but you have my free leave to make ufe 
of them as you pleafe; and I fliall be glad, through your 
means, to read anything that may fliew wherein I am mif- 
taken. lam, dear Sir, 

Your very refpedful humble fervant, 
Sabine-Hall, LANDON CARTER. 

July 23, 1768. 

Same SUBJECT, by ^Z?^ Committee of Husbandry. 

AN enquiry into the means whereby the injury of wheat 
in America from flies, maybe leflened or prevented, 
is attended w^ith difficulties and uncertainty here; becaufe 

the 



TheFLY^WEEVIL. 288 

the members of the committee are at a diftance from the 
immediate feats of obfervation, and cannot obtain that.ac- 
curate knowledge of fads, which is requifite to infure the 
principles they adopt from errors. However, this is not 
thought a fufficient objection to their doing all in their 
power towards putting fo interefting a refearch on a plan 
of inveftigation, and furnifhing gentlemen, of learning and 
leifure, in the places where the mifchief prevails, with 
hints that may ferve as a bafis to fuch a feries of obferva- 
tions and experiments, as may probably be produdive of 
the defired difcovery. 

It is faid the injury of wheat from flies began in North- 
Carolina, about forty years paft, where it has been diffi- 
cult to preferve it ever fmce, unlefs in fpring houfes, or 
other cool places; and that the Indian corn of that coun- 
try being of a foft and tender quality, is alfo liable to be in- 
jured by the fame infeds, but may be preferved from them, 
by keeping the cob covered with the under leaves of the 
hulk. 

That thefe mifchievous flies have extended gradually 
from Carolina into Virginia, Maryland, and the Lower 
Counties on Delaware ; to the laft of which places they did 
not arrive 'till {even years ago, and had not yet penetrated 
into Pennfylvania, or pafled the Delaware. That in the 
tranfit they have been principally confined to low level 
moift lands; and when they have been found in high dry 
lands, they have been but few in number, and did not re-^ 
main longer than one feafon. From whence we may ra-- 
tionally infer, that the high dry lands do not aff'ord them 
equal conveniencies for fubfiftance and propagation, that 
the low level moift lands do, where many things confpire- 
to make all grain raifed in them, of a foft fpungy quality, 
and peculiarly adapted to become the food and nefls of ten- 
der infed.s; and therefore thole are the places in which 
fuch infeds will abound, and the wheat raifed in them, is 
the only kind which they can pierce and injure. The truth 
or falfehood of this inference may readily be afcertained, 

by 



289 OBSERVATIONS concerning 

by experiments with different kinds of grain, put into a 
fly-inteded granary. The following pertinent experiment 
is faid to have been often tried. Put three parcels of In- 
dian corn into a place with fly-bitten wheat; let one par- 
cel be of the firft kind on the cob, and covered with the 
hufk; a fecond of the hard flinty grains; and the third 
of the foft tender grains, both the latter fhelled ; the firft 
and fecond will be injured, whilft the third is worm eaten 
in the fame manner as wheat. 

The accounts we have of thefe flies are various; but the 
moft probable is, that they are whitifh butterflies or moths, 
which reft in the day, and are active in the night. They 
appear to be of the fame kind with thofe that do the like 
mifchief in Europe, which a gentleman of Angumois de- 
fcribes to Mr. Duhamel, in the following manner: 

" The great lofs, fays he, we have fuffered in our corn, 
and efpecially in our wheat, for feventeen or eighteen years 
paft, has put us on making ftridl enquiry into the caufes 
of a corruption with which our grain is infeded. The 
common opinion is, that when the corn is in the bloom, 
that is to fay, in the month of June, fmall white butter- 
flies lay their eg^s in the flowers. When the grain is ripe, 
the eggs are inclofed in it, and as foon as the corn is laid 
iap to be kept, it is found to ferment. This fermentation 
raifes an heat, which hatches the eggs, whence little worms 
proceed, v^hich are transformed into chryfalides, and thefe 
are afterwards metamorphofed into grey butterflies or 
moths.'* 

This procefs of the flies in Europe, conforms with the 
obfervations of many gentlemen in America, fome of whom 
aflert, they have feen the perforations in the milky grains 
in the field, and in the dry grains of wheat, into which 
the flies had put their eggs. This is the lefs to be quef- 
tioned,fince it is the well known manner by which plumbs, 
cherries and fruit trees are injured by other infedts. 

It is faid the moft confiderable injury done to the wheat 
by flies in America, is after it is reaped and laid up, which 

the 



T H E F L Y - W E E V I L. 290 

the gentleman in Angumois does not mention to happen 
in Europe. For a few days after the chryfalides are me- 
tamorphofed into flies, thefe flies copulate, and impregnate 
more found grains of wheat with their eggs, which again 
produce worms, chryfalides, and new parent flies; where- 
by the number of worms is fucceffively multiplied, and the 
mifchief increafed during the warm weather, but ceafes in 
cold, and returns again in the fpring. The fpring flies 
are fuppofed to proceed from worms, hatched at that time 
in eggs, prefer ved in the grain through the winter; be- 
caufe they are preceded by worms, are fhort lived, and 
never feen 'till the feafon is become warm; and becaufe 
very cold winters have been obferved to lefl!en the number 
of flies the enfuing fummer, which is fuppofed to be from, 
the eggs being frozen, and deftroyed in the grain. The 
gardeners in Europe preferve their fruit trees, and fruit, 
by carefully deftroying the nefts of thofe infedts which in- 
jure them, and when the eggs of infedts are depoflted in 
any known place, or thing, it certainly would not be im- 
practicable to prevent any mifchief arifing from them. — 
Therefore in this enquiry it may be ufeful to know, how 
and where the wheat fly is preferved; if in the wheat, it 
may be difcovered by the following experiments. Expofe 
to fevere frofl: a quanty of wheat, that had been fly injured 
in the fall; afterwards put this wheat, and an equal quan- 
tity of the fame parcel, that had not been fron:ed, into dif- 
ferent veflels, and keep them a due time in the degree of 
warmth requifite to hatch the eggs. If the fails are as 
above fuppofed, living worms will be found in the latter, 
but not in the former. 

The eggs of thefe flies have fometimes hatched, when 
the feafons have been extreme hot and moift, in the corn 
ftanding in the field. But this rarely happens *till after it 
is fl:acked or houfed, and a fermentation enfues. 

The common method of preferving wheat from harvefl: 
till it is threfhed, efpecially in places mofl: fubjedl to the 
flies, is in Hacks in the field. Thefe flacks aff^ord a re- 
markable 



291 OBSERVATIONS concerning 

markable phaenomenon ;- for the fouth fide of them, which 
is more immediately expofed to the rays of the fun, be- 
come foon heated, and hatch the eggs contained in the grains 
of wheat from the furface to about eighteen inches in depth, 
whilfl: no worms or flies are found deeper, or on the north 
fide. If the degree of heat which hatches the eggs in the 
fouth fide of the flack, and the degree in the north flde, 
which preferves them without hatching, were afcertained 
by a thermometer, it would lead us to a means of preferv- 
ing the grain, either by keeping it cool, and thereby pre- 
venting the hatching of the eggs, or heating it, fo as to 
corrupt them, without injuring the corn; for the diff'er- 
ence of warmth in which eggs may be preferved, hatched, 
or corrupted, is but fmall ; " 93 degrees of heat in 2 1 days 
gives growth to the chick in an hen's egg, from a little fpeck 
into a perfed: animal body; but the fame egg would be 
rendered unfit for producing a chick by a greater degree 
of heat, fcarcely enduring 100 degrees without prejudice 
and a much lefs degree than 93, would not fuflice for 
hatching it." The degrees requiflte to hatch the eggs of 
thefe flies, to prevent their hatching, or to corrupt them, 
might readily be known, by putting the fame kind of fly- 
injured wheat in diff^erent open veflels, and keeping them 
in diff'erent degrees of warmth, making 93, or the warmth 
of the prolific part of the flock, the medium ftandard. 

Another experiment, of great importance, in this enqui- 
ry, fliould be made at the fame time, to difcover whether 
the eggs of thefe flies can be hatched, or the worms exift, 
without the frequent acceflion of frefli air : This may be 
made, by tying a bladder clofe over a veflel, containing the 
above kind of wheat, and keeping it in the degree of 
warmth that will hatch the eggs; andif tjie eggs in the open 
veflel hatch whilfl thofe in the covered one do not (which, 
philofophy teaches us, will probably be the cafe) it proves 
that fecuring the flieaves of corn^ from the accefs of 
frefli air, by covering them clofe in flacks or barns, with 
hay or ftraw, &c. and keeping the threflied grain in 

tight 



THE F L Y - W E E V I L. 292 

tight cafks or granaries, will be an effedual prefervative of 
the wheat from the injury of flics. It likewife proves, 
what is very ufeful to be known, that fly-injured wheat 
in the holds of large vefl'els, or in deep bulk in granaries, 
will not receive further damage from infers, but on thofe 
furfaces which are expofed to the acceflion of frefli air. 

The following experiment on peafe, is an encourage- 
ment to attempt the prefervation of wheat, by excluding 
air from it. Take any quantity of Englifli peafe intended 
for feed, divide them into two parts, put one in an open 
veflel, keep the other in a vefl^el well corked; that parcel 
to which the air has had admiflion, will be worm eaten in 
the fpring, whilft the other remains found, and untouch- 
ed by infedis. 

It would be a great point gained, to deflroy all thefe 
flies in granaries and mills, by poifon vapour, if it could 
be eafily done. But Mr. Duhainel fays no other vapour, 
but that from burning fulphur, which is injurious to the 
grain, will do it. This affertion is extraordinary, and the 
truth of it is to be doubted, fince all other infedis are rea- 
dily killed by vapours of various kinds. " If bones of 
animals, or hartfhorn, are laid on an open fire, in a room 
where the fmoke is confined, it will kill all the bugs, fleas 
and flies in that room ; But the leaft naufeous, and yet the 
mofl: deadly vapours, are from the fuff'ocation of fire : thus 
the fpirits of charcoal, confined in a clofe room, kills the 
ftrongefl: animals in a fliort time;" and therefore it may 
rationally be expe(5ted, that a pot of thefe coals fired, in a 
clofe granary, could not fail of deftroying the flies in it in 
one night: However, there is no determining this matter 
a priori becailfe of the diff^erence in refpiration between 
animals and infects; the former taking in air by the nof- 
trils, and the latter by a perforation in the abdomen. 
But if the fumes of burning charcoal be inofi^enfive to the 
flies, it is probable that filling the room with a thick, pun- 
gent, oleaginous fmoke, fuch as arifes from burning the 
fl:ems of tobacco, would foon deftroy them, by clogging 

the 



293 OBSERVATIONS concerning 

the air paflages In the fame manner as oil, which applied 
to the fides of infe(Sts, kills them immediately. Both thefe 
experiments may be eafily tried, and if they fail, others 
fuggefted. 

Wheat being now in bloom, and the flies probably very 
bufy in impregnating the tender grains with their eggs, 
all that can be done this fcafon is, to prevent the hatching 
of thofe eggs, by threfhing out the corn as foon as poffi- 
ble, and drying it in kilns or the hot fun, and keeping it 
afterwards in tight veflels, or deep bulk in clofe granaries : 
If it fhould heat in the vefTels, it might be readily cooled, 
and kept fo, by ventilating it an hour once a week, with 
a pair of common houfe bellows, according to Dr. Hak^B 
dire(5tion. 

It fhould not be ftirred in bulk, if it can be avoided, 
that it may quickly encruft upon the top, and exclude the 
air. 

If it is not convenient to threfh it out early, the (heaves 
fhould be defended from the acceflion of air, as before 
propofed, till late in winter, and afterwards kept in bulk, 
or tight veflels, to attempt the prevention of fpring flies; 
for which purpofe the wheat fliould be threflied out before 
fpring. 

If the ftalks of wheat have not been preferved from the 
injury of the flies, the injured part fhould be threflied fe- 
parately, and the wheat ufed immediately, or deftroyed, 
or the eggs in it prevented from hatching : When flies 
appear in granaries, they fliould be killed immediately, to 
prevent their doing further mifchief. 

But as all thefe things require additional labour and ex- 
pence, it is much to be wiflied the injury could be totally 
prevented; and which. It is realonable to expert, may be 
attained folely by a proper change of feed grain annually; 
that is, to fow the low moift lands with hard, dry, flinty 
wheat, of high mountains lands, inftead of their own 
produdt. For it is well known to naturalifls, that the qua- 
lity of fruit, grain and vegetables, depends on the climate 

and 



THE FLY- WEEVIL. .94 

and Toil: The apples of a Newtown pippin tree, growin'^ 
in New-York and Virginia, have fcarcely a refemblance in 
tafte. The vine from which Burgundy wine is made in 
Burgundy, when tranfplanted into Champaigne, produces 
Champaigne wine, and the Champaigne vine, tranfplanted 
into Burgundy, makes Burgundy wine. Beans and peafe 
from England, planted in America, foon dwindle much 
from the originals; and the alteration that foils and 
climates produce on wheat is fo well known, that all care- 
ful farmers in Europe change their feed-grain often; this 
is fo remarkable in America, it is obferved, that the red 
flinty wheat which grows in the ftrong mountainous lands, 
when fowed in low moift places, undergoes a gradual 
change for four years, and then becomes light coloured, 
thin fkinned, and of a foft texture; and that this wheat 
fowed in the high lands, takes the fame time to recover 
its natural colour and quality. Therefore if the injury 
of wheat from flies depends on the foft quality it contracts 
by its growth in moift low lands, a proper annual change 
of feed-grain, will alone prove an eafy and certain remedy 
againft the prefent deftrudive and alarminp- evil a- 
mongft us. _ 



Obfervations on the native SILKS WORMS of North- 
America^ by Mr, Moses Bartram. Read before the 
Society y March 11, 1768, 

1H AD, for a long time, a defire to know, if fome of 
the wild filk worms of North-America could, with 
proper care, be propagated to advantage; accordingly, in 
March, 1766, I made an excurfion along the banks of 
Schuylkill, infearch of fome pods or cocoons, in which the 
worms fpin themfelves up and lie concealed all the winter, 
in the nymph ftate, preparing for a change in the fpring, 
namely, from an aurelia to a fly. 

Vol. L P P j ^^s 



295 OBSERVATIONS on the native 

I was fo lucky as to find five cocoons that had live found 
nymphae in them. Thefe five I placed in my garret op- 
pofite to a window, that fronted the fun rifing. I did this, 
that the warmth of the fun might forward their coming out. 

May lo. One of the flies came out; but the window 
happening to be left open it made its efcape. 

May 13. One of my pods produced a large brown fly, 
beautifully fpolted, next day two more of them produced 
each a fly. 

May 1 7. One of the flies, which came out of a large 
loofe pod, began to lay eggs. On the 2 2d, the other two, 
which were males, grew very weak and feeble and unable 
to fly. Next day one of them died, and the day follow- 
ing the other died; the female fly all this time continuing 
to lay eggs ; on the 24th at night fhe alfo died, having laid 
near three hundred eggs. May 31, my laft pod produced 
a large female fly, of the brown kind like the reft. But 
there being no male I could expedt no increafe from it. 
June 3d, flie began to lay eggs and continued fome days : 
On the 8th fhe died, having laid upwards of two hundred 
eggs. Thefe which my laft fly laid looked at firft large 
and full, but in a few days they began to fhrivel and be 
indented in the middle, as did all the reft. However, I 
folded them all up in feparate papers and laid them by, to 
fee if any would hatch the fpring following. 

The male fly is lefs than the female, but his colours are 
brighter and more beautiful. 

In the fpring of the year 1 767, I examined the eggs, 
and found them all dry, and not likely to produce worms; 
from whence I concluded they had not been impregnated 
by the males. This was a difappointment to me. But 
being ftill of opinion, that they might be propagated, I 
determined to make another trial with more caution and 
circumfpeQion. Accordingly, I fet but in fearch of co- 
coons, and gathered feveral of them both from the fwamps 
and upland. Thofe from the fwamps 1 got chiefly off^the 
alder; thofe from the upland, off^the wild crab-tree, and 
the viburnum or black haw buflies. Thefe 



SILK WORMS OF North-America. 296 

Thefe pods I placed as I had the others, before my gar- 
ret window, where the fun might fhine on them, as loon 
as it arofe, and a great part of the forenoon. When I ex- 
peded the flies were near coming out, I tacked coarle cloths 
up againft the windows on the infide, not only to darken 
the room, but alfo for the flies to fettle on, and to prevent 
them, in attempting to make their efcape, from beating 
their legs and wings to pieces againft the glafs, which I 
found to be the cafe laft year, and which it is. probable, 
prevented their copulating. 

Maj 16. Three of my cocoons produced each a fine large 
fly of the brown kind, the fame as thofe of laft year. 
The two following days two more flies made their appear- 
ance, and one of the eldeft began to lay eggs, which not 
being impregnated, dried up and yielded no increafe. 

May 19. One of the males that came out on the i6th, 
copulated with the female that was produced on the 1 8th» 
They continued together about twenty-four hours ; a com- 
mon cafe with moft of the infedt tribe, which lay a great 
number of eggs at once. And fomething fimilar may be 
obferved in fome other animals. 

May 22. This female fly began to lay eggs which look- 
ed plump and fine. Though I had now feveral flies, yet 
this was the only one from which I had increafe. 

June 2. The laft of my flies died, ajl expiring regularly 
as they came out. The period of their exiftence is ftiort, 
feldom exceeding nine or ten days, though fome of the. 
females lived to the age of fourteen or fifteen, as I found . 
by one I had laft year. 

June 3. The eggs that were impregnated began to hatch 
and produce worms, to which I prefented for food the 
leaves of our common mulberry; but they did aot feena 
fond of them. I laid before them feveral other kinds of 
vegetables, and obferved th^t they feemed beft pleafed 
with the alder. 

June 4th, 5th, and 6th. The eggs continued hatching 
and producing young worms^ 

June 8.. 



-97 OBSERVATIONS on the native 

June 8. Thofe firft hatched left off feeding, fhrunk up 
fhort, and feemed motionlefs. I imagined they were fick 
and changed their food, trying almoft every kind of vege- 
table, in hopes of finding fomethlng that would agree with 
thern better; but all to no purpole. Having killed feveral 
in fhifting them from one kind of food to another, while 
the reft ftill continued in the fame torpid ftate, notwith- 
ftanding all I could do, I thought all my hopes of raifmg 
them were fruftrated and concluded they would perifh. 

June 9. I was agreeably furprifed to fee the little ani- 
mals, that I had given over as dead, creeping out of their 
old {kins, and appearing much larger and more beautiful 
than before. Finding themfelves difengaged, in a little 
time they turned about and fell to devouring their old coat, 
which feemed a delicious repafttothem; after which they 
refted about twelve hours, and then began to feed on leaves 
as formerly with great eagernefs. 

June 15. The eldeft worms again left off feeding, 
fhrunk up very fhort, and appeared fixed on the leaves al- 
moft motionlefs. In this fituation they continued until 
the 17th, on which day, after appearing to be very vio- 
lently convulfed for near half an hour, they threw off 
another fl?:in, which they eat as before, and then refting 
about twelve hours, fell to their ufual food. 

Ju7ie 20. One of my worms, that had juft difengaged 
itfelf from it's old covering, whilfl it yet remained weak, 
was deftroyed by a kind of bug armed with a long bill, 
with which it pierced the fide of the worm, and fucked 
out it's vitals. This bug, which I fancy, I muft have 
brought in with the leaves, I take to be a common enemy 
to the filk worm in it's tender ftate. It's bill is fo long, 
that it can ftand at fome diftance from the worm, and with 
its weapon wound it, notwithftanding the bunches of 
hair or briftles, in form of a pencil, with which the worm 
is covered, and which are it's principal defence. 

June 23. My oldefl worms left off feeding, fhrunk 
up, and on the 25th, threw off their third covering, which 
they devoured, and after refling the ufual time, returned 
to feed as before., July 2^ 



SILK WORMS OP North-Am BR fc A. 29S 

July 2. They left off feeding the fourth time, and on 
the 5th parted with their fourth" covering, after eating 
which, and reding as ufual, they continued to feed on the 
leaves. 

It is remarkable every change they undergo adds frelh 
beauty to the worms, and in every new drefs, they appear 
with more gaudy colours and lively ftreaks. 

July 22. Twoofmyoldefi: worms left off feeding and be- 
gan to wander about in fearch of a proper place to fpin. There- 
upon I got iHcks, in which I fixed a number of pegs tor 
the greater conveniency of the worms; though they can 
fpin in any place, where they have or can form an angle 
for their webs. After wandering about fome time, they 
fixed at laft and began to fpin in a curious manner. 

July 23. Two left off feeding; thefe I placed on the 
racks I had made, which I fixed in glafs bottles to prevent 
the worms from getting off: For I found they were apt to 
ramble greatly before they could fix on a place to their lik- 
ing, if they w^ere not fuffered to fpin among the leaves 
they feed on ; in which cafe they begin to fpin foon after 
they leave off feeding. But 1 did not like to fuffer this, 
as they feemed fond of drawing bits of twigs and leaves 
into their nefts, which muft obftrudt the unwinding the 
filk. One of them fpun on the rack, the other got to the 
window and fpun in the angle of that. 

July 24. Five left off feeding; and having wandered 
about all night, began early next morning to fpin. In like 
manner the refl of my worms, as fafl as they arrived at a 
flate of maturity, daily applied themfelves to fpin-ning or 
wrapping themfelves up in cocoons. 

Auguji 10. The laft worm left off feeding, and like the 
reft wrapped itfelf up, in which ftate I exped they will 
all remain, until May next, when each of them, 1 hope, 
will produce a beautiful fly. 

It feems ftrange there fhould be an interval of no lefs 
than nineteen days between the time the firft and lafl worm 
began to fpin, though they were all hatched within three 

or 



299 OBSERVATIONS on the native 

or four days of one another, which was nearly the fame 
fpace of time the parent fly was laying the egg. Whe- 
ther this was owing to the weaknefs or ftrength of the vital 
principle in fome more than in others, or whether to the 
Ihifting their food, or to their being frightened, and 
thereby prevented from feeding, I cannot tell. Farther 
experiments may poffibly explain the matter. 

The method I took to raife thefe worms, with the leaft 
trouble to mylelf, as I live in town, and confequently had 
to bring food for them out of the country, was as follows: 
I filled feveral bottles with water; in thefe bottles I placed 
branches of luch vegetables as the worms feed on. I 
placed the bottles fo near each other, that when any of 
their food withered, the worms might crawl to what was 
frefh. By this means I kept their food frefli for near a 
week. I always kept the bottles full of water, whereby 
the worms were fupplied with drink, which feems necefla- 
ry for them. Without it they will not feed kindly. 
They commonly crawled down two or three times a day, 
drank heartily, then returned to feeding. The leaves of 
the apple tree feemed as agreeable to the worms as any I 
tried; and they anfwered beft, as they kept frefh in the 
water longer than any other. 

-Prom fundry experiments, I found the worms averfe to 
changing their food. On whatever they firft begin to 
feed, they keep to it. 

If any fhould incline to propagate thefe worms, I would 
propofe the following method. Let long narrow troughs 
be made, with a number of notches along the edges. In 
the bottom of the troughs, on the outfide, let pieces of 
ftraight wood be fixed, fo that the branches, on which the 
worms are to feed, may lie in the notches, and their ends 
be fixed under the piece of wood at the bottom. This 
would keep them fteady, and lying thus inclined, they 
would more freely imbibe the water for the refrefhment 
of the leaves. The dung of the worms would fall clear of 
the troughs, and the water thereby be clean for their drink. 

The 



SILK WORMS OF North-America. 300 

The troughs fhould be always kept full of water, and 
placed in a fhade, fecure from the violence of wind, which 
might lliake down the worms; but not too much confin- 
ed, becaufe a little air is agreeable to them. Through a 
hole in the bottom of the trough, the water might be let 
out every two or three days, and the troughs filled again 
with frelh water, which by this means would continue 
fweet and clean. 

By this method, I am perfuaded, they might be raifed 
to advantage, and perhaps, in time, become no contempt- 
ible branch of commerce. They appear to me much eafi- 
er raifed than the Italian or foreign filk worms. I did 
not loofe one by ficknefs. They hatch fo late in the fpring 
that they are not fubjed to be hurt by the froft. Neither 
lightenings nor thunder difturb them, as they are faid to 
do foreign worms. And as they lie fo long in their chry- 
falis ftate, the cocoons may be unwinded at leifure hours 
in the enfuing winter. One thing more in their favour is 
that one of their cocoons will weigh more then four of the 
foreign worms; and, of confequence, it may be prefumed, 
will yield a proportionable greater quantity of filk. Thefe 
properties, not to mention their being natives, and therefore 
accuftomed to our climate, and the variety of vegetables, 
on which they feed, muft render them much more promif- 
ing than the eaftern or foreign worms, and, it is to be 
hoped, will induce fome who have leifure to make further 
trials of them. Any time before the middle of May will 
do to colled them. Now is the time to colled the cocoons, 
and with a little pains a fufficient num.ber of them may 
be found in almoft any fwamp or Iqvel piece of land, to 
make a beginning. 

I would advife them to prepare boxes, in the following 
manner : They may be of any convenient length, about 
fix inches deep, and four or five wide; without a bottom, 
and inftead of a clofe cover for the top, let there be firips 
of wood nailed on, fo clofe to each other as not to admit 
the worms crawling through. Let there, alfo, be feveral 

holes 



30I DISTILLATION of PERSIMONS. 

holes in one, or both fides, big enough for the worms to be 
put in at, as they want to fpin, and then flopped up. The 
infide Ihould be walhed with a folution of gum Arabic, 
or cherry tree gum. The boxes may ftand on any flat 
place to prevent the worms getting out; and when the 
filk is to be unwound, by immerfing the boxes in warm 
water the cocoons may be taken out without breaking the 
threads of filk. 



A MEMOIR on the DISTILLATION 0/ PERSIMONS, 
^/ Mr. Isaac Bartram. 

THIS Society having propofed at one of their meet- 
ings in November laft, that a trial (hould be made 
for drawing a fpirit from the fermented juice of the Perft- 
mo7i^ I was appointed to make the experiment. 

The feafon being then fo far advanced, I apprehended it 
was too late; but being ftill urged by the Society to make 
the effay, I purchafed about half a bufhel of the fruit in the 
month of December, which was fo much damaged by the 
froft and rain, that I almoft defpaired of fuccefs ; the pro- 
per time for gathering it being in the month of October. 

I however proceeded in the following manner : 

I caufed the perfimons to be well mafhed, and put them 
in a five gallon keg, to which I added two gallons of wa- 
ter, and about two pennies worth of yeft, in order to pro- 
mote a fermentation. This being completed, I committed 
the whole to the ftill, and dravved therefrom near half a 
gallon of proof fpirit, of an agreeable flavor. 

From the fuccefs or this experiment, I think it may be 
concluded, that the perfimon may be rendered very bene- 
ficial to thofe who have many of them growing on their 
plantations, and that they are worthy of the public atten- 
tion, as many advantages may be reaped from the cultiva- 
tion of the trees; fome of which I fhall hint in the courfe 
of this paper. 

To 



DISTILLATION of PERSIMONS. 302 

To thofe who would undertake to colled large quanti- 
ties of this fruit for dillillation, I would recommend the 
following procefs. 

Let a number of empty hogflieads, in proportion to the 
quantity of fruit, be provided; take out one of the heads 
of each, and in the other let a hole be bored, at about four 
inches from the chimb, into which fix a plug, which may be 
occafionally taken out from the lower end, when the cafks 
are fixed upon truflels, at a fmall diftapce from the ground. 
In thefe cafks, over the holes, lay a number of fmall fticks, 
covered with ftraw, about two or three inches thick, to 
prevent the pulp from choaking them. 

Your hogiheads being thus prepared, fill one of them 
half full v^'ith perfimons, which have been well mailied- 
add water until it arife within one third of the top; then 
cover the cafk with the head that had been taken out, and 
let it ftand about nine days; by this time the pulpy or fe- 
culent part of the fruit will be feparated by the ad: offer- 
mentation; you are then to draw off the liquor, by the hole 
in the bottom of the hogfbead, and put it in a tight cafk, 
clofely bunged up, to prevent a fecond fermentation, where- 
by your liquor would become acid, and be rendered unfit 
for the ftill. 

Having thus extracted the more vinous parts from the 
firft hogfliead, let as much water be added as before, which 
muft be well ftirred, and mixed with the pulp, thereby to 
procure the whole ftrength of the fruit. 

A fecond hogfhead is then to be charged half full of fruit, 
well mafhed as the firft, and inftead of pure water, fill it 
two thirds full with the fecond extrad of the firft hogftiead, 
leaving it to ferment, as before directed. This fermen- 
tation being perfected, draw off^ the liquor, and let it be 
bunged up clofe. The third hogftiead is to be treated as 

the fecond, and in like manner every fucceeding caik. • 

After you have in this manner converted all your fruit in- 
to a fermented liquor, let it be kept at leaft one month be- 
fore it is diftilled, if it can be preferved without danger of 
Vol. 1. a.q it= 






^02, DISTILLATION of PERSIMONS. 

it's becoming four; for I have obferved that vinous fpirits, 
drawn from new fermented Hquors, are not equal in flavor 
to thofe which have been meHorated by age. 

The perfimon tree is of a quick growth, and yields great 
quantities of fruit in a few years after it is planted. The 
wood is hard, has a fine clofe grain, and may be applied 
to mahy mechanical purpofes; it burns well, and its afhes 
contain a very large proportion of falts. 

Thefe trees grow fpontaneoufly near all our tide water 
rivers, and fucceed in almoft any kind of foil. They thrive 
beft when planted in an open place. I would therefore 
recommend, that they fhould be fixed at about ten feet a- 
part, round the fields, by which means they would be no 
incumbrance, but contribute to the fupport of the fences, 
as they would ferve for live pofts. The leaves foon rot, 
and become good manure, infomuch that it is remarkable 
that grafs grows better under thefe trees, than any other. 

Every farmer who has fifty acres of land, might plant 
three hundred trees round his fields; which being difpofed 
as before directed, would be a great addition to the beauty 
of his farm. 

Let us fuppofe each full grown tree will produce two 
bufhels of fruit upon an average (fome I have feen bear 
thrice that quantity.) From a farm then of fifty acres fix 
hundred bufhels of fruit might be gathered; and as from 
the foregoing experiment a bufhel is found to yield a gal- 
lon of wholefome and very agreeable fpirit, every farmer . 
having that number of trees, might make fix hundred 
gallons of liquor as good as rum. 

The expences attending the procefs we will fuppofe to 
amount to one half of the value of the liquor when diftil- 
led, which admitting to be worth but two fhillings per 
gallon, will leave a profit of thirty pounds per annum; a 
fum equal to the intereft of a farm that would coft five 
hundred pounds. 

Were we to extend this calculation to what every fifty 
acres of cultivated land in this province only would produce^ 

we. 



DISTILLATION of PERSIMONS. 304 

we fliould find that we might foon become independent of 
the Weft-Indies, for the expenfive article of rum, and 
thereby yearly fave many thoufand pounds to this colony. 

A valuable gum exudes from this tree; for the collecting 
of which, the Society eftablifhed in London for promoting 
arts and manufad:ures, offered a premium of twenty pounds 
fterl. for the greateft quantity, not lefs than fifty pounds 
weight that fhould be collected from the perfimon tree, 
in any of the Britifh colonies in America, and imported 
from thence into the port of London, between the firft of 
April, 1762, and the firft of April, 1763. And for the 
next greateft quantity, not lefs than twenty-five pounds 
weight, a premium of ten pounds fterling. 

t have alfo been informed, that an excellent beer is made 
of perfimons in fome of the fouthern provinces. 

Hence it will appear, that the cultivation of the per- 
fimon tree is an objedt worthy the attention of our farmers, 
as it promifes great profit to themfelves, and a ftill greater 
advantage to the community in general. 



A letter from DoSior Otto to DoSior Bond, gives the 
folloiving account of an Oil, made from the feeds of the 
common large Sun-Flower, viz 

"T^HE oil is made much in the fame manner as the 
A linfeed oil with fire, only that the hufk is taken off 
before it is pounded and prefTed; tho' I think it would be 
much better if it had been drawn cold. One bufhel of the 
feed, in the manner this was made, yields about three 
quarts of oil : What quantity of oil one acre of land will 
produce, I cannot affert at prefent; however, there is a 
fpot of land planted, and the feed now ripening, the con- 
tents whereof we will meafure, and alfo the produce, and I 
will inform you of the refult. It is frequently ufed by our 
brethren, inftead of fweet oil, for fallad, and, with a fmall 
addition of the fweet oil, ferves very well for that purpofe.'* 

Upon 



305 Oil f^om the Seeds of the Sun-Flower. 

Upon examining fome of the oil which was fent by Dr. 
Otto^ it was found thin, clear, and agreeable to the tafte. 
And the committee are of opinion, that this oil will fup- 
ply the place of olive oil tor the above, and many other 
purpofes, and may therefore be looked upon as a valuable 
difcovery to America. 

Dr. Bond^ at the fame time, produced a fample of oil, 
made from the cotton feeds, and fent by the fame gentle- 
man, of which he gives this account: This is the ol. bom- 
bac. or oil of cotton feed, made in the fame manner as 
the above, one bufhel and a half of which yield nine 
pints of oil, and I have been informed it is fuccefsfuUy 
ufed in the Weft-Indies for the cholic, 



A71 EJfay on the expreftng of OIL, from SUN-FLOWER 
SEED, &c. By Dr. J. MORGAN. 

TH E grinding of the fun-flower feeds, and expreffing 
of oil from the fame, is a manufacture, which, as 
far as can be yet learned was firft begun among the Morji- 
vian brethren at Bethlehem, and reflects honor upon them, 
whilft it affords the public a new fubftance, very benefici- 
al in a variety of purpofes, but more efpecially, as it may 
ferve for a fallad oil, and for other ufes of diet and medi- 
cine, in the place of olive oil. 

From experiments already made at Bethlehem, it is 
found that a bufhel of the fun-flower feed will yield, on 
exprefTion, near a gallon of mild oil. The gentlemen, 
who is appointed by the community there to fuperintend 
their mills, defigns, as we are informed, to purine a fur- 
ther courie of experiments on this fubjed, the refult of 
which, we hope, will be communicated to this fociety. 

Our correipondent at Lancaf^er informs the fociety, 
that fome perfons in the neighbourhood of that place, have 
alfo expreifed a quantity of oil from the feeds of the fun- 
flower. His account is as follows. 

" The 



Oil from the Seeds of the Sun-Flower. 306 

" The perfon, who has raifed the greateft quantity of 
the fun-flowers vt^ith us, informs me, that one hundred 
plants, fet about three feet diftance from each other, in 
the fame manner Indian corn is commonly planted will 
produce one buQiel of feed, without any other trouble, 
than that of putting the feed into the ground, from which 
he thinks one gallon of oil may be made. I obferved the 
land, on which he planted the fun-flowers, to be of the 
middling fort, and that he took no pains to hill them, or 
even to loofen the ground about them, which from my 
own obfervation on fome planted in a neighbour's garden, 
I take to be of confiderable ufe. 

" As the fun-flower is a plant of great increafe, and re- 
quires much nourifliment, hilling does not feem fo good 
a method as that of fetting the feed or plant in a hole, and 
when the plant is about a yard high, to throw in the mould 
round the ftalk, fo that the furface of the ground may be 
even about it. By an eftimate made it appears, that one 
acre of land will yield to the planter between forty and 
fifty bufhels of feed, which will produce as many gallons 
of oil. The procefs for making or extra(Sting the oil is 
the fame as that of making linfeed oil, which I make no 
doubt the Society is acquainted with, and therefore ihall 
not trouble you with it." 

The fuccefs attending the trials already made, give the 
greateft encouragement to profecute this ufeful difcovery. 
And as the feeds of the fun-flower are at this time nearly 
ripe, and in a proper ftate for extrading the oil from them, 
it may be of fervice to lay thefe fads before the public. 
Such as may have an inclination to make trials on this 
fubjed, and are not at prefent furnifhed with a fufficient 
quantity of feed for prefling out an oil, may now fupply 
themfelves with enough to plant for making experiments 
the enfuing year. 

For the information of thofe, who have both opportunity 
and inclination to extend the enquiry, and render this a 
valuable branch of bufinefs, but are not acquainted with 

the 



307 Oil from the Seeds of the Sun-Flower. 

the general principles upon which oil is obtained, by ex- 
preflion from vegetable fubftances, it may be proper to ob- 
ferve, that the kernels of fruits, fuch as walnuts, hickory 
nuts, filberts, almonds, peaches, &c. and the feeds of many 
plants, as muftard, rape, poppy, flax, fun-flower, &c. con- 
tain a large portion of mild oil. In order to obtain the oil, 
the kernels or feeds are commonly rubbed to powder, or 
ground in mills. They are then put into a ftrong bag, 
made of canvas or woollen cloth, and committed to a prefs 
between iron plates, by which the oil is fqueezed out, and 
is received or condud:ed into a proper vefl^el to colled: it. 
The plates of the prefs are often heated, either in boiling 
water, or before the fire. Many heat the mafh itfelf in a 
large iron pot, flirring it about with a flick or piece of 
wood, to prevent it's burning, which, when it happens, 
greatly injures the oil, and gives it a burnt fmell and tafte, 
or difpofes it to become rancid in a fhort time. When the 
oil is drawn without the afliftanceof heat,it is known by the 
name of cold drawn oil, and is more valuable, than when 
heat is ufed, but it is not obtained in the fame quantity. It 
is milder, and may be kept longer without fpoiling. 

In a cold feafon of the year, a certain degree of heat is 
abfolutely necefl^ary. But if the oil is defigned for ali- 
ment or medicine, the plates of the prefs (hould be heated 
in boiling water only. When the oil is intended for other 
ufes, the plates may be made hotter, as heat expedites the 
feparation of the oil, and gives a greater produce, but then 
care fhould be taken^not to injure the fubjed: by burning. 

Sometimes the fubjed:, when ground, appears almoft 
like a dry powder. ,It is then faid to be meagre, and re- 
quires to be expofed to the vapours of boiling water, which 
is done either by tying it up in a bag, or putting it into a 
fieve, and placing it over the fleam. By this impregna- 
tion, it will yeld it's oil more readily, and in greater quan- 
tity. The oil mavbe eafily freed from any water that may 
happen to be preflTed out with it, as a fpontaneous fepara- 
tion between them will take place on ftanding for fome 
time. For 



Oil from the Seeds of the Sun-Flower. 308- 

For the encouragement of thofe who may chufe to im- 
prove this fubjedl, it may be proper to obfcrve, that all the. 
oih, from whatever vegetable lubftances they are drawn, 
when obtained by expreflion with due caution, agree in 
their general qualities, and are conflantly mild, even though 
they are obtained from very acrid fubftances. Thus the 
expreffed oil of muftard feed is, when frelli, as mild as 
that of olives, and the bitter almond, or peach kernel, af- 
fords an oil, by expreflion, as mild as that of fweet al- 
monds. It is upon this principle, that the fun-flower oil 
may prove equally valuable with the beft Florence oil, for 
diet or medicine. For every expreffed oil, when pure and 
frefh, is void of acrimony, and free from any particular 
tafle or fmell. 

Befides the mild oil juft mentioned, fome fubflances con- 
tain another kind of oil, called it*s effential oil, a part of 
which may be drawn off with the mild expreffed oil, fo 
called, and impart it's fmell or tafte to that oil. It is called 
effential oil, from it's yielding the particular odour of the 
vegetable, or part of the plant, from which it was obtain-^ 
ed; it is pungent to the tafte, and foluble in fpirits of wine, 
which the other is not. They may therefore be eafily dif- - 
tinguifhed from each other. 

The oil of fweet almonds, and the oil of olives, being 
pure undiuous expreffed oils, not foluble in fpirits of wine, , 
but mild to the tafte, and void of odour, very foft, emo- 
lient and lenitive, are chiefly ufed in medicine and diet. 
And the reafon why the oil of olives, in particular, is pre^ 
ferred, is becaufe it is lefs expenfive, and will keep a much 
longer time without becoming rancid. 

Perhaps, on trials the fun-flower feeds may be'found to 
contain an oil that will anfwer the like good purpofes with 
the falad and medicinal oil, now in ufe. If fo, it will have 
this advantage overthat of almonds or olives, that it is a na- 
tive of the country, maybe always had frefh, and at afmall 
expence. Whereas the others are the produce of diftant 
countries, bear a high price, and are often adulterated on 

that 



3^9 Oil from the Seeds of the Sun-Flower. 

that account ; or being kept a long time, they lofe their 
mild quality, and become rancid and acrimonious. 

The pradlicablenefs of getting oil among ourfelves at a 
moderate expence, and the importance of ufing it frefh, 
together with the probable ufes of fun-flower oil for var- 
nifhes, for the bafis of ointments, and for mixing of paints, 
as well as other purpofes to be anfwered by oils in general, 
claim our attention to this fubjed., and encourage further 
trials of the like kind. 

Before we quit this fubjedl, it may not be amifs to men- 
tion, that caftor oil is juftly celebrated for it*s medicinal 
qualities: The plant, from the feeds of which it is got, 
may be eafily cultivated in this country, and the increafe 
of it is very great in a fhort time; might it not then be 
worth the attention of our farmers to propagate this plant, 
for the fake of it's oil? We would juft fuggeft, that per- 
haps it might be worth while to try whether the feeds of 
fumach, with which this country abounds, orof themul- 
len, which grows in old fields, and bears a great quantity 
of feed, would not yield by expreffion, a valuable oil for 
medicine, or other purpofes. 



Mr. John Morel's Letter, ivith a keg of BENE SEED. 
Read before the Society, May 20, 1769. 

Savannah, 5th May, 176Q. 

To Mr. Charles Thompson, Secretary of the American 
Philofophical Society, at Philadelphia. 

s 1 R, 

1SEND you a fmall keg of Bene or Bene Seed, which 
you will pleafe to prefent to your Society for their in- 
fpedion. This feed makes oil equal in quality to Florence, 
and fome fay preferable. Some fay one hundred weight 
of feed will produce ninety pounds of oil, others fay lefs, 
be that as it will, it certainly makes very fine oil, and pro- 
duces 



On THE B E N E SEED. 310 

duces amazingly. If it is put to the trial, care fliould be 
taken to have the prefs well cleaned, fo as leave no tindture 
from what may have been already prelTed; in my opinion, 
this is an article of conlequencc, and I believe it will grow 
in Philadelphia. The way to fow it is in holes about three 
feet afunder, dropping in each hole about ten grains; when 
it comes up, thin it to three or four of the moft promifmp-, 
the feeds will appear in pods about September, and fhould, 
when full grown, and before dry, be gathered in. The 
method is as follows : As foon as you perceive about three- 
fourths or four-fifths of the pods rife on the ftalk, and 
the lower pods begin to lofe their feeds, it is then time to 
take it in; for after that, as much as ripens one day a top, 
fo much falls out of the pod at bottom, you take a fharp 
hatchet bill or fome fuch weapon, and with it cut off the 
ftock twelve to eighteen inches below any of the feed, 
holding the ftock with the left hand; and when cut, a fe- 
cond perfon receives it, keeping it upright, till he has his 
load, for if you turn it downwards the ripe feed will fall 
out of the pods, you may immediately carry it into a barn, 
and fet it upright on a clofe floor till you perceive all the 
pods fully dry and open. (You may, if you chufe, leave 
it in the field, which muft be the cafe if a large quantity 
is planted,) then threfh it, and run it through a proper 
fieve, and it is fit for ufe. 

I am quite unacquainted with the method of exprefling 
the oil, but I believe if it is defigned for table ufe, nothing 
fhould be done to the feed, as it might give it an ill tafte. 
The lighter and dryer the foil is in which it is planted, 
the better. 

I am, 

Dear S I R, 

Your moft humble Servant, 
JOHN MOREL. 

Vol. I. R r A Letter 



311 EXPERIMENTS to destroy 

A Letter from Mr. Henry Hollingsworth, to the 
American Ph'ilofophical Society-, held at Philadelphia^ 
^r. Read before the Society., lyth of February., 1769. 

GENTLEMEN, 

TH E laudable defign with which you fcem aduated to 
promote the good of your country, and the earneft 
defire you have exprefl'ed in the public papers, to be in« 
formed of whatever may tend to that purpofe, induce me 
to lay before you fuch experiments as I have made and 
found effediual to deftroy the wild garlic, with which the 
country is in many places infeded, and which is very per- 
nicious to the grain. If what I offer, Ihall meet with your 
approbation, and be judged worthy the attention of the 
public, you are at liberty to communicate it in fuch a way 
as you fhall think moft proper. For my own part I fhall 
think myfelf happy if my experience may, by your means, 
be made ufeful to my country. 

In 1753? I fallowed and fowed with wheat, a field of 
about ^o acres, the greateft part of which was very full of 
garlic; I fallowed in May, ftirred in Auguft, and fowed 
in September. In April 1 754, 1 perceived the wheat much 
choaked with garlic, and at harveft found in many parts 
of the field almoft every tenth head was garlic, which ren- 
dered the wheat unfit for ufe, until by immerfing it in 
tubs of water the garlic (which floats) w^as feparated from 
it. But though the wheat, if carefully dried, receives 
little injury from this immerfion, yet the trouble attend- 
ing it is fo great, as to difcourage farmers from raifing 
large crops. In April 1755^ I planted the fame field with 
Indian-corn, and had a good crop. In April 1756, I fowed 
the fame field w^ith oats, in Auguft I ploughed down the 
oat ftubble; and in September fowed a crop of wheat. In 
April 1757? I was agreeably furprized at feeing but very 
little garlic, and that fmall and dwindling; and at harveft 
there was fcarce a head to be found, except along the fide 
of the fences. The fuccefs of this culture, which was 

merely 



THE WILD GARLIC. 312 

merely accidental, and done without any view of deflroy- 
ing the garlic, induced me to try the following experiment. 

In April 1758, having fixed on a field for my next fall 
crop, which had produced Indian-corn the year before, 
and was equally full of garlic with that I mentioned be- 
fore; I fowed part of it with oats, the other part I fal- 
lowed in June, and fl.irred in Augufl, at which time I 
plowed in the out fiiubble, as before, and fowed the whole 
in September, caufing the fame ridge to pafs through part 
of the ftubble and part of the fallowed land. In April 
lyrn, there was a very perceivable diff^erence. The ftub- 
ble part was green with wheat, but the fallowed part was 
of a bluifh colour, occafioned by the quantity of garlic, and 
at harveft was full of large heads, while in the ftubble part 
there was not one to be found. 

Since that I have continued to fow oats in the garlicky 
lands defigned for wheat, and find I have fucceeded fo 
well in deftroying the garlic, that after three years culture 
in that way, the lands may be fallowed and fown with 
wheat in the ufual manner, without any danger from that 
noxious plant. 

Several of my neighbours have purfued the fame method 
and find it anfwers. As the advantage of a crop of oats 
is more than equal to the difference between fallow and 
ftubble ground wheat (where the land is tolerably good) I 
would recommend it to all who are troubled with garlic to 
make a trial. The only difadvantage will be the impo- 
veriftiing their lands, which, if they have manure, may 
be eafily remedied. At the fame time, I would obferve, 
that the ftubble which is ploughed down ferves for a 
manure, and nearly repairs the wafte occafioned by the crop 

of oats. 

If it be aftced why oats deftroy garlic, I muft confefs I 
am unable to refolve the queftion. Perhaps ploughing the 
land in the month of April, when the greateft part of the 
oil of the root or clove is in the ftioot, and turning it un- 
der at that time, deftroys the roots more eff"ed:ually than 

at 



313 Of SOWING PEASE. 

at any other feafon, and the moving thecals, which is the 
method purfued by us, deftroys the heads that would 
other wife come to feed later in the year. PolTibly the fame 
tillage in the fame feafon without fowing oats, might an- 
fvver the end propofed. But having never made the ex- 
periment I can fay nothing certain on that head. 

I am, &c. 

H. HOLLINGSWORTH. 

Head of Elk, Nov, 30, 1 768 



ExtraB of aletter from Mr.PET£R Miller, o/'Ephratah, 
to Mr. Charles Thomson, on the time of foiving 
PEASE,yc?^i" toprefer'ue the crop from being ivorm-eaten. 

*"T^HE peafe I fend you the fample of are the produce 
-^ of laft fummer. Their feed was very much worm- 
eaten, but as the crop produced from them was no w^ay 
infe6:ed, it is evident that their fafety depended entirely 
on the time of fowing; which is about the loth of June, 
new ftile. This hath been confirmed to me by a farmer 
of a long experience. 

" The beft method would be to begin fowing towards 
the latter end of May, and continue for a few weeks, fow- 
ing fome each week, or at the diftance of three or four 
days, in order to difcover whether the worm does not come 
from fowing in an improper feafon. Some Albany peafe 
might likewife be tried as feed; all which I recommend to 
the prudent confideration of your fociety. For, if you 
could make any fure difcovery for the ufe of the country, 
the public would be greatly indebted to you. 

" Peafe were heretofore very plenty in Pennfylvania: 
I knew one farmer in Oley who raifed fixty bufhels at a 
crop, and I did not hear that they were damaged at that 
time by the worm. I muft not forget to tell you, that as 
the peafe I have fent you are of an excellent kind, and 

very 



Ofsowing pease. 314 

very fcarce here, you will be careful to propogate their 
fpecies. As to the lentiles which are fent, the time of fow- 
ing them is early in the fpring, and moft commonly with 
oats." 

N. B. It is recommended to fuch as fhall make experi- 
ments of fowing peafe late, in order to have a crop free 
from the worm, that they would keep an account of the 
times of fowing, and the effect thereof, in regard to their 
crops. 



An eafy Method of prefernjing SUBJECTS in SPIRITS. 
By Mr. Lewis Nicola. 

PERSONS curious in preferving fpecimens for natural 
hiftory are often difappointed by the evaporation of 
the fpirits, which occefions the lofs of the fubjed intended 
to be preferved, or they muft be very careful in often exa- 
mining their bottles, or putting fpirits in fuch as they have 
occafion for a frefli fupply, which, in a large coUedion 
requires much time, trouble and expence. This induced 
M. de Reaumur to try many experiments, in order to ob- 
viate this inconvenience; which he gave to the public in 
a long differtation, inferted in the Memoirs of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences, for the year 1746, after mention- 
ing his different trials, he recommends two methods. 

The firft is, to get bottles with glafs ftoppers of a conic 
form in the part that enters the neck of the bottle, and 
broad and flat at the other end. When the fpirits and fpe- 
cimen, fupported by a piece of wire, are put in, a little 
mercury muft be thrown into the bottle, and the ftopper 
fixed in it's place, and fecured by a piece of bladder or lea- 
ther tied round it and the neck of the bottle; the whole 
muft be reverfed and placed on the broad end of the ftop- 
per, which occafions the mercury to fettle between the 
neck of the bottle and ftopper, and obftruds the evapora- 
tion of the fpirits by the only paffage through which the 

fine 



315 Preserving SUBJECTS in SPIRITS. 

fine parts could fly off. He fays, nut oil, thickened to 
the confiftence of honey, by a long expofure to the air 
which will give it weight fufficient to fmk in a weak fpi- 
rit, may fupply the place of mercury. 

The fecond method is, for bottles that have not glafs 
ftoppers for which he recommends a layer, of about two 
lines thicknefs on the infide of the bladder, which is to 
cover the mouth of the bottle, of nut oil prepared as before 
direded, and when the bladder is well tied on, the bottle 
may be reverfed without any hazard, but great care muft 
be had to wipe the edge of the bottle very dry, that the oil 
may adhere to it in every part. As many bottles will 
not ftand on their mouths, Mr. de Reauinur directs their 
being placed in wooden cups, turned with a broad bottom 
and a hollow, fufficient to receive the neck of the bottle. 

Thefe two methods, though well calculated to anfwer 
the end propofed, have fome inconveniencies. In the firft 
the bottles muft be defignedly made for this ufe and of 
flint, that the ftoppers may be ground into them, which, 
with the coft of the mercury, is a confiderable expence, be- 
iides the difficulty pcrfons at a diftance from a glafs houfe will 
find, in procuring them. In the fecond, preparing oil, fo that 
it may thicken to confiftence of honey, is a work of years, 
the operations may be much ftiortened, by putting the oil 
about two lines thicknefs in leaden veffels, as that metal 
has a confiderable effect on the oil, which may by this 
means be fufficiently prepared in three or four months. 

After feveral experiments, I found two methods free 
from the above inconveniencies, and which I have great 
reafon to think will anfwer the purpofe fully from four or 
five years experience. 

The firft method has fome affinity with Mr. de Reau- 
murh and is as follows. When the fubjedt and fpirits are 
put into the bottle, carefully wipe the infide of the neck 
and edge till quite dry, prepare fome thin putty, of the 
confiftence of foft ointment, and put a coat of it about a 
Jine or two thick on the fide of the bladder or leather, 

which 



Preserving SUBJECTS in SPIRITS. 316 

which is to be next to the bottle, and tie it tightly about the 
neck, place the bottle with the mouth downward in a fmall 
wooden cup, and fill it with melted tallow, or tallow mix- 
€d with wax, until all the bladder or leather cover is bu- 
ried in it, and the tallow adheres to the fides of the neck; 
this will efFedually prevent the fine parts of the fpirits 
from flying off. Great care muft be taken to have the 
edge ot the bottle very dry, and if rubbed with a feather, 
dipped in oil, it will be better, and in filling the cup, to 
have the tallow no hotter than is barely neceffary to make 
it fluid. 

The fecond method is, after the fpecimen and fpirits are 
put into the bottle, dry the infide of the neck and edge 
thoroughly, and anoint them with a feather dipped in oil, 
ftop the bottle with a cork well fitted and fteeped in oil, 
till it has imbibed as much as it can contain, cover the cork 
and edge of the bottle with a layer of putty prepared as 
dire(f^ed above, and tie a piece of foft leather or bladder 
over the whole. 

OHve, or any other fat oil, is to be preferred to fuch as 
dry eafily; I would alfo recommend the ufe of fpirits of a 
moderate ftrength, as thofe that are very fl:rong burn up 
and difcolour the fpecimens, particularly fuch as have fine 
colours. Thefe two methods have the advantage of Mr. 
de Reaumur\^ in the fmallnefs of the expence and eafinefs 
to procure the materials. For fpecimens that ic will not 
be neceffary at times to take out of the bottles I would re- 
commend the firft method, as more obftacles are oppofed 
to the evaporation than in the fecond, befides the cup, the 
coft of which is very trifling, puts the bottle in lefs danger 
of being overfet and broken, than moft bottles are when 
{landing on their bottoms. 



A Letter 



jiy Making CURRANT WINE. 

A Letter from Bethlehenh dated i^^d^ Julyy 1769. With 
a Receipt for making CURRANT WINE, Read 
before the Society, 

DEAR SIR, 

ESTEEMING it a duty incumbent on the members 
of civil fociety, to communicate every ufeful difco- 
very they conceive the public may be benefited by, I take 
the liberty of fending you the inclofed receipt for making 
currant 'ivine^ which, for a good number of years, has 
been fuccefsfully carried on in this place. 

From its cheapnefs (v^^hich I imagine cannot ftand the 
maker in more than fix-pence a quart); from the eafy 
culture of the fhrulv, and the confideration of their never 
failing to bear; it is thought the inhabitants of this pro- 
vince may be generally induced to fall into the way of 
making it, whereby, perhaps in time to come, the great 
importation of the inferior forts, and I fear, before they 
come into the hands of the retailer, bad wines may be 
greatly leffened, if not wholly prevented, and a wholefome 
liquor as the currant wine, if well made, and of proper 
age, really is, introduced in their ftead, which I need not 
add would be a great faving to the province. 

The currant bufh, though a fhrub that grows almoft 
fpontaneoufly, requires neverthelefs fome dreffing; in re- 
gard to which the following directions may be of fervice. 

Plant them round the quarters in your garden, that they 
may have the benefit of the dung and culture annually be- 
ftowed thereon, which will conftantly make the berries 
large, and the juice rich. 

The red currant is preferable to the white, as yielding 
richer juice, and in much greater quantity. 

Take the moft luxuriant ilips or fhoots of a year's growth, 
fet them in the ground about eight inches deep, and not 
lefs than twenty-four diftant from each other; thefe never 
fail of taking root, and generally begin to bear in two 
years. For the reft, let them from time to time be treated as 
efpaliers, (but not againft a wall) obferving to keep the 

roots. 



Making CURRANT WINE. 318 

roots, efpecially in the fpring of the year, free from fuck- 
ers and grafs. 

This treatment is the more neceffary, in that thegood- 
nefs of the wine in a great degree depends on their having 
the full benefit of the fun and air, to maturate and give the 
berries a proper balfamic quality, by exhaling a due pro- 
portion of their acid watry particles. 

TheRECEiFT for making CURRANT WINE. 

GATHER your currants when full ripe, which will 
commonly be about the middle of July; break them well 
in a tub or vat (we have a mill conftrucled for the purpofe, 
confifting of a hopper, fixed upon two lignum vitse rol- 
lers], prefs and meafure your juice, add two thirds water, 
and to each gallon of that mixture (i. e. juice and water) 
put 3 lb. of Mufcovado fugar, (the cleaner and drier the 
better, very coarfe fugar, firft clarified will do equally well) 
ftir it well 'till the fugar is quite dilTolved, and then tun 
it up. It you can pofTibly prevent it, let not your juice 
Hand over night, as it fhould not ferment before mixture. 

Obferve, that your cafks be fweet and clean, and fuch 
that never have had either beer or cyder in them, and if 
new, let them be firft well feafoned. 

Do not fill your cafks too full, otherwife they will work 
out at the bung, which is by no means good for the wine; 
rather make a proportionable quantity over and above, 
that after drawing off the wine, you may have a fufli- 
ciency to fill up the cafks. 

Lay the bung lightly on the hole, to prevent the flies, 
&c. from creeping in. In three weeks or a month after 
making, the bung hole may be flopped up, leaving only 
the vent hole open 'till it has fully done working, which 
generally is about the latter end of October. It may then 
be racked off into other clean cafks, if you pleafe, but ex- 
perience feems to favour the letting the wine ftand on 
the lees 'till fpring, as it thereby attains a ftronger body, . 
and is by that means in great meafure divefted of that fweet 
Vol. I. S s lufcious 



jrg Making CURRANT WINE. 

lufcious tafte, peculiar to made wine; nay, if it is not- 
wanted for prefent confumption, it may, without any da- 
mage, ftand two years on the lees* 

When you draw off the wine, bore a hole an inch at 
leaft above the tap hole, a little to the fide of it, that it 
may run clear off the lees. The lees may either be diftilled, 
which will yield a fine fpirit, or filtered through a Hippo- 
erates*s lleeve, and returned again into the cafk. Some 
put in the fpirit, but I think it not advifable. 

Do not fufFer yourfelves to be prevailed on to add more 
than one third of juice, as above prefcribed, in hopes the 
wine may be richer, for that would render it infallibly hard 
and unpleafant, nor yet a greater porportion of fugar, as 
it would certainly deprive it of its pure vinous tafte. 

By this management you may have wine, letting it have 
a proper age, equal to Madeira, at leaft fuperior to moft 
wines commonly imported, and for much lefs money. 

In regard to the quantity of wines intended to be madey 
take this example, remembering that 12 lb. of fugar is equal 
to a gallon of liquid. 

For inftance, fuppofe; you intend to make 30 gallons 
only, then there muft be, 
8 gallons of juice, 24 gallons of mixture^ 

16 of water, 3 multiplied by 

24 gallons of mixture 12) 72 pounds of fugar, equal to 

6 gallons produced by fugar 6 gallons of liquid. 

30 gallons. 

And fo proportionably for any quantity you pleafe to 
make. 

The common cyder preftes, if thoroughly clean, will do 
well in making large quantities, the fmall hand-fcrew 
prefs, is moft convenient for fuch who make lefs. 

N. B. An extraordinary good fpirit, for medicinal and 
other ufes, may be diftilled from currant juice, by adding 
a quart of melafles to a gallon of juice, to give it a proper 
fermentation. 

Extra^ 



[ 320 ] , 

ExtraBs of a L ETTE Rfrom Dr. Lorimer, of Wefi- 
Florida^ to Hugh Williamson, M, D. Read before 
the Society t 2 \fi Aprils 1 769. 

WH E N I read the plan for enlarging your Society, 
one part of it particularly called to my mind an 
introdudlion to the conclufion of the modern part of the 
Univerfal Hiftory, wherein the geography of this globe is 
confidered in a new light, with a view to difcoveries. In 
that article it is obferved, that the lines v/hich meafure the 
greateft length of the old and of the new continents are 
nearly equal, and that they incline to the equator in the 
fame angle, but in oppofite directions. It is farther re- 
marked, that each of them divide their refpe£l:ive conti- 
nents into two trails of land almoft of the fame fuperficial 
contents, and that thefe continents feem fixed by nature 
as a counterpoize to one another. Your Society take notice 
of the fimilarity between the eaft fide of the old continent, 
and the eaft fide of the new, in vegetable produdions, &c. 
and vice verfa. Now let me contribute one proof of this 
propofition amongft many others. The odoriferous (kim- 
mi of japan is a native of Weft-Florida. Our agent is a 
great naturalift, and particularly intent on procuring fpe- 
cimens of this plant. I hope in a little time to be able to 
give you and him a pretty fatisfaCtory account of it. We 
have a variety of ftirubs, with aromatic and odoriferous 
bark. I am really of opinion that the common plants have 
a more exquifite flavour in this climate than in other coun- 
tries. There is a kind of farfaparilla, which anfwers the 
intention, but I queftion, whether it would fell well at firft. 
We have fnake-root and many other medicinal plants, and 
I do not doubt but fome articles, may be difcovered which 
are yet unknown in the Materia Medica. There is a beau- 
tiful kind of bean, which fome of our failors having eat 
of, were furprized with a vomiting and purging, juft as 
another crew were by eating poke for fallad. There is like- 
wife a plant of the pea kind, faid to be ufed by the Indians 

as 



321 REMARKS on the CLIMATE, 6'c. 

as an unlverfal remedy in venereal cafes. I hope foon to 
be better acquainted with thefe things : Though I am forry 
to lay that I am no great botanic, nor have we any man 
of eminence in that way. Here is certainly a great held 
to employ naturalifts. Minerals, efpecially iron, we have 
in abundance. I have a very good natural magnet, found 
within fix miles of this town. There is an excellent 
chalybeat water juft by, it's elaftic fpirit has driven the 
cork out of the bottle which contained it. The country 
is full of navigable rivers, and runs of the finefl: frefh w^a- 
ter. About Mobile and at the fwampy mouths of fome 
rivers, it muft be a little unhealthy, but it is far from be- 
ing fo bad as has been imagined. In April 1765, when 
I was notified as furgeon to the forces here at the war 
office, I unluckily prognofticated the fate of our troops 
which were then to be fent out. It is now evident that it 
was mifcondud entirely that ocafioned the lofs of fo many 
foldiers and fubjeds. I am juft making out a ftate of the me- 
dical conftitution of this climate ; as an introdudion to which 
I have given a fhort general account of the fituation of 
the country and the temperature of the air; for which laft 
purpofe I have taken the height of the thermometer gene- 
rally three times every day for one whole year, and I have 
noted all the extraordinary variations for almoft three 
other years. Nothing elfe could give an idea of a climate, 
v^here the thermometer will rife or fall fome times 20 de- 
grees in a few hours, and at other feafons not 2 in many 
days, the extremes being at leaft from 17 to 98 degrees of 
Farenheit's fcale. Your fociety obferve, that on the eaft 
coaft of North- America and of China, the north-weft 
winds are cold and piercing, the fouth-weft warm and dry, 
the north-eaft cold and wet, the fouth-eaft wet but warm ; 
and that the cafe is different on the weft coaft of Europe 
and at California. Now on this coaft, which is neither 
the eaft nor weft fide of a continent; in winter the fouth- 
erly winds are warm and moift, the northerly cold and 
dry : In fummer we have the daily fea breeze from the 

South, 



o F W E S T - F L O R I D A. 322 

South, and in the night or morning a refrefhing gentle 
land wind from the north. The fky in this country is re- 
markably ferene, efpecially when the winds are northerly.. 
A thought juft flrikes me, that, according to the forego- 
ing fimilarities, our coaft Ihould refemble that of Perfia 
from the river Indus to the gulph of Ormus, but as there 
is no Miffifippi on that coaft, we may compare the mouths 
of that river with thofe of the Ganges, and the country 
about Bengal, to that of New-Orleans. The Spanifh 
main, as we call it, fliall be Arabia, and Spirito Sando, in 
liaft-Florida, may reprefent Madrafs. However, to re- 
turn to what we know of our own fituation. The gulph* 
of Mexico may be confidered as one great whirlpool.- 
The general courTe of the waters in the great oceans, as 
well as the current of the air within and near the torrid 
zone, being from eaft to weft; the force of the atlantic 
comes upon the Weft-India Iflands, and the lengths of 
thefe iflands are in that diredion. When the waters get 
into the great Gulph, they are obftruded every where, 
and as it were turned round by the land, the greateft ve- 
locity of this great body of water will be towards the E- 
quator, and it muft get out where it meets with the leaft 
refiftance, that is on the fide towards the Pole, and there 
it forms the ftrong current or pafl^age, called the Gulph of 
Florida. The natural courfe therefore of the waters on 
our coaft, fhould be from Weft to Eaft; but here there 
are frequent currents which are very irregular, depending 
moft probably on the winds, but feldom on that which 
blows on the fpot. By the general law of the tides, there 
fl\ould be flood for one fix hours, and ebb for the fix fol- 
lowing nearly, but here an ebb-tide wiH-continue for eigh- 
teen or twenty hours, and the flood only four or fix, ^^ 
'vice 'verfa, A foutherly wind always rifes and keeps up 
the waters in our bays, and the northerly winds almoft 
empty them, yet it muft be allowed that thefe ebbs and 
floods are not equable during this continuance, for upon 
accurate obfervation there is a tendency to two ebbs and 

as 



323 REMARKS on the CLIMATE, ^r. 

as many floods every twenty-four hours, though they are 
overpowered by the winds or currents. The entrance of 
our bays and rivers are defended as it were by a fhallow 
or fand bank, which forms a bar farther out towards the 
fea, than is ufual in Europe ; the depth on the bars is not 
at all proportional to that within the rivers: All the rife 
on the bars is about a foot while in the bavs it is almoft 
three. The mouths of our rivers are frequently divided 
into different channels by a kind of fwamp covered with 
reeds, and all this is mod probably occafioned by a kind 
of conflict between thefe currents, and the rifing of our 
rivers at certain feafons of the year. There are no 
dangerous fhoals on this coaft, unlefs you fall too far to 
the eaftward about Cape-Blaze, or St. George's Iflands. 
The latitude of the Cape being the moft foutherly land 
in Weft-Florida is about 29°. 40'. and from thence 
to the entrance of San£ta Rofa bay, which is in 30^. 30^ 
the land gradually declines to the North. From Sanda 
Rofa to the entrance of Mobile Bay in lat 30^. 17' it falls 
again to the fouthward ; and from Mobile Bay to the en- 
trance of the lakes it is nearly Eaft and Weft. There is 
no fuch thing as recommending any map of this coun- 
try. Bellin, and fuch as have copied from him, give fome 
refemblance of the coaft, but they are all erroneous, and 
that in very material articles. If Mr. Gauld*s furveys are 
not foon publiftied, he will poflibly fend a copy of them 
for your Society, but he is juft now fo engaged that he 
cannot fet about fuch a work. Thus far I think it necef- 
fary at prefent to inform you from his papers ; that the bay 
of SpiritoSando is fufficientfor firft rate fhips, but that is 
in Eaft-Florida. The harbour of Penfacola will only admit 
fuch as draw 2 1 feet water, though that is fufficient for 50 
or 60 gun ftiips, and there is a road fted lately difcovered 
behind the chandeliers, which is much more commodious 
than that at Ship Ifland in its neighbourhood ; it will admit 
veflels of any fize, and is flieltered from all winds except 
the North and North-Weft, in which cafes they can eafily 

put 



OF W E S T - F L O R r D A. ^^^^i 

put to fea, and make for Penfacola or Splrito Sand:o, if 
necefTary. The bay of St. Joleph is not unlike that pub- 
liihed by Jeffereys, it has 1 8 feet water good, fine anchor- 
age, and would be a moft advantageous fituation for a 
fifhery, fait pans, &c. The bay of St. Andrew juft ad- 
jacent is as much larger as it is unlike to any thing yet 
publifhed, it extends from South-Eafl: to North-Weft, and 
is a moft commodious habour for veflels of 1 3 feet draught. 
The bay of SanctaRofa is ftill more extenfive; it lies from- 
South-Weft to North-Eaft, but can eafily anfwer for the 
Penfacola pettiaugers, which by the long channel within 
the ifland, and the river which falls into the head of the 
bay, and extends North Eaft almoft to the Lower Creek 
Nation, may trade with the Indians. The lands upon this 
river at fome diftance from the bay are good, but all along 
this coaft there is little dfe than a fandy beach and pine 
barren. But for a defcription of the rivers Miffifippi, 
Pearls, Pafcogoula, the Tombechy, and Albama, which 
fall into the bay of Mobile, the bay and river of Perdido, 
juft contiguous to Penfacola, the Scamby, and fo forth, I 

refer you entirely to Mr. , who is a much better 

judge than I am of the advantages which may be made of 
their produce, &c. 

I ftiall fend you a defcription of an univerfal magnetic 
needle. It gives the variation and dip at the fame time, 
the laft of which I prefume with more accuracy than any 
yet extant. It anfwers in all parts of the world, without 
the addition or alteration of any poife, fuch as our beft com- 
pafles now have. A collection of American magnetical 
obfervations is much wanted; with the courfe of the line 
of no variation in-land, and the dip, which I imagine will 
be found greater than in the fame latitudes on the European 
fide. The farther to the North and Weft, that the obfer- 
vations could be made the better. This was a fubjed 
■which I had defpaired of ever feeing reduced to any kind 
of regularity, but I am now well fatisfied that it may. I 
have great expedations from the plan of your Society, and 

fhall 



3^S 



FOREIGN PLANTS. 



fhall make it my bufinefs to prepare fomething or other, 
by the time I can expedt to have the favour of a few Hnes 
from you. I moft fmcerely wifh you fuccefs, and am, Sir, 

Your moft obedient 

Humble Servant, 

J. L O R I M E R. 

Fenfacola, Jan. 7, 1769. 



A Catalogue offuch FOREIGN PLANTS as are ivorthy of being encouraged in our American Colo- 
nies/or thepurpofts of Medicine, Agriculture, and Commerce^ 

{From a Pamphlet /5jy JOHN ELLIS, F.R.S. Prefentedhy the Honorable THOMAS PENN, Efy. 
to the American Philofophical Society, through the hands of SAMUEL POWELL, Efq.'] 

To aV'dd \confufion in the botanical names, both the generical and fptcific, or tri<vial names of the plants , 

are fet doivn, ivith the page rtjerred to in the celebrated Linnatis^sfecond edition of his /pedes of plants. 
Other authors of the befl authority are mentioned, ivhere Linnaus isfilent. 



Latin Names. 
Rubia Peregrina 
Rubia Tinftorum 
Quercus Suber 

Quercus ^gilops 



Quercus Gallifera 



Carthamus Tine- 
tori us 
Rhamnus cathar 

ticus minor 
P.hamnus SaxatilisL 
Olea Europea 



Sefamum Orien- 
talc 



adEd.L.Sp, 
p. 158 
p. 158 
p. 1413 



p. 1414 



Parkinfon, 
1386 



Lin.Sp. I163 
Tournft. 593 



in.Sp. 1671 
p. II 



Englifh Names. 
Turkey Madder 
Dyers Madder* 
Cork-bearing oak 

Avellanea or Va- 
lenida oak 



Gall -bearing oak 



Safflower 

Buckthorns that 

produce yellow 

berries ofAvignoi 

Olives of feverul 

varieties 



Oily grain 



Obfer-uations. 

Thefirftisfuppofedtobethefame that is no\r 
cultivated in Smyrna for a crimfon dye. 

Grows in the fouthern parts of France, Spain, 
and Portugal. 

The cups of the acorns, which are very large, 
ufed here in dying, grow in Greece and 
Natolia, particularly in the ifland of Zia 
in the Archipelago, where Tonrnefort 
fays they guther in one year 5000 Cwt. 

Galls from Aleppo and Smyrna. This oak 
is not yet known in England: The acorns 
may be brought over in wax, and fent to 
the Floridas, Georgia, and South-Carolina. 

Much ufed in dying, grows in Egypt. 

Ufed by painters and dyers; both thefe plants 
produce berries fit for this purpofe. 

For oil ; thefe grow in France, Spain, and 
Italy. Young plants and ripe fruit of the 
French and Spanllh forts, may be brought 
from thence. 

Propagated in the Levant for oil, which does 
not foon grow rancid by keeping. 



• This plant is a native of the warmeft: parts of Europe, and is better calculated for the 
climate of the Floridas than either of Holland or England, where it is cultivated; but princi- 
pally in the former from whence we are chiefiyfupplieJ with this valuable dye. The chemifts 
fay, and with reafon, that the warmth of the climate exalts the colour. If fo, it may be well 
worth the attention of the pubhc to encourage the planting of fo valuable an article of com- 
merce in a climate and foil that feems fo much better adapted to it, where the land is cheap, 
and where vegetation isfo much quicker and more luxuriant; and while we encourage the growth 
of it in our colonies, we may have the adv mtage of manufaduring this valuable commodity 
at home, for which at prei'ent we pay fums fcarcely credible, to the Dutch. 

Lalin 



FOREIGN PLANTS. 



326 



Lathi Names . 
GolTypium herba- 

ceum 

Goflypiuin hirfu- 

tuni 

Salfola Soda 
Sidfola Sativa and 
Chenopodium 
maritimum 
Ccratonia Siliqua 



Piftachia Vera 



2dEd.L. 
P- 97J 



P- .'23 
p. 321 

P- 15 1.3 

P- 1454 



PiftachiaTerebin- p. 1455 

thus 
Piftachia Lentif- 

cus 



P- 1455 



EiigVijh Names. 

Two forts of an 

mud cotton 



Thcfe kinds of 
giaflvvort for Ba- 
rilla 

Lociift tree, or St. 
John's Bread 



Piftachia-trce 



Chio Turpentine 

tree 
Maflick-tree 



• Styrax Officinale p. 0^ 

Convolvulus p. 218 
Scammonia 



Papaver Somni- 
ferum 

Caflia Senna 



Croton Sebiferum 
Rheum Palmitum 



p. 726 
P-539 

p. 1425 
P-52I 



Olfervat'ions , 

Both thefe kinds of annual cotton are yearly 
fown in Turkey, and would grow well 
in the warm climates of North America, 
as the Floridas, Georgia, Carolisa, and 
Virginia. 

Thefe are fown yearly in fields near the fea in 
Spain, for making Barilla, for foap, glafs, 
&c. 

The pods are excellent food for hard-working 
cattle, and ufed for this purpofe on the fea- 
coaft of Spain, where they are eafily pro- 
pagated from feeds or cuttings. 

They are propagated about Aleppo, where 
the female or fruit-bearing ones are in- 
grafted on ftocks raifed from the nuts. 

This kind of turpentine is ufed in medicine. 



Gum maftick from the Ifle of Scio; as this 
tree, commonly called Lentiftus, is doubt- 
ed to be the genuine Maftick-tree, feeds of 
the true kind may be procured from the 
ifle of Scio. 
Gum Storax tree .This tree grows in Italy, Syria, and India; 
but the warmer climates yield the beft gum. 
Gum Scammony 'Seeds of the Plant, from whence this excel- 
lent drug is procured, were fent into Eng- 
land about 20 years ago, from Aleppo, by 
the late Dr. Alex. Ruffel : It bears this cli- 
mate very well, and produces feed in hot 
fummers; but requires the warmer cli- 
mates of Carolina, Georgia and the Flo- 
ridas, to make the gumrefin that flows 
from it a beneficial article of commerce. 
Itisfo frequently adulterated in Turkey, 
that, in order to have it genuine, it is well 
worth propagating in our colonies. 

-Thisis recommended tobefownin ourfouth- 
em colonies of North-America, for the 
fake of obtaining the opium pure, f 

This grows in Upper-Eg^-pt, and is brought 
from thence to Alexandria; it would not 
be difficult to procure the feeds of this 
ufeful drug. 

rhis plant grows in moift places in China, 
and is of great ufe in that country. 

The feed of this plant was brought to Eng- 
land about five yearsago, by Dr. Mounfey, 
F. R. S. from Mofcow, and appears by ex- 
periment 

* There is a refinous juice, which by age, hardens into a folid brittle refin, of a pungent, 
warm, balfamic tafte, and very fragrant fmell, not unlike the ft;orax calamita, heightened with 
a little aifibergris, which is produced from the Styrax aceris folio of Ray, or Liquidambar Sty- 
raciflua of Linnjeus, Spec, plant. 1418, which grows in perfeiflion in the Foridas. This, Dr. 
Lewis, in his Materia Medica, p. 353, fays, might be applied to valuable medicinal purpofes. 

Thel'rench, in Du Pratz' hiftory of Louifiana,fpeak with rapture of its healing qualities, and 
the high efteem it is in among the Indians of Florida, on account of it's infinite virtues: It is 
known to the Englifli by the name of the fweet gum-tree, and to the French by the name of 
Copalm. This is well worth the attention of the College of Phyficians, as we can have it ge- 
nuine, whereas the Storax from the Eaft: is often adulterated. 

f The feed of this fpecies of poppy is recommended by a phyfician of great eminence as pro- 
per for the fame purpofes in medicine as fweet almonds are ufed. It is obferved not to have the 
leaft degree of a narcotic quality in it. 



True Opium Pop 

py 

Alexandrian 
purging Senna 



Tallow tree of 

China 
True Rhubarb 



Vol. I. 



Tt 



Latin 



Z^l 



FOREIGN PLANTS. 



Latin Names. idEd. L.Sp 



Calamus Rotang p. 463 
PterocarpusDraco p. i66a 
Dracasna Draco iLin. Syft. Ed 
I a p. 246 
DolichosSoja Lin. Sp. 1923 



Laurus Caffia 
Laurus Cinamo- 

mum 
Laur. Camphora 

Cycas Circinalis 

Amyris Gilead- 
enHs 



9 



EngUJh Names, 



P-528 
p. 538 

p. 528 



p. 1658 

Lin. Mant. 
165 



Three forts of Gum 
Dragon, or Dra- 
gon's blood. 

[A kind of kidbean 

called Daidfu 
Caflia Lignea tree 
Cinnamon tree 

Camphire treef 



Saga Palm tree 

True balm of Gi 
lead tree \ 



Ohfer'uations . 
perlment to be the genuine true Rhubarb 
of the fhops, and is a mofl valuable ac- 
quifition to this country, as it will grow 
well in a deep rich foil, inclining to a fandy 
or gravelly loam, but not in too wet a fitu- 
ation, andmay be cultivated both here and 
in North-America Mr. Inglifh has raifed 
this plant with fo much fuccefs at his coun- 
tr;- hnufe at Hampftcad, as to be able not 
only to produce fome excellent good rhu- 
barb, but afufficient quantity of ripe feed to 
make a large plantation ; and at the fame 
time has mofl: generoufly befl:owed a great 
deal of feed to be fent to our American co- 
lonies, v/here, no doubt, but it will prove 
in a few years a mofl beneficial article of 
commerce. 

. From a kind of cane in the Eaft-Indies. 
a. From Java and Surinam. 3. From the 
Canary and Madeira iflands. 

Ufed for making Soye * or Indian Ketchup. 

See Ksemp. Amoenitat. 
Grows in Sumatra. 
In Ceylon, Guadaloupe, and in moft of our 

newly ceded iflands. 
In Japan, and in Sumatra, now in England in 

the green houfes about London. It will 

grow freely where oranges and lemons do. 
In Java, and the warmeft parts of the Eafl- 

Indies. 
Lately difcovered in Arabia by Dr. Forfkall, 

and defcribed by Dr. Linnseus in a late dif- 

fertation. 



* The method of preparing Eaft-India Soye, or India Ketchup, 
Take a certain meafure, for inffance a gallon, of that fort of kidney-beans, called Daidfu by 
the Japonefe, and Caravances by the Europeans; let them be boiled till they are foft; alfo a 
gallon of bruifed Avheat or barley, (but wheat makes the blackeft Soye) and a gallon of com- 
mon fait. Let the boiled caravances be mixed with the bruifed wheat, and be kept covered 
clofc a day and a night in a warm place, that it may ferment. Then put the mixture of the ca- 
ravances and wheat, together with the gallon of fait, into an earthen veffel, with two gallons 
and an half of common water, and cover it up very clofe. The next day ftir it about well with 
a battering machine or mill {Ridabidum) for feveral days, twice or thrice a day, in order to 
blend it more thoroughly together. This work muft be continued for two or three months, 
then ftrain off and prefs out the liquor, and keep it for ufe in wnoden veifels; the older it is the 
clearer it will be, and of fo much more value. After it is prefled out, you may pour on the 
remaining mafs more v/ater, then ftir it about violently, and in foine days after you may 
prefs out more Soye. 

■\ The camphire from Sumatra is greatly preferable to that of Japan ; we are not certain whe- 
ther it is from a different fpccies of tree, but it feems well worth inquiring into, as the effefts 
of proportionable quantities in mcdiciiie are furprizingly different, perhaps it may be owing to 
the great difference of heat in the climates. 

I We have in the iiland of Jamaica, a fpecies of tree of this genus, called by I^ina^us Amyris 
Baifa mifera. See Species Plantarum, p. 496. Sir Hans Sloane, in his hifl. of Jam. vol. (1. 
p. 24, calls this tree Lignum Rhodium, from the odoriferous fmell of it's wood when burnt, 
which it diffufes a great way; for which reafon he believes it to be the tree that afforded the 
agreeable fcent which Columbus perceived on the South fhore of Cuba, upon the difcovery of 
that ifland, as is mentioned by feveral hiftorians. Dr. Pat. Browne, in hishillory of Jamaica, 
p. 2o8, calls this tree v/hite candlewood, or rofewood, and commends it much; he fays it is 
very refmous, burns freely, and affords a moft agreeable fmell; and that ail the parts of this 

tree are full of warm and acromatic particles. Quere, ^^^hether it is not worth while to ex- 

tracfl the balfam, as it agrees fo near in charadler and genus with that moff valuable drug the 
balfam of Mecca 

Arundo 



FOREIGN PLANTS. 



328 



Latin Names. 
Arundo Bambo 



f2(lEd.L. Sp, 
I p. 120 



Anacardus Oricn-Kaempffer 
talis 

Thea 

Gardenia Florida 

Magnifera Indica 
Morus papyrifera 



Cinchona Offici- 
nalis 



Dorftenia Con- 

trayefva 
Smilax Sarfapa- 

rilla 



Amoen. 
P- 793 



p. 734 
P- 305 

p. 290 



Ergfijb Names. 

Thel rueBamboc 
cane 

Siam vamifti tree 
called Tonrack 
by the Japoncfe 



Tea 



Umky of the Chi- 
ne fe 



Copaifera Offici- 
nalis 

Toluifera Balfa- 
mum 

Hymenea Cour- 
baril 



P- ^99 
p. 244 

p. 176 
P- 1459 

P- 557 
P-549 
P- 537 

Dale 183 



Eaft-lndia Mange 
tree 



Paper Mulberry 
tree 

Jefuits Bark tree 



Contrayerva root 
Sarfaparilla root 



Balfam Copaiva 
I tree 
jBalfam Tolu tree 



Obfervaiions. 

Of great ufe in China, and might be alfo in 
our An-erican iflands.* 

The fruit of this is the Malacabean, or mark- 
ing nut, and the Oriental AnacarJium of 
the fhops. This is the common varnifh of 
the Eaft-Indies, asdelcribcd byKoempffer. 
This tree is unknown to the botanifts. 

From Japan and China. See Kxmpffer's 

Amcenitates, p. 60. f 
Ufed in dying fcarlet in China. The pulp 
that furround the feeds, gives in warm wa- 
ter a moll excellont yellow colour, inclin- 
ing to orange. See Phil. Tranf. Vol. 52, 
p 654, where there is an cxacl: figure of it. 

This excellent fruit is much efleemed in the 
Eaft-Indies, and it is faid there i-. a tree of 
it now growing in the ifland of Madeira. 
Ey the defcription which Dr. Solander gives 
of this fruit, at Rio Janeiro in Brazil, it is 
not lb good as the Eaft-lndia fort. 

Ufed for making paper in China and Japan. 
See Ksmp. Amoenit. p. 467. This has 
been fome time in the Englilh gardens. 

This grows at Lexa, in the province of Peru ; 
and could it be obtained fo as to be culti- 
vated in our American iflands, would be of 
infinite advantage to us. 

This grows in New- Spain, Mexico, and 
Peru. 

It is brought from the Bay of Campeachy, 
and the gulph of Honduras, where it grows 
in plenty, and might eafily be propagated 
in Florida, 

In Brazil, and Martinico. 



This tree grows near Carthagena, in South- 
j America. 

The Locuft or This tree is known to yield the true Gum 

Gum Copal tret Copal, and that the difference between this 

for the fineft and Gum Anime, may be owing to foil 

tranfparent var- . and heat of climate ; it grows wild in our 

nilh American iflands, the Mufquito Shore, 

and in Terra Firma. 

Talapium Offici- Dale 183 True Jalap This plant is fuppofed by fome to be a kind 

narum o^ Bindweed or Convolvulus, that grows 

near Mexico ; by others it is thought to 
be a fpecics of Marvel of Peru. As we 
are uncertain of the genus, it is well worth 
enquiring into, as a moft ufeful drug, in 
order to propagate it in our colonies. 

Bixa 

* The French had brought this moft ufeful plant from the Eaft-Indies to their Weft-India 
Iflands: A few roots have been got from thence to Grenada, and will perhaps in time become 
familiar in our iflands. But too much pains cannot be taken in the propagation of this plant, 
as it's ufes are manifold and extenfive, both in building, and all kindsof domeftic inftruments. 

+ It is afferted by fome people, that the green tea and the bohea tea are two different fpe- 
cies but withoBt foundation ; they are one and the fame fpecies. It is the nature of the foil, 
the 'culture, and manner of gathering and drying the leaves, that makes the difference; f6r 
take a oreen tea tree and plant itin the bohea country, and it will produce bohea tea, and fo the 
contrary. This is a fa A attefted by gentlemen now in London, that have r.fided many years 
in China, and who have had great experience in this article. 



329 



FOREIGN PLANTS. 



Latin Names, 
Blxa Orellana 

Miniofa Senegal 
Miniofa Nilotica 

Ficus Sycomorus 
Ficus Carica 

Vitis Apyrena 
Fraxinis Ornus 



adEd.L.Sp. 

Lin. Sp. 730 

p. 1506 
p. 1506 

P- 1513 
P- 1513 

P- ^93 
p. ijio 



Aniygdalus Com- 
munis 
Capparis Spinofa 

PunicaGranatumf 



Lichen Roccella 



Ciftus Ladanifera p. 737 

Bubon Galbanum p. 364 

Paftinaca Opopo- p. 376 

nax 

Aaiomum Carda- p. a 

momum. 

Curcuma Longa p. 3 

AftragilusTraga- p. 1073 

cantha 

Cucumis Coly- p. 1435 

cinthis 

Gentiana lutea p. 329 



p. 677 
p. 720 
p. 676 

p. i6aa 



Similax China 
Pimpinella Anif- 

uni 
GambogiaGutta 
<^ercusCaccifera 
Myirha Offic. 

Benzionum Offic. 
Ammoniacum 

Offic. 
Balfamum Peru- 

auuni 



Gum Senegal tree 
Gum Arabic 



Zacheus 



Englijh Names. I Obfervatlons. 

Arnotto, for dying This grows in all the warm climates of Ame- 
rica. The French cultivate it, but what 
the Spaniards fend is much richer in co- 
lour, and more valuable. 
This grows in Egypt, and in Senegal. 
In Egypt, from whence the feeds may be pro- 
cured. 
True Sycamore of This is reckoned the moft durable timber we 
know. The repofitories of the Mummies 
found in Egypt are made of this timber. 
Figs grow in the greateft perfecflion in Caro- 
lina, and would become a valuable trade 
if they had the method of curing them as 
in Turkey. 
The cuttings of this vine might be procured 

from Zant. 
This is worth trying in our fouthern colonies, 
where the heats are violent in the fummer. 
It is common in our nurfery gardens. 
Thefe would grow to great perfedlion in our 

fouthern colonies. 
This (hrub requires a rocky foil to grow in, 

as it is about MarfeiJles and Toulon. 
This tree would thrive extremely well in our 
fouthern provinces, and yield a profitable 
article in their blolToms. Plants of this 
kind are to be bought from nioft of our 
nurfery men. 
Tis poffible this valuable plant may be found 
in our American iflands, as well as in the 
Canaries and Cape Verd iflands. 
Gum Labdanum In Spain and the Archipelago. 
Gum Galbanum In Ethiopia. 
Gum Opoponax In Sicily. 



P- 1459 
P-379 

p. 728 

P- 1413 
Dale. 325 



i:)ale. 303 
Dale. 119 

Dale. 337 



Turkey Figs 



Currants, or Co- 
rinthian grapes 
Calabrian Manna 
Afli* 

Sweet Almonds 

Caper tree 

Balauftians or the 
bloffoms of the 
double flower 
ing pomgranate 

Argal, Canary 
weedor Orchell 



Cardamums 

rumerick 

Gum Tragacanth 
or Gum Dragon 
Coloquintida, 
bitter apple 
Gentian 

China root 
Anife feeds 

Gamboge 
Alkermes oak 
Gum Alyrrh 



Gum Benjamin 

Gum Ammoni- 
acum 

Natural Balfam of |!n Peru. 
Peru 



In the Eafl-Indies. 

In the Eaft-Indies. 

In the fouth of France and in Sicily. 

In Africa. 

n the Alps, Apennines, and Pyrenees. Ta 

be had of the nurfery men. 
n China, and in New Spain, 
in Egypt. 

In the Eaft-Indies. 
About Marfeillesand Toulon. 
In Abyflinia. The characters of this plant 
and the five following, are not yet known 
to the botanifts. 
H Sumatra and Java, 
n Africa. 



Olibanum 



* There is no drug fo liable to adulteration as this : And therefore, as it is a medicine fo fre- 
quently in ufe among perfons of tender conftitutions, efpecially young children, great care 
fhould be taken to have it genuine. 

f The fingle flowering or fruit -bearing Pomegranate, will afford the moft grateful addition 
the fruits of our colonies, and a valuable medicine. The ripe fruit full of feeds is to be met 



■with at our fruit-fhops in the winter feafon 
eafily propagated. 



From the feeds of fuch fruit this tree may be 



FOREIGN PLANTS. 



33^ 



Obfervations. 
In the Upper Egypt and interior parts of 

Africa. 
In Amboyna. 

In the Molucca iflands. 

Sumatra. 

A moft delicious fruit, gjows in Java, and in 
feveral parts of the Eaft-lndies. 

This fruit is highly commended by all perfons 
who have been in China. |j 

Very ufeful in medicine, and worthy of our 
attention to propagate it in our Wefc-ln- 
dia illands ; At prefent it's genus is un- 
known to the botanifls. 

The gum of this plant is much ufed in me- 
dicine. Ksempf. 52)5 ^^^ SZ^- 



* Specimens of the Nutmeg-tree in fruit from the ifland of Tobago have been lately receiv- 
ed by the Earl of Hillfborough, which his Lordfhip has fent, with fpecimens of many other 
curious plants, for the information of the public, to the Britilh Mufeum. They are certainly 
of the fame genus with the true nutmeg, and polTibly may be improved by cultivation; the 
mace evidently covers them, and they have all tht charafters and the fame leaves with the wild 
nutmeg tree defcribed by Rumphius, in his Herbarium Amboinenfe, publifhedby Burman. 

[| The charaders of this fruit are not yet known to the botanifts. 

To this catalogue may be added liquorice, faffron, and aloes focotrina : Of the two firft we 
do not raife near a fufficiency at home for our own confumption, but are obliged to import 
thofe articles from Spain. 



Latin Names. 


idFd.L. Sp. 


Englljh Names, 


Olibanum Thus 


Dale. 348 


Frankincenfe 


Malculum 






Nux Mofchata 


Dale. 302 


Nutmegs with 


Oflic, 




Mace * 


Caryophylus aro- 


Lin. Sp. 735 


Cloves 


maticus 






Piper Nigrum 


p. 40 


Pepper 


Garclnia Monga- 


P- 635 


Mangofteens 


ftona 






Lechce 




Lechee of China 


Ipecacuanha 


Dale 1 70 


Ipccacuanhaof the 




Margrave 17 


fhops or Braz ilian 
root 


Ferula Afia Foe- 


Lin. Sp. S5(- 


Affa Fcetida, or 


tida 




Devil's dung, 
called Hing in 
the Malay lan- 
guage. 



The Society hanging thought proper to give a place to the 
foregoing Catalogue \ it may be necejjary to fuhjoinfome 

DiRECTfONS, (taken aljo from Mr. Ellis^s Pamphlet, 
for bringing over Seeds ami Plants from diflant Countries 

in a fiat e of Vegetation. 

ANY valuable trees and plants, yet unknown to 
us, grow in diftant countries, particularly in the 
northern provinces of China, about the latitude of 40 de- 
grees, which would thrive well in North-America, more 
efpecially in thefe middle colonies, which lie about the 
fame latitude. But as the diftance is great, the manner 
of preferving the feeds properly, fo as to keep them in a 
ftate of vegetation, is an affair of confiderable confequence 
and fome difficulty. The following hints are therefore 
offered for that purpofe. 

In 




22,^ DIRECTIONS for importing 

In the firft place it ought to be carefully attended to, that 
the feeds fhould be perfedlly ripe when they are gathered ; 
and they fhould be gathered, if poffible, in dry weather; 
afterwards they fhould be fpread thin on paper or matts, in 
a dry airy room, but not in funfhine. The time neceffary 
for this operation will vary according to the heat of the 
climate, or feafon of the year, from a fortnight to a month, 
or perhaps two may be neceffary; the hotter the feafon, 
the lefs time will fuffice. This is to carry off their fuper- 
fluous moifturc, which if confined would immediately turn 
to mouldinefs, and end in rottennefs. 

As there are two methods that have fucceeded, and put 
us in pofleffion of feveral young plants of the true tea-tree 
of China, I fhall mention them both, in order to affift the 
colledor in bringing home the feeds of many valuable plants. 

The firfl: is by covering them with bees-wax in the 
manner explained in Phil. Tranfadt vol. lviii. p. 75. 

It principally confifis in choofing only fuch feeds as are 
perfectly found and ripe. To prove this, we muft cut 
open fome of them to judge what fituation the reft may be 
in, taking care to lay afide any that are outwardly defec- 
tive, or marked with the wounds of infed:s. When a pro- 
per choice of them is made, they fhould be wiped extre- 
mely clean, to prevent any dirt or moiffure being inclofed ; 
each feed then fhould be rolled up carefully in a coat of foft 
bees-wax half an inch thick : The deep yellow Englifh 
bees-wax is the befl. When you have covered the num- 
ber you intend to inclofe, pour fome of this bees-wax 
melted into a chip-box of feven inches long, four broad, 
and three deep, till it is above half full; and juft before it 
begins to harden, while it is yet fluid, put in the feeds 
you have rolled up in rows till the box is near full; then 
pour over them fome more wax while it is jufi fluid, taking 
care when it is cold to flop all the cracks or chinks that 
may have proceeded from the fhrinking of the wax, with 
fome very loft wax; then put on the cover of the box, and 
keep it in as cool and airy a place as you can. 

The 



FOREIGN SEEDS AND PLANTS. 332 

The method of inclofing tea-feeds fingly in wax, and 
bringing them over in that ftate, has been prad:ifed for 
fome time; but few have fucceeded, owing to the thinnefs 
of the coat of wax, or putting paper firft round them, or 
inclofing them too moift. 

To this I muft add a method that promifes fuccefs for 
bringing over plants from the Weft-Indies, and the fouth- 
ern parts of North-America, particularly Weft-Florid'a, the 
voyage from hence being longer than from the Weft-In- 
dies, and more attention is required to keep the plants in 
health, than from any other parts of our North-American 
fettlements : But as there is a good deal of dift^erence in 
the climates of thefe places, it will be neceffary to obferve, 
that plants from the Weft-Indies fhould be put on board in 
the latter end of fpring, fo as to arrive here in warm 
weather, otherwife they will be deftroyed by the cold of 
this latitude ; and the ever-greens, which are the moft 
curious from Weft-Florida, muft be fent in the winter 
months, while their juices are inactive, fo as to arrive here 
before the heats come on. If the plants fent from thefe 
countries were planted in pots or boxes, and kept there a 
year, they might be brought over with very little hazard; 
or even if they were firft tranfplanted from the woods into 
a garden, till they had formed roots, they might be fent 
wuth much more fafety. 

The fize of the boxes that will be moft convenient for 
flowing them on board merchant-ftiips, where there is very 
little room to fpare, fhould be three feet long, fifteen in- 
ches broad, and from eighteen inches to two feet deep, ac- 
cording to the fize of the young trees; but the fmalleft 
will be moft likely to fucceed, provided they are well root- 
ed. There muft be a narrow ledge nailed all round the 
iniide of the box, within fix inches of the bottom, to faf- 
ten laths or packthread to form a kind of lattice-work, by 
which the plants may be the better fecured in their places. 
If the plants are packed up juft before the fhip fails, it 
will be fo much the better. 

When 



^7^;^ DIRECTIONS for importing 

When they are dug up, care mufl: be taken to preferve 
as much earth as can be about their roots; and if it fliould 
fall off, it muft be fupplied with more earth, fo as to form 
a ball about the roots of each plant, which muft be fur- 
rounded with wet mofs, and carefully tied about with 
packthread, to keep the earth about the roots moift : Per- 
haps it may be neceflary to enclofe the mols with fome pa- 
per 6r broad leaves (as the palmetto) that the packthread 
may bind the mofs the clofer. Loamy earth will continue 
moift the longeft. There muft be three inches deep of 
wet mofs put into the bottom of the box, and the young 
trees placed in rows upright clofe to each other, ftuffing 
wet mofs in the vacancies between them and on the fur- 
face; over this palmetto leaves, if to be had, ftiouldbeput 
to keep in the moifture, and over them the laths are to be 
faftened crofs and crofs to the ledges or packthreads to be 
laced to and fro, to keep the whole fteady and tight. The 
lid of the box fliould be either nailed down clofe, or may 
have hinges and a padlock to fecure it from being opened, 
as may be found neceflary, with proper directions marked 
on it to keep the lid uppermoft. There muft be two 
handles fixed, one at each end, by which means there will 
be lefs danger of difturbing the plants. Near the upper 
part of the ends of the box, there muft be feveral holes 
bored to give air: Or in making the box there may be a 
narrow vacancy left between the boards of one third of an 
inch wide, near the top, to let out the foul air; and per- 
haps it may be neceflary to nail along the upper edge of 
thefe openings lift, or flips of fail-cloth, to hang over them, 
to fecure the plants from any fpray of the fea; and at the 
fame time it will not prevent the air from pafling through. 
Boxes with plants packed in this manner, muft be placed 
where there is free air, that is, out of the way of the foul 
air of the fliip's hold. 

The following method of preferving feeds from turning 
rancid from their long confinement, and the great heat of 
the climates vs^hich they muft neceflarily pafs through from 

China, 



w . -m 



FOREIGN SEEDS AND PLANTS. 334 

China, was communicated to me fome years ago by the 
celebrated profeflbr Linnaeus, of Upfal, in Sweden. He 
advifes, that each fort of feed Ihould be put up in feparate 
papers, with fine fand among them, to abforb any moifture 
(dried, loamy or foapy earth may be tried) : Thefe papers, 
he fays, fhould be packed clofe in cylindrical glafs, or 
earthen vefTels, and the mouths covered over with a blad- 
der, or leather tied faft round the rims: he then direds 
that thefe veffels, with the feeds in them, {hould be put into 
other veffels, which ffiould be fo large, that the inner veflel 
may be covered on all fides, for the fpace of two inches, 
with the following mixture of falts. Half common culi- 
nary fait; the other half to confifi: of two parts of falt- 
petre, and one part of fal-ammoniac, both reduced to a 
powder, and all thoroughly mixed together, to be placed 
about the inner veffel, rather moift than dry. This he 
calls a refrigeratory ; and fays it will keep the feeds cool, 
and hinder putrefaction. Perhaps if fmall tight boxes, or 
cafks or bottles of feeds were inclofed in cafks full of falts, 
it might be of the fame ufe, provided the falts do not get 
at the feeds; and as fal-ammoniac may not be eafily met 
with, half common fait, and the other half falt-petre, or 
common fait alone, might anfwer the fame end. But it 
would be very neceflary to try both methods, to know 
whether the latter would anfwer the purpofe of the form- 
er, as it would be attended with much lefs trouble, and 
might prove a ufeful method to our feedfmen, in fending 
feeds from hence to thofe warm climates. 

The fmalleft feeds being very liable to lofe their vege- 
tative power by long voyages through warm climates, it 
may be worth while to try the following experiment up- 
on fuch kinds as we know for certain are found. Dip 
fome fquare pieces of cotton cloth in melted wax, and 
while it is foft and almoft cold, ftrew the furface of each 
piece over with each fort of fmall feed, then roll them up 
tight, and inclofe each roll in fome foft bees-wax, wrap- 
ping up each of them in a piece of paper, with the name 
Vol. I. U u of 



2,2S DIRECTIONS for importing 

of the feed on it; thefe may be either furrounded as before 
with falts, or packed without the falts, in a box, as is 
moft convenient, 

There are many feeds, which we receive both from the 
Weft-Indies and the fouthern parts of our North-American 
colonies, as South-Carolina, Georgia, &c. which the gar- 
deners find very difficult to raile here, unlefs the following 
method is purfued. Divide a box, according to your 
quantity and forts of feeds, into feveral fquare partitions; 
then mix the feeds with loamy earth and cut mofs, and 
put each fort into its feparate cell, filling it up to the top : 
The earth and mofs mull be rather inclining to dry than 
wet; then nail the lid down very clofe on your box, keep- 
ing it in an airy fituation. If the voyage does not exceed 
two months, they will arrive in good order in the fpring; 
and, though many of them may begin to germinate, yet, 
if they are fown diredtly, they will fucceed much better 
than thofe that are brought over in papers, as is well 
known to our moft curious gardeners. Seeds of the nut- 
meg-tree from Tobago, the cinnamon-tree, the cocoa or 
chocolate-nut, and Avocado pear, muft be brought in this 
manner. Seeds of all the forts of magnolias, ftewartias, 
chionanthus, and many others from South-Carolina, will 
fucceed better this way, than any other method we yet know. 
The feeds of many of the fmall fucculent fruits may be 
brought to England from very diftant parts, by prefling 
them together, fqueezing out their watery juices, and dry- 
ing them in fmall cakes gradually, that they may become 
hard; they may be then wrapt up in white writing paper, 
not fpongy, as this is apt to at trad: and retain moifture;- 
but 1 believe it will be found, that a covering of wax will 
be better than one of paper. 

The Alpine ftrawberry was firft fent to England in a let- 
ter from Turin to Henry Baker Efq ; F. R. S. by preffing 
the pulp with the feeds thin upon paper, and letting it dry 
before they were inclofed. The paper mulberry from 
China was brought hither about the year 1754, much in 
the fame manner. Thefe 



FOREIGN SEEDS AND PLANTS. :^^6 

Thefe hints may prompt us to try the larger fucculent 
fruits ; for inftance, the mangoes, lechees, and others of 
this kind : If their flelhy part, when they are very ripe, 
was brought to the confiftence of raifins or dried figs, it 
would keep their kernels plump, and in this ftate they 
might be better preferved in wax, than by any other 
method yet known. 



An Attempt to account for the CHANGE of CLIMATE, 
ijuhich has been obfer'ved in the Middle Colonies in North- 
America, 5/ Hugh Williamson, M. Z). Readbe^ 
fore the Society, -Augufl 1 7//?, 1 770. 

IT is generally remarked by people who have refided 
long in Pennfylvania and the neighbouring colonies, 
that within the laft forty or fifty years there has been a very 
obfervable change of climate, that our winters are not fo 
intenfely cold, nor our funamers fo difagreeably warm as 
they have been. 

That we maybe enabled to account for thefe phoenomena 
it will be neceflary to take a tranfient view of the general 
caufe of winds, and the remarkable difference of heat and 
cold, that is obferved in different countries under the fame 
parallels. 

Though the Sun is doubtlefs the general fource of heat, 
yet we obferve that countries are not heated in proportion 
to their diftance from the Sun, nor even in proportion to 
their diftance from the equator. The inhabitants of the 
polar circles are hardly a perceivable diftance, not a twenty- 
thoufandth part farther from the Sun, than thofe between 
the tropics, yet the former are chilled with perpetual cold, 
while the others are fcorched with conftant heat. 

When the rays of the Sun ftrike the Earth in a perpen- 
dicular direaion, they will be refleded in the fame direc- 
tion on the particles of air through which they have pafled, 
and thus increafe their heat; a greater number of dire^ 
ravs will alfo ftrike the earth in any given fyace, than 

'' when 



337 On the CHANGE of CLIMATE 

when they fall obliquely ; therefore, the nearer the direc- 
tion of the Sun's rays is to a perpendicular with the fur- 
face of the earth, the greater, cetera paribus^ will the heat 
be. Hence, countries fhould be colder the nearer they 
are to the poles. But, 

We obferve that the air may be heated to a very differ- 
ent degree in different countries, which are in the fame 
latitude, according as they abound in rough mountains, 
fertile plains, or fandy deferts; as they are furroundedby 
land or by fea, or according to the different wind, which 
prevail in thofe countries. The temperature of Pennfyl- 
vania is very different from that of Portugal; and the tem- 
perature of England is different from that of Saxony, on 
the neighbouring continent, though they be under the fame 
parallels. In order then that we may be enabled to form 
an eftimatc of the heat of any country, we muft not only 
confider the latitude of the place, but alfo the face and 
fituation of the country, and the winds which generally 
prevail there, if any of thefe fhould alter, the climate mull 
alfo be changed. The face of a country may be altered 
by cultivation, and a tranfient view of the general caufe 
of winds will convince us, that their courfe may alfo be 
changed. 

It is generally believed that mofl winds are occafioned 
by the heat of the Sun. Were the Sun to fland flill over 
^ny particular part of the furface of the earth, the wind 
would conflantly blow to that place from all dire(flions. For 
the air in that part being rarified by the heat of the fun, 
would be expanded and thus become lighter, whence it 
would afcend, and the heavier air in the neighbouring 
parts would rufh in, to occupy it's place; this too being 
heated both by the fun's rays, and by the warm furface of 
the earth, would inftantly afcend to give place to that which 
was colder. But as the fun moves, or feems to move, be- 
tween the tropics, from Eaft to Weft, there fhould be a 
conftant current of air fetting towards the fun from the 
North, South, and Eaftward, while the current, which 

would 



IN N O R T H - A M E R I C A. 338 

would alfo come from the Weft, is preventQd or turned 
back by the fun, who moves with great rapidity on the op- 
pofite diredion. The current coming from the North 
and South falls in with that from the Eaftward, and is 
prefentlybent in the fame dirciStion. This conftitutes what 
feamen call a trade lAJind; fuch is found in the Atlantic 
and in the Great South Sea. 

Were the furface of the earth homogeneous, were it all 
covered with water, or all fmooth dry Is-nd, the eafterly 
winds would always prevail quite round the globe to forae 
diftance beyond the tropics. But the waters along the 
equator are divided by two or three confiderable portions 
of land, which retain the heat in a different manner from 
the water, and reflet: the fun's rays in very different pro- 
portions, fo that they not only flop the eafterly current of 
air, but often change it to the oppofite direction. For a- 
long the wefterly coafl of Africa, and South-America, the 
winds commonly blow from the weft. That is to fay, they 
blow from a cold furface to that which is warmer, they 
blow from the fea in upon the land. For, 

In warm countries, or in the warm feafon of any coun— 
try, the furface of the land is warmer than the furface of 
the water. 

In cold feafons of temperate countries, the furface of 
the land is colder than the furface of the water: 

The furface of the earth being immovably expofed to the 
fun, receives and retains the heat, and grows warmer by 
every adventitious ray; fo that a hard fmooth furface will 
fometimes become intolerable to the touch, but the heat 
does not fmk deep, except in a confiderable progrefs of 
time. 

The furface of the fea is not foon heated, for the par- 
ticles which are uppermoft this hour, will prefently be 
overwhelmed by thofe which are colder, and they by others 
in fucceflion ; whence it happens, that though the furface 
of the fea will not become fo warm by a fummer's heat as 
the furface of the earth in the fame climate, yet the heat 
will penetrate deeper, and be longer retained* Let 



339 On the CHANGE of CLIMATE . 

Let us transfer thefe trite and general reafonings to the 
fituation of our middle colonies, with refpect to land and 
water. Our coaft runs nearly from North-Eaft to the 
South-Weft, fo that if the land fhould at any time be 
colder than the fea, and a current of cold air fhould fet 
towards the fea, it muft pafs from the North-Weft to the 
South-Eaft: But fuch winds we find generally take place 
during our winter feafon. For the Atlantic to the South- 
Eaftward, is greatly heated during the fummer feafon, 
and will not foon lofe that heat when the ftin goes to the 
Southward in the winter ; add to this, a very notable cir- 
cumftance, which is, that our coaft is conftantly waflied 
by a current of warm water, which being driven to the 
Weft by the eafterly trade winds near the equator, is 
checked in the gulph of Mexico, and obliged to efcape to 
the North-Eaftward, to give place to the fucceeding cur- 
rent. But the furface of thefe colonies foon grows cold 
in the abfence of the Sun. Hence violent torrents of 
winds pafs towards the Atlantic during the winter feafon ; 
the colder the air is over the continent, the more violent 
will thofe North-Wefters be. 

Can we difcover any change of circumftances, which might 
reduce the violence of thofe North-Wefters, or remove 
them entirely? It is very obvious that hard fmooth fur- 
faces reflect heat better than thofe which are rough and un- 
equal ; the furface of a looking glafs, or any poliflied me- 
tal, will reflect more light and heat, than the rough fur- 
face of a board. In the fame manner we obferve, that rocks 
and fmooth beds of fand refled more heat, than a foft 
broken furface of clay. A clear fmooth field alfo refleds 
more heat, than the fame fpace would have done, when it 
was covered with bufties and trees. 

If the furface of this continent were fo clear and fmooth, 
that it would refled: fo much heat as might warm the in- 
cumbent atmofphere, equal to the degree of heat produced 
by the neighbouring Atlantic, an equilibrium would be 
reftored, and we ftiould have no ftated north-weft winds : 

But 



« IN N O R T H - A M E R I C A. 340 

But we have already made confiderable approaches to this 
very period, feveral members of the Society muft have ob- 
ferved, that our North-Weft winds, during the winter fea- 
fon are lefs frequent, lefs violent and of ihorter continu- 
ance, than formerly they were. Seamen, who are deeply 
interefted in this fubje(fl inform us, that in the winter fea- 
fon they have been beating off our coaft three, four, or live 
weeks, not able to put in, by reafon of the North-Weft- 
ers; they are now feldom kept off twice that number of 
days. It is alfo agreed, that the hardnefs of our frofts, 
the quantity and continuance of our fnows, are very une- 
qual now, to what they have been, fince the fettlement of 
this province. 

It has been objedled, that the fmall alteration which the 
furface of a country undergoes in being cleared and culti- 
vated, is not equal to producing fuch confiderable changes 
of climate, as has been obferved to take place in many parts 
of the world. I fhall not fay, that a change of climate 
may not arife from other caufes than the one I have de- 
fcribed. It is very certain that the fimple folution of wa- 
ter in air will produc* eold, which may be increafed by a 
folution of nitrous fait. There are fundry other caufes, 
from which the heat of the air may be increafed or dimi- 
nifhed, yet I cannot recollect a fingle inftance of any re- 
markable change of climate, which may not be fairly de- 
duced from the fole cultivation of the country. The change 
which has happened in Italy, and fome countries to the 
eaftward, within the laft feventeen centuries, is thought 
to be a ftrong objection to this general rule. It is faid, 
" that Italy was better cultivated inthe Auguftine agethan^ 
" it is now ; but the climate is much more temperate now 
" than it was at that time. This feems to contradict the 
" opinion, that the cultivation of a country ivill render the 
*' air more temper at e^^ 

I fhall confider this obfervation the more attentively, 
becaufe I find it has been made by an ingenious writer, of 
great elaffical erudition,* 

* See Philofophical Tranfadionp, vol. 58. ^^ 



341 On the CHANGE of CLIMATE 

It is not to be diffembled that their winters in Italy were 
extremely cold about feventeen hundred years ago. Vir- 
gil has carefully defcribed the manner in which cattle are 
to be Iheltered in the winter, left they fhould be deftroyed 
by the froft and fnow ; he alfo fpeaks of wine being fro- 
zen in the calks, and feveral other proofs of fuch extreme 
cold, as would furprize us in this province. Though it 
is alfo clear, that the Italians are now as great ftrangers to 
cold and froft, as thofe of Georgia or South-Carolina. 
To account for this remarkable change, we muft go be- 
yond the narrow limits of Italy; we muft traverfe the 
f^ice of Hungary, Poland and Germany, thofe vaft regions 
to the northward of Rome. The Germans have certainly 
made immenfe progrefs in population and agriculture, 
fmce Julius Gsefar with a few legions overran that coun- 
try; for notwithftanding the elegance with which Csefar 
defcribes his vidories, he certainly had to contend with a 
fett of barbarians and favages, whofe country was rude 
and uncultivated as their minds. The general face of thofe 
kingdoms was covered with wild extenfive forrefts, a few 
of w^hich remain to this day. The fmall fcattered tribes 
who occupied them, had done very little towards the per- 
fedion of agriculture. From thefe uncultivated deferts 
piercing North-Winds ufed to defcend in torrents on the 
(hivering Italian, though his own little commonwealth 
vsrere finely cultivated. No perfon need be informed how 
numerous the nations are, who now inhabit Hungary, 
Poland and Germany, or how generally thofe regions 
are now cultivated, even to the very edge of the Baltic and 
German Ocean, fo that if the cold is greatly moderated in 
Germany, and the adjacent Northern ftates, which I be- 
lieve is generally allowed, we may eafily perceive how it 
fhould be moderated to a much greater degree in Italy, 
which being in a low latitude was only annoyed by the 
cold winds from the Northern kingdoms. For the air was 
at that time fo cold over thofe uncultivated regions, that it 
could effedually deftroy the balance in the warmer atmof- 
phere of Italy, which at prefent is not the cafe. As 



IN NORTH-AMERICA. 342 

^ As we might have conjedured from eftabliflied prin- 
ciples of philofophy, that clearing and fmoothing the 
face of a country, would promote the heat of the atmof- 
phere, and in many cafes would prevent or mitigate thofe 
winter blafts, which are the general origin of cold, whence 
the winters muft become more temperate, and as fads ap- 
pear to fupport and confirm our reafoning on this fubjea, 
we may rationally conclude, that in a feries of years, when 
the virtuous induftry of pofterity fhall have cultivated the 
interior part of this country, we fhall feldom be vifited by 
frofts or fnows, but may enjoy fuch a temperature in the 
midft of winter, as fliall hardly deftroy the moft tender 
plants. 

Perhaps it may be apprehended, that as clearing the 
country, will mitigate the cold of our winters, it will alfo 
increafe the heat of our fummers; but I apprehend, that 
on a careful attention to this fubjed we fhall find, that the 
fame caufe will in thofe feafons appear to produce different 
effeds, and that inftead of more heat, we fhall prefently 
have lefs in fummer than ufual. 

It is well known, that during the greatefl fummer heats 
of this or any other country, the extraordinary heat of 
the atmofphere does not rife to any confiderable height. 
In the upper regions it is perpetually cold, both becaufe 
the air in thofe parts is too far from the earth, to be 
warmed by the heat of its furface, and becaufe the air in 
thofe regions not being prefled by fuch a weight of incum- 
bent atmofphere is too rare to be iufceptible of a great de- 
gree of heat; for the heat of the air, as of every other 
body, that is warmed by the Sun, depends not only upon 
the fimple adion of the particles of light upon thofe of 
the air, but alfo upon the mutual adion of the particles of 
air upon one another, which, by their elafticity, propagate 
or continue that motion, called heat, which was originally 
excited by the Sun's rays. Therefore, the rarer the at- 
mofphere is, the lefs heat will be produced therein by the 
Sun, 6^ vice verfa. Hence we obferve, that in the warmeft 
VOL. I. X X countries 



34-3 On the CHANGE of CLIMATE 

countries the tops of mountains are always covered with 
fnow. Whoever will carry a thermometer on a very warm 
day to the top of an high fteeple, will find that the mer- 
cury immediately falls feveral degrees, and rifes again as 
he defcends. From this it is obvious that nothing is w^ant- 
ing in the midft of fummer to render the country agreea- 
bly cool, but a proper mixture of the cold air which is 
above, wath the warm air below. This would be efFed:ed 
by any caufe that might increafe our fummer winds. For 
though the fimple motion of the air does not by any means 
produce cold, yet, moderate blafts will naturally introduce 
a colder atmoiphere, efpecially w^hen they pafs over hills 
or any unequal furface, by which the equilibrium of the 
atmofphere is deftroyed, the cold air always tending to- 
wards the lurface. Hence a fummer's guft is generally 
attended by a fudden change in the temperature of the air. 
Tall timber greatly impedes the circulation of the air, for 
it retards the motion of that part which is near the furface, 
and whicli, from its denfity and fituation being m oft heat- 
ed, becomes the general origin of fuch agitations as take 
place in the upper regions. We Ihall often find it ex- 
tremely fultry and warm in a fmall field, furrounded by- 
tall woods, when no llich inconveniency is perceived on 
an extenfive clear plain in the neighbourhood. From thefe 
particulars we' may conclude, that when this country fhall 
be diverfified, as it muft be in a feries of years, by vaft 
trads of clear land, interfedled here and there by great 
ridges of uncultivated mountains, a much greater degree 
of heat being reflected by the plains than from the neigh- 
bouring mountains, and an eafy circulation of air produced 
on the plains; our land Vv^nds in fummer, to fay nothing 
of thofe which come from the fea, or from the lakes, muft 
certainly be much freflier and more frequent than they 
now are, and confequently our fummer heats be more 
temperate. 

A confiderable change in the temperature of our feafons 
may doubtlefs effed a change in the produce of our lands. 

Temperate 



IN NORTH- AMERICA. 344 

Temperate feafons muft be friendly to meadows and paf- 
turage, provided we continue to get regular fupplles of 
rain; but of this, there is fome reafon to doubt, unlefs 
our mountains, with which this country happily abounds, 
fhould befriend us greatly. The decreafe of our frofts 
and fnows in winter, muft for many years prove injurious 
to our wheat and winter's grain. The viciffitudes of freez- 
ing and thawing have already become fo frequent, that it 
is high time for the farmer to provide fome remedy, 
whereby he may prevent his wheat from being thrown 
out in the winter feafon. 

A confiderable change in the temperature of our feafons, 
may one day oblige the tobacco planter to migrate towards 
the Carolinas and Florida, which v>^ill be the natural re- 
treat of that plant, when the feafons admoniili the Virgi- 
nian to cultivate w^heat and Indian corn. The tender vine, 
which would now be deftroyed by our winter's froft, in a 
few years Ihall fupply the North-American with every 
fpecies of wine. Pofterity will doubtlefs tranfplant the 
feveral odoriferous, aromatic, and medicinal plants of the 
eaftern countries, which muft flourifh in one or another 
p^rt of North-America, where they will find a climate 
and foil favourable to their growth, as that of their native 
country. 

Every friend to humanity muft rejoice more in the 
pleafmg profpe£t of the advantages we may gain in point 
of health, from the cultivation or this country, than from 
all the additional luxuries we may enjoy, though both the 
Indies were brought to our doors. The falutary effects 
which have reftilted from cleanfi ng and paving the ftreets 
of Philadelphia, are obvious to every inhabitant. For 
caufes fomewhat fimilar to thefe, the general improvement 
of the colonies have already produced very defirable ef- 
fects. While the face of this country was clad with woods, 
and every valley aff^orded a fwamp or ftagnant marfti, by 
a copious perfpiration through the leaves of trees or plants, 
and a general exhalation from the furface of ponds and 

marflies, 



345 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

marfhes, the air was conftantly charged with a grofs pu- 
trefcent fluid. Hence a feries of irregular, nervous, bili- 
ous, remitting and intermitting fevers, which for many 
years have maintained a fatal reign through many parts of 
this country, but are now evidently on the decline. Pleu- 
ritic and other inflammatory fevers, with the feveral dif- 
eafes, of cold feafons, are alfo obferved to remit their vio- 
lence, as our winters grow more temperate. 

Since the cultivation of the colonies, and the confequent 
change of climate, has fuch effects on the difeafes of the 
human body, and muft continue to produce fuch remarka- 
ble changes in their appearance, it is certainly the duty of 
every phyfician, to be careful to trace the hiftory of every 
difeafe, obferve the feveral changes they undergo, and 
mark, with a jealous attention, the rife of every new dif- 
eafe, which may appear on the decline of others, that fo 
he may be enabled to bring effedual and feafonable relief 
to fuch perfons, as may be committed to his care. 



Sect. IIL 

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

J?t account of the Eruption of VESUVIU Sy in 1767, 

comrnunicated in a letter from an Englifh gentleman re- 

ftding at Naples, to John Morgan, M. D. F. R. S. 

ajid Profeffor of Medicine in ths College of Philadelphia, 

Naples, No'uemher 3, 1767. 

S I R, 

WE have hada moft extraordinary eruption of Vefu- 
vius lately. As I imagine an account of the dif- 
turbance it has given us will not be difagreeable to you, I 
{hall therefore do myfelf the pleafure of communicating to 
you what I know, and have feen myfelf, of this furpriiing 
pha£nomenon> 

The 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 346 

The beginning of It is exactly defcribed in Pliny the 
younger's letter to Tacitus*. The firft alarm was taken 
from a column of black fmoke, thrown out with fuch vio- 
lence as to appear like an immenfe pine, branching out on 
all fides after a great height of trunk, when the diminution 
of the force that threw it out, allowed the air to operate 
by fpreading it. The whole mountain was foon wrapped 
round with utter darknefs; and it's place was only to be 
diftinguifhed by the many ftreams of fire that were darted 
in different directions, and made this darknefs vifiblef. 

It appeared to me very unaccountable at firft, but I af- 
terwards found, by the afliftance of my glaffes, that thefe 
different directions were produced by the particular motion 
impreffed upon the fire, as it iflfued from the feveral mouths 
which gave vent to Vefiivius. It was very extraordinary 
to obferve fome of thefe ftreams delcending perpendicularly, 
whilft others mounted upwards in a ftraight line. The 
former appearance was owing to innumerable ignited ftones 
in their fall, after having been thrown from fome fuperior 
aperture, that acquired fuch velocity from their weight, 
and fuch a blending of light from their proximity, as to 
feem one impetuous torrent of fire; though on the ufiaal 
appearance of thefe falling ftones, they are fcattered, and 
are plainly to be diftinguifhed as feparate bodies. 

All this, as a mere object of fight, would rather have 
been amufing ; but a frequency of the moft terrible explofions 
made it very alarming, efpecially to me, in a houfe that 
fhakes with the leaft motion. The noife of the largeft 

cannon 

* As it may give the curious reader pleafure to compare the above defcription with the more 
ftriking paffages of Pliny tiie younger's letter, on the fame fubjedt, we have here fubjoined 
them. 

" Nubes, incertum procul intuentibus ex quo montc, Vefuviam fuiffe poflea cognitumeft, 
oriebatur : cujus fimilitudinem & formam non alia magis arbor, quam Pinus expreflerit. Nam 
longiffimo velut trunco efflata in ahum, quibufdam ramis diffundcbatur. Credo quia recenti fpi- 
ritu eveda, dein fenefcente eo deftituta, aut etiam pondere fuo vicfla, in latituduiem vanefce- 
bat Candida interdum, interdum fordida & maculofa, prout terrem cineremve fuftulerat 

Fhnii Epijfol. xvi. lib. vi. 

■f- " Interim e Fe/wvio monte pluribus locis latiflime flammse atque incendia relucebant, quo- 
rum fulc^or 3c claritas tenebras nodlis excipiebat, 

" Jam dies alibi, illic nox omnibus noxihus nigrior denfiorqne, qiram tamen faces multae 
variaque lumina folvcbant." Ibidem. 

" Ab altero latere nubes atra & horrenda ignei fpiritus tortis vibratifque difcurfibus rupta^ 
in longas flammaruni figuras dehifcebat, fulgoribus ills & fkniles, & majores erant. 

Flinii Efijiol. XX. lib. vL 



347 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

cannon fired from the callle, not three hundred yards from 
me, is a mere whifper to thefe explofions. My little houfe- 
hold had retreated to the rooms backward, built againft 
the hill, and I made moftof my obfervations in the door- 
way of my neweft and thickeft wall. One or two, how- 
ever, the moft fevere of thefe fhocks, that raifed my man, 
who 'till then had kept by me, from the ground, caufed 
me to hefitate, and think of making a prudent retreat ; * 
but it occurred to me on a little refle<3:ion, that the ftreets 
might have been equally dangerous from mixing with a tu- 
multuous concourfe of people, thronging after the pictures 
of Madona, and of the faints carried in proceffion, with 
which the whole city was crowded all night: I thought it 
moft prudent, therefore, to keep out of the way. The 
fhocks afterwards abated, or I was more ufed to them, and 
a mofi: comfortable "f lava made its fally, from a feeming 
opening in the whole fide of the mountain at once, and 
rufhed forward with an impetuofity that in two hours, 
brought it within two miles of PorticiJ, which quieted me 
for that night. The King was then at his palace there, 
which Vefuvius feemed to be reclaiming from his Majefty's 
encroachments. The place was by no means held tenable 
againft him; and the King, the courtiers, and numbers 
of families, then in thefe environs at their Villegiatura§, 
were put to the route at midnight: Some of the court 
thought themfelves not fecure even when they reached 
Naples, and, I am told, continued their flight to Cafertali. 

The 

* " In commune confiiltant, intra tecftan-e fubfiftant, an in aperto vag^^ntur; nam crebris 
vaftique tremoribus teda nutabant, & quali emota fedibus fuis, nunc hue, nunc illuc abire aut 
referri videbantur." P/inii Epifol. xx. lib. vi. 

f The melted fiery matter thrown out by Fefinmn, which grows hard as it cools, and ap- 
pears to be a femi-vitrified fubftance. It is here called comfortable, becaufe the mountain ge- 
nerally becomes more quiet upon its being caft out. 

\ Portici; a fmall town on the bay of Naples, at about fix miles diftance from that city, built 
on the ruins of or rather diredlly over, the ancient Herculaneum. His Sicilian Majcfty has a 
palace here, furniflied with many curiofities, found in Herculaneum, and frequently keeps his 
court at Portici. 

§ This is an Italian word, which fignifies the being in the country, or the time of being in 
the country to take one's pleafure. 

11 A town twelve miles from Naples, on tl;e contrary fide from Vefuvius, where the king 
lometimes holds his court. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 348 

The next day all was quieted by a profufe lava that has 
filled up the hollow way between the Hermit's * and Ve- 
fijvius, of at leaft an hundred feet in breadth. 

The fecond night, however, was as turbulent at the 
mountain, but not fo alarming at Naples as the firll:, be^ 
caufe the mountain burft fooner, and on the other fide of 
it, from whence a lava equally copious was delivered, and 
after fewer throes. 

The third day the agitation of the earth and air was 
very inconfiderable; but an immenfe quantity of cinders 
and aflies filled the whole atmofphere "I", fo as to take our 
bright Sun, from us, and to leave us no more of him than 
we have in London, when thoufands of lefs alarming vol- 
canoes from good kitckens, render the air, in winter, of- 
ten impervious to any but his ftrongeft rays; and he ap- 
peared all day of the fanguineous colour in which Pliny 
defcribes himlf. 

The fourth day we had for three hours or more, one 
continual thunder, without the terrible explofions however 
of the firft and fecond nights; and I took great comfort to 
myfelf on feeing the conftant courfe of cinders and afhes 
thrown up. For, I looked upon it as the effe^:, if I may ufe 
the figure, of a bellows blown by all the winds, that would 
foon deftroy or feparate the combuftible enemy: Accord- 
ingly thefe afhes were the only inconvenience that remained. 

But on Sunday, the feventh day, the quantity of afhes 
that filled the air was fo great, that having rode out to 
take a nearer view of the volcano, I was obliged to gallop 
home with my eyes fliut, as I could no longer open them 
from the pain thefe aihes put me to §. 

All 

* In the folitary place, about halfway up Mount Vefuvius, is an hermitage, where thofc 
vhofe curiofity leads them to examine this wonderful phenomenon generally call, and are pro- 
vided with refrefhment by the hermit. 

f =' Jam navibas cinif inciderat : quo proprius accederet calidior & denfior : Jam pumices 
etiam, nigrique & ambufli & fracti igne lapides : Jam vadum fubitum, ruinaque montis littora 
obitaiitia.'. 

^ " Tandem ilia csligo tenuata quafi in fumum, nebulamve deceffit : mox dies verus, fol 
etiam efulht, luridub tamen, qualiseffe, cum deficit, folet. Occurfabant trepidantibus adhuc 
oculis mutata omnia altoque cinere, tanquam nive, obdudla." F/inii Epifol. xx. lib. vi. 

§ " Paullum reluxit, quod non dies nobis, fed ventantis ignis indicium videbatur, & ignis 
quidem longius fublHtit : tenebrx rufus, cinis rufus multus & gravis : hunc & identidem affur- 
gentes excutiebamus, oberti alioqui, atque etiam oblifi pondere efleti^us." FlinU E^'iJhL xj HI. vi. 



349 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

All is now quiet and the lava on this fide is flopped, 
after laying wafte the largeft tradt of cultivated ground 
that it has deftroyed at once within this century. The 
greateft eruptions of it have been in the year 1707, in the 
year 17375 and this of 1767. I leave your deep natural- 
ifts to account for this periodical crifis; and it may not 
be the firft mere accidental obfervation that has given birth 
to a profound fyftem*. 

A defcription 

* Some of the mofl remarkable eruptions of Vefuviiis have happened as follow :• 
Anno Dom. 76, Mount Vefuvius call forth fuch quantities of Tmoke and flame as to obfcurc 
the day, and deflroyed the cities of Pompeium and Herculaneum. 

In the year 80, on the 23d of Auguft, the elder Pliny, in order to be better acquainted with 
the caufe of the extraordinary eruption of Vefuvius, ventured fo near, that this great naturalill 
periihed in his enquiry. 

Anno^-]!, Vefuvius ejeded flames, in fuch abundance, that they werefecn even at Confl:an- 
tinople; they obfcured the Sun at noon-day, and the fire ravaged and burnt all Campania. 

Antto 1007, Vefuvius vomited out fo great a quantity of flame*, that all the neighbouring 
country fuffered greatly by them. 

In the year 1630, Vefuvius threw out flames, in fuch abundance, that upwards of 400oper- 
fons loft their lives, and a large traft of land was deftroyed. 

In the year 1717, Dr. Berkley, afterwards Bifliop of Cloyne in Ireland, vifited Vefuvius, at 
leaft with as much boldnefs and curiofity as Pliny the elder. The account given by the Bifliop, 
of that mountain, was communicated to the Royal Society by Dr. Arbuthnot, and ispubliflied 
m the Philofophical Tranfadtions. It is thus defcribed by the Bifliop. " The other mouth 
*' was lower in the fide of the fame new formed hill; I could difcern it to be filled with red hot 
"liquid matter, like that in the furnace of a glafs-houfe, which raged and wrought as the 
" waves of the fea, caufing a ftiort abrupt noife, like what may be imagined to proceed from 
" a fea of quickfilver dafhing among uneven rocks. This ftuflPwouldfometimes fpew over, and 
«' run down the convex fide of the conical hill, and appeared at firft red hot; it changed colour 
" and hardened as it cooled, fhewing the firft rudiments of an eruption, or, if I may fo fay, 
" an eruption in miniature." 

The conflao-ration in J731 was fodeftrudive, that it occafioned the following curious in- 
fcription, which is placed about three miles diftant from Naples, in the road to Vefuvius. 
Pofteri, pofteri, veftra res agitur. 
Dies facem prafert diei ; nudius perendino, 

Advortite. 
Vicies ab fatu folis, nifabulator hiftoria, arfit Vefuvius, 
Immani femper clade haifitantium : 
Ne pofthac incertos occupet, moneo. 
Uterum gerit monshic bitumine, alumine, ferro, 
Auro, argento, nitro, aquarum fontibus, gravem. 
Serius, ocius igneicit, pelagoque influente pariet ; 
1 Sed anteparturit, concutitur, concutit folum, 

Fumigat, corrufcat, flammigerat, quatit 
Aerem, horrendum immugit, boat, tonat, 
Arcet finibus accolas. 
Emigra dum licet. 
Jam iaminititur, erumpit, mixtum igne 
Lacum evomit, prscipiti ruit ille lapfu. 
Seramque fugam praevertit. 
Si corripit, acSum eft, periifti. 
Anno Salutis 1631, 

Tu, fi fapis, audi clamantem lapidem. 
Spernelarem, fperne farcinulas; 
Mora nulla, fuje. 

In 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 350 

A defcription of a SELF-MOVING or SENTINEL RE- 
GISTER, itivented by William Henry of LancaJIer, 

nn TIE machine confifls of the following parts : 
•*- I, ^, A door or common regifter, applied in the flue 
of a furnace. The door is fitted in a frame, and made to 
Aide eafily up and down. Plate VI. Fig. i. 

2. By a balance or beam, moving on a center; the two 
arms are of unequal lengths, the longer exceeding the 
fhorter in the proportion of two to one; the extremity of 
each arm is formed into a fegment of a circle, whofe radius 
is equal in length to each refpedive arm. Thefe fegments 
muft be equal to the greateft rife or fall of each end of the 
balance when in ufe. 

The length of the whole beam or balance muft be re- 
gulated by the fituation of the regifter A^ and the copper 
C, hereafter mentioned. 

3. C, A copper veflel, about 13 inches diameter, and 
10 inches deep, with a double bottom and fides, which 
are placed about an inch and a half apart from each other. 

Vol. I. Y y leaving 

In ENGLISH thus: 

Pofterity, pofterity, this is your concern^ 
One day enlightens the next, that next 
improves the third. 
Be attentive. 
Twenty times, fince the creation of the Sun, 
has Vefuvius blazed, never without a horrid 
deftrudion of thofe, that hefitated to fly. 
This is a warning, that it may never 
feize you unapprized. 
The womb of this mountain is pregnant with 
bitumen, alum, iron, gold, filver, nitre 
and fountains of water. 
' Sooner or later it kindles, and, when the fea 

rufhesin, will give its birth vent. 
But, before its labours come on, itisfliaken, 
and Ihakes the earth round it ; fmokes, gleams, 
throws up bickering flames, fliakes the air, 
roars horridly, bellows, thunders, drives tJic 
inhabitants from its quarters. 
Retire whilft you may; 
Now, now, its throes come on, itburfls»ut, 

it 'flings up lakes mixt with fire; 
Down, down it ruftiesand precipitate 
Prevents your tardy flight, and ftamps your fate : 
If it once furprizesyou, all is over. 
If you are wife, hear this fpeaking ftone. 
Negkdl your domeftic concerns, negled your 
goods and chattels, there is no delaying; 
Fly. 



551 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

leaving a fpace between to contain air. The top or cover 
is brazed on, and the whole made air-tight. Through 
the top is inferred a brafs cock, and alfo a brafs or copper 
cylinder, open at both ends, about two inches and a quar- 
ter in diameter, and two feet long, fo fixed as to rife four- 
teen inches above the top, and to reach near to the bottom 
of the veflel. 

Through the fide of the innermoft veflel, near the top, 
are fome holes made, whereby the air in the cavity be- 
tween the two bottoms and fides may communicate with 
the air in the infide of the veflel. 

4. Z), A phial two inches diameter, and feven inches 
deep, corked and fealed, with a hook fixed in the cork, 
by which the phial is fufpended. 

Thefe are the principal parts of the machine, which are 
to be applied as follows. 

From the furface let there be an horizontal flue, of a 
convenient length. In the walls of the flue, the frame, 
in which the regifter Aides, is fixed perpendicularly, fo 
that when the regifter is down, the flue is clofed, when 
the regifter is drawn up, the flue is opened, and the higher 
it is raifed, the more is the palTage of the fire enlarged. 

To the fhorter end of the balance, which is fupported 
on a proper fulcrum, at a convenient heighth, the regifter 
is fufpended by a chain and a rod; the chain is juft long 
enough to wind over the fegment of the circle, at the end 
of the beam. The regifter is made fo heavy, as to de- 
fcend by its own weight. 

At the diftance of two, three, or more feet from the- 
regifter, and on the flue of the furface, the copper veflel 
C is fixed, fo as to receive a heat from the fire pafling 
through the flue. The end of the longeft arm of the 
balance extends directly over the cylinder fixed in the cop- 
per, and to it the phial D is fufpended, fo as to hang 
within the tube, and by fuch a length of chain and rod as 
will allow it to be about two or three inches immerfed in 
the tube, v;hen the balance is in cquilibrio. On the fame 

end 



- MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 352 

end of the beam on which the phial is fufpended, a weight 
is hung fufficient, with the weight of the phial, to over- 
balance the regifter, and raife it, and confequently open 
the flue. When the flue is opened to a due degree, the 
regifter is held in that fituation, until fo much water is 
poured into the copper through the cock, as will fill one 
third of the veflel; then fhut the cock, and pour water 
into the cylinder, until it rifes high enough to float the 
phial. By pouring water into the cylinder, the air in the 
veflel is comprefled, and finding no way to efcape, as the 
vefl^el is air tight, it refifls the water, and prevents its oc- 
cupying the whole fpace;" and therefore the upper part of 
the veflel is apparently empty. The phial is loaded w4th 
ftiot, {o that it will fwim about one third above the water. 
When the water rifes in the tube, the phial rifes with it, 
in which cafe the regifter A is fo ballanced, that it de- 
fcends, and clofes the flue. 

After this defcription, the principles on which the Sen- 
tinel Regifter acts, muft be obvious to every perfon ac- 
quainted with the elafticity of the air, and that this elaf- 
ticity is encreafed by heat. For when the fire in the fur- 
nace is encreafed, the degree of heat in the flue is alfo en- 
creafed; this encreafes the elafticity of the air contained 
between the double bottom and fides of the copper, and 
confequently of that, v/hich occupies the fpace above the 
water, as there is a communication by means of the holes 
already defcribed. The elafticity of the air being encreaf- 
ed it expands, and by its expanfion forces the water up 
the tube; the water being raifed, carries the phial with it, 
whereupon the regifter preponderating defcends, clofes the 
flue, and by leflening the draught of the chimney or flue, 
deadens or checks the fire in the furnace. By this means 
again the heat in the flue is diminiflied, the air in the ca- 
vity becomes cooler, and confequently lefs elaftic, where- 
upon the water defcends in the tube, and with it the phial 
to its ftationary point. By the defcent of the phial the 
regifter is raifed, and opens the flue; by which means it 

ftands 



2S3 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

ftands as a fentinel over the fire, and preferves an equal 
degree of heat. 

That this will be the effect of the machine, I can atteft, 
having ufed it for more than a year. 

It is fubmitted to the curious, whether this machine 
might not be ufefully applied, i ft, to regulate the heat of 
chymical and alchymical furnaces, where long digeftions, 
and a uniform degree of heat are required; 2dly, in the 
making of fteel, and in burning of porcelain ware, in 
v/hich a due regulation of the fire is of great importance; 
3dly, in green or hot houfes, and in apartments for hatch- 
ing chickens, according to the Egyptian method. With 
a little alteration it might be applied to the purpole of 
opening doors, window-s, and other pafTages, for a draught 
of air, and thereby preferve a due temperature of the air 
in hofpitals, &c. 



4n Account of aMACHl'N Efor pumping Vejfels at 
Sea^ iintbout the Labour of Men. -5y Ric h a rd Wells. 

IN the courfe of the immenfe trade now purfued on 
the ocean, vefiels are continually fubje£t to leaks, 
which too often prove fatal to the crews, who, wearied 
out with inceffant pumping, are obliged, at laft, to fubmit 
to their unhappy fate, and defponding fink into their wa- 
tery graves. It is therefore much to be defired, that fome 
method could be fuggefted for preferving the lives of fo 
intrepid and ufeful a fet of men. What has occured to me 
on this fubjed:, I beg leave to lay before the Society, and 
flatter myfeif, it will not prove altogether unworthy of 
notice. 

When a velTel fprings a leak at fea, which cannot be 
difcovered, inftead of exhaufting the crew with continual 
working at the pumps, they may form^ with very little 
trouble, a machine to difcharge the water, which will work 
itfelf, without any alliftance from the hands on. board. 

Let 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 354 

Let a fpar or fpare top-maft be cut to the length of eight 
or ten feet, or morei according to the fize of the veil'el; 
mortice four holes through the thickeft end, through which 
run four oars, fixing them tight, exadly in the middle; 
to the four handles of the oars nail on four blades (made 
of ftaves) the fize of the other ends, which will form a 
very' good water wheel, if the oars are ftrong; then fix 
into the oppofite end, what is commonly called a crank; 
the iron handle of a grindftone would fuit extremely well ; 
if not to be had, any llrong bar of iron may be bent into 
that form, wedging it tight, to prevent its twifting round : 
then nail up a new pair of chaps on the fore part of the 
pump, for a new handle to be fixed in, which will point 
with its outer end to the bow of the veffel; this handle 
will be fhort on the outfide, but as long on the infide as 
the diameter of the bore of the pump will admit, in order 
that the fpear may be plunged the deeper, and of courfe 
make the longer ftroke; the handle muft be large enough 
to have a flit fawed up it, fufficient to admit a ftave edge 
ways, which muft be faftened with a ftrong or iron pin, 
on which it may work ; the lower end of the ftave muft 
be bored, to admit the round end of the crank; then fix 
the fhaft with the oars (or arms) over the gunwale on two 
crotches, one fpiked to the gunwale, and the other near 
the pump, cutting in the fhaft a circular notch, as well to 
make it run eafier, by lefTening the frid:ion, as to keep 
the whole ftcady. A bolt mud be fixed in each crotch, 
clofe over the fhafr, to keep it from rifing; as foon as the 
wheel touches the water, it will turn round, and the crank, 
by means of the ftave fixed on its end, will work the 
handle of the pump. If the bore be four inches, and the 
pifton or fpear moves eighteen inches at a fl;roke, it will 
difcharge 220 cubic inches of water, and admitting the 
arms of a v/heel to be fix feet from the center, it will turn 
round about 146 times in a mile, or 730 times in an hour, 
when the fhip fails five knots, which is equal to nine hog- 
fheads. If tlie furface of the water in the whole be fifteen 

feet 



;^^^ MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

feet from the nozle of the pump, a man can raife in an 
hour, with common working, about thirty-eight hog- 
iheads, which far exceeds the work performed by the 
wheel ; but this calculation is made on pumps of the com- 
mon fize, I would therefore propofe that all veflels fhould 
carry larger pumps, the advantage of which will appear 
from the following table: 

A 4 inch bore w^ill difcharge per hour, failing at the rate 
of five knots, - - - - 9 hogflieads 

5 inch, - - - - 14 and an half. 

6 ditto, - ' - - 20 and |ths. 

7 ditto, - - - - 28 and -ith. 

8 ditto, - - - '37 hoglheads. 
Hence we find, that a pump of eight inches bore, will 

difcharge with the wheel nearly the fame quantity that a 
man commonly raifes. If both pumps be fet to work by 
the crank, double the quantity, or 74 hogfiieads will be 
difcharged; but if a cog wheel, of about three feet ten in- 
ches, with 5 1 cogs, be fixed on the end of the (haft or 
axis, and the crank be pafled through a trundle or lanthorn 
wheel, of about two feet diameter, with thirteen rounds, 
to work with the axis parallel to the deck, and fixed to the 
pumps, in the manner ufed by brewers and diftillers, the 
crank will make about four turns to one revolution of the 
great wheel, and of courfe deliver 296 hogflieads per hour; 
yet as the refiftance made by the pumps will, in fome mea- 
fure, impede the motions of the wheel, it will not turn at 
the rate of 730 times in an hour, for which fuppofe a de- 
dudtion of one third, which is certainly a great allowance, 
the quantity then difcharged per hour is about 200 hog- 
fheads, wdiich is more than equal to the conftant work of 
five men ; thus if a veifel failing at the rate of 5 knots, de- 
livers 200 hogfheads per hour, equal to five men's work. 

6 knots is 240 - - equal to 6 ditto. 

7 knots 280 - - equal to 7 ditto. 

.8 knots 320 - - equal to 8 men's work. 

I am 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. ^^6 

I am aware of many objedions that will be fuggefted. 
In the firft place it will be faid, that pumps of eight inches 
bore, will be too large to be worked by the ftrength of men, 
when the wheel cannot be applied. I anfwer, no more 
force is required to difcharge a gallon of water at a ftroke 
from an eight inch, than from a four inch bore; as the 
lliort end of the lever or handle to the eight inch bore, 
need not be above a quarter part the length of the four 
inch, which will give a purchafe to the failor at the lon^r 
end of the lever, fufficient to raife the pifton or fpear a 
quarter the heighth of what is required in a four inch bore,, 
for a pifton moving three inches in an eight inch bore, will 
deliver juft about the fame quantity of water. It will be 
further objeded, that in ftormy weather, when veflels ge- 
nerally make the moft water, the wheel could not be put 
overboard. ^ I own there is fome force in this objedion, but 
if a remedy is beneficial in fome cafes, though not adequate 
in all, it ought not to be totally rejeded. Many leaks 
happen at fea in moderate weather, and even thofe which 
are occafioned by damage in a ftorm, often continue when 
the waves are abated. Sailors are frequently unhappily 
walhed overboard, and poffibly thofe who may have fur- 
viyed the ftorm, are too few, and too weak, to keep the 
fhip clear of water, and perform the other neceffary duties 
on board, in fuch cafes, this machine would be evidently 
ufeful. It may alfo be urged, that the wind at fuch time 
may be fo much ahead, that the fhip cannot make way 
enough through the water to work the pumps; to whicb 
I reply, when life is in danger, when grim death flares 
the affrighted crew in the face, the port of deftination is 
not to be confidered, but the veffel muft be fteered for that 
ihore, which beft fuits the working of the pumps, and; 
keeping her above water. 

I would therefore propofe, that every veflel fhould not 
only have pumps of eight inches bore, but be provided 
with a fhaft, crank, and proper wheels, which might ea- 
fily be flowed away in little room, as the paddles of the 

water.- 



357 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

water wheel may be unfhipped, and the whole procured 
at a fmall expence. 

Thefe hints, together with the model, I fubmit to the 
infpedtion of the Society, and hope fome improvement 
may be made on this plan, which will prove ufeful to man- 
kind. 

REFERENCES. Plate VL fg. 2. 

A. Top-mafl or Jhaft of the uuheel. B. Oars or arms of 
the 'wheel C. CranL D. Pimp, E. Props on the dech 
tofupport the Jhaft, 

An ABSTRACT offiindry papers and propofals for im- 
proving the inland navigation ofPennJylvania and Mary- 
land-^ by opening a communication betiveen the tide ivaters 
of Delaivare and Sufquehannah^ or Chefapeak-Bay\ ivith 
afcheme for an eafy and fhort land communication be- 
tiveen the ivaters of Sufquehannah and Chrifiiana Creeks 
a branch of Delauuare ; to vuhich are annexed fome efli- 
mates of expence. <^c. 

THE American Philofophical Society, held at Phila- 
delphia, have always confidered it as one great end 
of their inftitution, to fet on foot, and forward the exe- 
cution of fuch public fpirited undertakings, as have a ten- 
dency to advance the landed and commercial intereft of 
the Britifh colonies in general, and particularly of thofe 
middle colonies, with which they are more immediately 
conned:ed. 

With this view it was, that they appointed different com- 
mittees to view the ground, and confider in what manner 
a water communication might be beft opened between the 
provinces of Maryland and Pennfylvania; and particu- 
larly by what means the large and increafing number of 
frontier fettlers, efpecially thofe on the Sufquehannah and 
its branches, might be enabled to bring their produce to 
market at the cheapeft rate, whether by land or water.. 

To 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. ^^^ 

To enable the Society to make thefe furveys, levels, &c. 
the merchants in Philadelphia generoufly fubfcribed near 
two hundred pounds. 

The firft place propofed to be viewed, v^as the ground 
between the tide waters of Apoquiniminck and Bohemia, 
marked AB, in the annexed map (plate VII.) and John Lu- 
kens, Efq. Surveyor-General, John Sellers, Matthew 
Clarkfon, and Jofeph Ellicot, Elquires, Meflrs. Thomas 
Gilpin, Richard Sittiforth, William Killen, John Stapler, 
of Pennfylvania, and William Rumfey, Efq. of Maryland, 
were appointed a committee for this fervice, May 5th, 1769, 
who having performed the fame, their report, figned by the 
three firft named gentlemen, was given in to the fociety, June 
iQth i769,fettingforth, " Thatthey had viewed theground 
aforefaid, taken the levels, furveyed the diftance, and effayed 
a calculation of the expence, which would attend the cut- 
ting a canal in that place, which they were of opinion might 
be executed with locks for the fum of forty thoufand 
pounds* Pennfylvania money. 

*' The depth of earth from the higheft ground to the le- 
vel of navigation being very great, they declined making 
any eftimate of what the coft would be, to make a clear 
paflage from river to river, without locks, judging it an 
undertaking beyond our prefent abilities." 

The whole length of the ground where this canal is pro- 
pofed, from tide to tide, is 5 miles 107 perches. They 
found the waters in the Head Branch of Bohemia about 
eighteen feet below the furface of the higheft ground, through 
which the canal muft go, and the water in the Head Branch 
of Apoquiniminck, about twenty-fix feet below the fame. 
The tide waters are fixty-fix feet below the higheft ground. 

They found that for making a lock navigation (under 
the above circumftances) 208805 cubic yards of earth muft 
be removed, that 10,260 perches of ftone wall would be 
neceflary for fccuring the banks of the canal; that three 
mills muft be purchafed that ftand in the way of the exe- 
cution of the plan, and that fix locks muft be ereded; all 
Vol. I. Z z which 

* One Spanifli n.lHed Dollar palTcs in Fernfylvania for Seven Shillings and Six-Pence; by 
which all eftimates in the curremy cf that Province may be turned into s'terling. 



359 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

which, they judge, might be done at the expence of forty 
thoufand pounds, as aforefaid. 

Mr. Thomas Gilpin, one of the above committee, laid 
before the Society a plan of a canal, and the elevation of 
the ground, &c. between Chefter river, in Maryland, and 
Duck Creek, in Pennfylvania, at the place marked CD, 
in the annexed map. " The diftance from tide to tide is 
here about twelve miles, and the length of the canal, by 
the courfes it muft take, would be fourteen miles. The 
heighth of the middle ground above the tide is thirty-three 
feet;" and he reports, " that the water in Chefter River 
and Duck Creek is fufficient to fupply the canal and locks 
to the height of twenty-two feet above the tides. He efti- 
mates only about eight thoufand and fifty pounds for mak- 
ing a navigation for flat-bottomed boats, that would carry 
one thoufand bufhels of wheat each; but to make it fit for 
Ihallops, with a lock navigation, he ftates the whole ex- 
pence at twenty-eight thoufand two hundred and ninety- 
eight pounds." 

Several difficulties having been apprehended in both the 
above plans, and particularly the great expence in execut- 
ing the firft to any advantage; and that if the fecond could 
be executed at the expence propofed, it would carry all the 
navigation of the river Sufquehannah (which is the great 
object in view,) too far down into Chefopeak-Bay, for an 
advantageous communication with Philadelphia; it was 
therefore propofed, that fome other places fhould be exa- 
mined, by which the water carriage between Sufquehannah 
and Delaware might be rendered ftiorter, and more prac- 
ticable. 

Committees were accordingly appointed to examine, 
furvey and level the ground, between the navigable wa- 
ters of Delaware river in Pennfylvania, and Elk river 
that empties into Chefopeake, near the mouth of Sufque- 
hannah. This fervice was compleated by the committee 
with great diligence, and in the extremity of winter, as 
they found it beft to proceed when the furface of the wa- 
ters 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 360 

ters and marfhes were frozen over. Their report was de- 
livered to the Society, i6th February, 1770; an abftradt 
of which follows, viz. 

" That they had divided themfelves into two parties 
for the greater expedition; one of which parties, viz. 
Samuel Roads, Efq; the Revd. John E wing, Meflrs. Rich- 
ard Sittiforth, and Jofeph Horatio Anderfon, undertook 
to furvey and level the ground between the tide water of 
Red Lion Creek which empties into the Bay of Delaware 
about fix miles below New-Caftle, and the tide water of 
Long Creek, which is a branch of Elk-River, (the ground 
marked EF, in the plan). The other party, confifting of 
Meflrs. John Stapler, Joel Bailey, Thomas Gilpin, and 
Levi Flollingfworth, undertook to furvey and level the 
ground marked GH, between the navigable waters of 
Chrifliiana Creek, which empties into Delaware about four 
miles above New-Caftle, and the Head of Elk River. 

The work being finillied, they report further, " That 
they find it a very eafy and practicable matter to cut a canal 
in either of the above places, fufficiently large to anfwer 
the purpofe of a Barge navigation, as it is called, and that 
at a moderate expence. Or if a Lock navigation fhould 
be thought more eligible, as by that means the fame vef- 
fels that bring the produce and merchandize to the canals, 
may proceed to market without unloading, this alfo (al- 
though it might be attended with a greater expence) is alfo 
pradicable at both the above places.** 

As to the barge navigation, &c. (fhould that be thought 
beft) they obferve that " the ground in both places will admit 
of a canal being dug on a level between the tide waters of 
Delaware and Chefopeake ; in which barges may conti- 
nually ply, loading and unloading at each end; while 
fhallops, boats, and other fmall craft may come to the ends 
of the canal, to bring or carry off the various articles of 
commerce that may be conveyed through this communi- 
cation. Wharehoufes muft be built at e^ch end of the 
canal, to prevent uneceflary delays, and damage of the 

goods. 



36i MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

goods. The head waters of Chrlftiana and Elk rivers may 
be brought in to fupply either of thefe canals. 

The committee further report, that when they had 
compleated their furveys, &c. as above; they proceeded, 
agreeable to their inftrudtions, to Peach Bottom Ferry, on 
Sufquehannah, in order to make the beft enquiry they 
could, concerning the different falls and rifts in that river; 
and to examine where the beft and fhorteft road could be 
made from that place to Chriftiana Bridge. 

With refped: to the different falls they report, from the 
beft information they could obtain, " That the Bald Friar 
Falls, are the moft difficult to pafs in that river. Thefe 
lie in Maryland, about three miles below the Southern 
boundary of this province; that the other Falls are often 
pafTed in canoes, flats, rafts, &c. that they all difappear 
in the time of a frefh, and therefore may be paffed with 
the greateft fafety, and that in the intermediate parts of 
the river, the current is fo flow and gentle, that it is eafy 
to row, or even fail againft it. From the great quantity 
of water which this river contains, it appears obvious, that 
with a very moderate expence a channel may be opened 
through the feveral Falls, by blowing up a few rocks, fo 
as to make a good navigation, without doing any detri- 
ment to the other parts of the river by leffening its depth; 
or VN^here it may be judged more expedient, a fmall canal 
may be cut on the lliore, fo as to avoid all difficulty and 
danger from them. They cannot afcertain the expence of 
this work with precifion, but they apprehend it will not 
amount to more than four thoufand pounds." 

With refpe(ft to the road, they add, " That from the 
mouthofPeters's creek, (which empties into Sufquehannah, 
at Peach Bottom, about three miles above the boundary 
line of the province, and where a very convenient harbour 
may be made for boats,) they had examined the ground, 
and find a good road may be made from thence to Chrif- 
tiana Bridge, by an eafy afcent along the valley of this 
creek, which extends about two miles from the river in a 

diredion 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 362 

direction nearly parallel to the faid Weft line. The ground 
admits of a good road from this to the place where the 
faid boundary line crofTes Odtorara Creek, near the Horfe- 
Shoe Ford ; after which it may be continued near the faid 
line until it meets with the boundary of Newcaftle county. 
That part of the road which lies in Newcaftle county is al- 
ready made, and there is a law in that government, for 
keeping it in good repair. There are no hills to obftru6l 
it, except at Od.orara Creek and Great Elk ; the moft con- 
venient places of pafling which appear to be at Wilkie's 
Mill, and the abovementioned Horfe-Shoe Ford, where 
the hills may be eafily afcended by winding a little on the 
Pennfylvania fide. This road may be made at a fmall ex- 
pence, and will reduce the diftance between Peach Bottom 
and the tide waters of Chriftiana to about thirty-two miles. 
Bridges muft be thrown over the ftreams of Odorara and 
Elk, as they are frequently fo high as not to be forded. 
The whole expence of this work, they fuppofe will not 
exceed a thoufand or fifteen hundred pounds. 

" Upon the whole, they remark, that the river Sufque- 
hannah is the natural channel through which the produce 
of three-fourths of this province muft in time be conveyed 
to market for exportation, and through which great part 
of the back inhabitants will be fupplied with foreign com- 
modities. 

" That this conveyance will become eafy and cheap, to 
the fettlers above the Peach Bottom or Bald Friar Falls; 
and may, by proper encouragement, be found the moft 
ufeful and convenient for all the Weftern trade. 

" That a road from Peach Bottom to the navigable wa- 
ters of Chriftiana Creek, will reduce the whole land car- 
riage of the moft remote inhabitants on the various 
branches of the Sufquehannah to thirty-two miles, which 
appears to be the fliorteft portage from that river, to the 
navigable branches of Delaware, which can be had within 
the limits of this government; and that .the conveyance 
from Chriftiana to Philadelphia is known to be fafe and eafy. 

« That 



2,6^ MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

" That clearing a channel through the Bald Friar Falls, 
and opening a canal through either of the abovementioned 
levels, will not only reduce the whole trade of the Suf- 
quehannah to a water carriage, but will open fuch a com- 
munication between the Delaware, and all the rivers of the 
Chefopeak-Bay, as will greatly advance the commercial 
intereft of all the colonies adjoining thereon, by reducing 
the expence of carriage, on the various articles of traffic, 
which are yearly tranfportedfrom one province to another, 
through thefe extenfive waters." 

REMARKS, 

FirJI, With refpedt to the water communication pro- 
pofed from the mouth of Red Lion Creek, on Delaware, 
below Newcaftle, to the navigable branches of Elk-River, 
at the place marked EF, it appears from the drafts, &c. 
that the fame maybe executed by cutting either from Long 
Creek or Broad Creek. 

The length of the canal, if from Long-Creek to Dela- 
ware, is lo miles, 135 perches; if from Bioad-Creek to 
ditto, it is 9 miles 200 perches; and either of thefe canals 
leads immediately into Delaware. 

The committee declare themfelves fully fatisfied, that a 
good canal, either for a barge or lock navigation, may be 
made in this place, through one of the hollows adjoining 
the ridge on which they carried their level, at a lefs ex- 
pence than at any place of equal convenience. The feve- 
rity of the feafon did not permit them to carry their level 
along any of thefe hollows, or to examine the foil fo ftridly, 
as that they could pretend to make an accurate eftimate of 
the expence. But, by the beft judgment they could form, 
the ground to be dug and moved for a barge navigation, 
is about 420,000 cubic yards, and the whole expence of 
this and the other work neceffary for a barge navigation 
in this place, they eftimate at £. 14,426. 

SecotuIIji With refpefl to the canal propofed from Elk- 
river to the navigable waters of Chriftiana-Creek, near 

the 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 364 

the bridge at the place marked GH; the diftance or 
length of the fame, by the different courfes, is 12 miles, 
10 perches. The hight of the higheft ground above the 
level of the tide is fixty-eight feet and a half. 

The ground to be dug and moved, for a barge naviga- 
tion, they make 387860 cubic yards. 
And the whole expence of completing the canal, 

or a barge navigation, - £. 19,396 : 10 

The additional expence for a lock navigation 40,924 : 10 

Total for a lock navigation, £, 60,32 1 



The difference between the expence of a barge and 
lock navigation being fo great, the committee therefore 
recommend the former for the prefent. 

The particular eftimates upon which the foregoing ab^ 
flrad: is founded, together with the plans of furveys, ele- 
vations of the ground, and Drafts of the different propofed 
canals, being too large to be inferted in the tranfadions 
of the fociety, are therefore lodged in their cabinet for the 
infped:ion of thofe who may defire further fatisfadion, in 
regard to the prad:icability of carrying either of the above 
fchemes into execution, which on a due confideration of 
all circumftances may be judged moft for the public fer- 
vice. 

In the mean time the immediate opening the propofed 
new road from Peach-Bottom on Sufquehannah, to the 
tide waters of Chrifliana-Creek, is recommended as a 
matter of the utmoft importance, not only to the city of 
Philadelphia, but to a great part of the fettlers on the wa- 
ters of Sufquehannah. 



To 



26s MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

To the American Philosophical Society. 6^r. 

A Defcription of a MACHINE for cutting FILES, a Mo- 
del of 'which ivas prefented the Society fome Time ago. 

By B. O. 

REFERENCES, 

A BENCH, made of well leafoned oak, and the face 
of it plained very fmooth. AAAA, (PI. VII. Fig. 2.) 

BBBBB, The feet to the bench which Ihould be fub- 
ftantial. 

CCCC, The carriage on which the files are laid, which 
moves along the face of the bench AAAA, parallel to its 
fides, and carries the files gradually under the edge of the 
chifel HH, while the teeth are cut: This carriage is made 
to move by a contrivance fomewhat fimilar to that which 
carries the log againft the faw of a faw mill, as will be 
more particularly defcribed. 

DDD, Are three iron rods, inverted into the ends of the 
carriage, CCCC, and which pafTes through holes in the 
ftuds EEEt that are fcrewed firmly againft the ends of 
the bench AAAA, for directing the courfe of the carriage 
CCCC, parallel to the fides of the faid bench. 

FF, Two upright pillars, mortifed firmly into the bench 
AAAA, nearly equi-diftant from each end thereof, near 
the edge, and diredly oppofite to each other. 

GG, The lever or arm, which carries the cutter HH, 
and works on the centers of two fcrews KK, which are 
fixed into the two pillars IF, in a direction right acrofs 
the bench AAAA. By tightening or loofening thefe fcrews, 
the arm which carries the chifel, may be made to work 
more or lefs ftcady. 

L, Is the regulating fcrew, by means of which the files 
may be made coarfer or finer; this fcrew works in a find 
M, which is fcrewed firmly upon the top of the pillar F, 
The lower end of the fcrew L, bears againft the upper 
part of the arm GC, and limits the height which it can rile. 

A^, A 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. -(^6 

N, A fteel fprlng that is fcrewed to the other pillar jF, 
by one end, the other end of which prefTes againft a pillar 
0, that is fixed upon the arm GGy and by its preiTure 
forces the faid arm upwards, until it meets with the regu- 
lating fcrew L. 

P, Is an arm with a claw at the end, marked 6, the 
other end is fixed by a joint into the end of the Ihid or pil- 
lar Oy and by the motion of the arm GG, is made to move 
the ratch-wheel ^; this ratch-wheel is fixed upon an axis, 
which carries a fmall trundle head or pinion R, on the 
oppofite end; this takes into a piece SSSSS, which is in- 
dented with teeth, and fcrewed firmly againft one fide of 
the carriage CCCC, and by means of this the carriage has 
a motion communicated to it. 

TT, Is a clamp for faftening one end of the file in the 
place or bed on which it is to be cut. 

F, Is another clamp or dog at the oppofite end, which 
works by a joint W^ firmly fixed into the carriage COCO. 

T, A bridge, likewife fcrewed into the carriage, through 
which the fcrew Zpafl^es, and prefles with its lower end 
againft the upper fide of the clamp V, under which clamp 
the other end of the file ZZ, is placed and held firmly in 
its place while it is cutting, by the preflure of the laid 
clamp or dog F. 

7) 7? 7» 7» Is a bed of lead, which is let into a cavity 
that is formed in the body of the carriage, fomething 
broader and longer than the largeft fized files; the upper 
face of this bed of lead is formed varioufly, fo as to fit 
the different kinds of files which may be required. 

2, Two catches, which takes into the teeth of the ratch- 
wheel ^ to prevent a recoil of its motion. 

3, 3, Is a bridge to fupport one end of the axis 4, of 
the ratch-wheel ^ 

^, A ftud to fupport the other end of the axis of the 
ratch-wheel, ^ 

When the file or files are laid in their place, the ma- 
chine muft be regulated to cut them of the due degree of 
Vol. I. A3 finenefs, 



367 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

finenefs, by means of the regulating fcrew, Z, which, by 
fcrewing it 'further through the arm, M, will make the 
files finer, and 'vice uerfa^ by unfcrewing it a little, will 
make thern coarler; for the arm GG^ can by that means, 
have liberty to rife the higher, which will occafion the 
arm jP-P, with" the claw, to move further along the peri- 
phery of the ratch-wheel, and confequently communicate 
a more extenfive motion to the carriage CCCC, and make 
the files coarfer. 

When the machine is thus adjufted, a blind man might 
cut a file with more exad:nefs than can be done in the ufiial 
method wath the keeneft fight ; for, by fi:riking with a 
hammer on the head of the cutter or chifel HH, all the 
movements are fet at work, and, by repeating the ftroke 
with the hammer, the files on one fide will at length be 
cut; then they muft be turned, and the operation repeat- 
ed, for cutting the other fide. It is needlefs to enlarge 
much on the utility or extent of this machine; for, on an 
examination, it will appear to perfons of but an indiffer- 
ent mechanical fkill, that it may be made to work by w^ater 
as readily as by hand, to cut coarfe or fine, large or fmall 
files, or any number at a time; but it may be more par- 
ticularly ufeful for cutting very fine fmall files for watch- 
makers, as they may be executed by this machine wnth 
the greateft equality and nicety imaginable : And as to the 
materials and dimenfions of the feveral parts, I fliall leave 
that to the judgment and fkill of the artift, who may have 
occafion to make one, only obferving, that the wole fhould 
be capable to bear a good deal of violence. 



Sect. 




[ 368 ] 
Sect. IV. 

MEDICAL PAPERS. 

An Analyfis of the Chalybeate Waters (^/'Bristol, 
iwPennfylvania; in t'wo letters /row Dr. John de Nor- 
ma n d i h , of BriJloU addrejfed to Dr. Thomas Bond, 
one of the Vice Prefidents of the American Philofophical 
Societjy held at Philadelphia ; and by him communicated 
to thefaid Society. 

LETTER I. 

Brifioly in Pennfylvania^ Sept, lo, 1768. 

DEAR SIR, 

jN feeing amongft the many ufeful purpofes of infti- 
tuting the American Philofophical Society, that of 
communicating to the public new methods of curing and 
preventing difeafes, is defervedly included j I take the li- 
berty of requefting you to prefent mymoft refpe6lful com- 
pliments to the worthy members of it, and beg their fa- 
vourable acceptance of the inclofed Analyfis of the Briftol 
mineral water, and of an account of the means whereby 
a village, long unhealthy, has been rendered remarkably 
healthy. 

To the American Philosophical Society-, held at 
Philadelphia^ ^r. 

TH E great improvements the lafl and the prefent 
age have made in the healing art, the encouragement 
given to the ftudy of phyfic by the eftabliihment of me- 
dical fchools in North America, and efpecially in your city, 
where the feveral branches of qiedicine are regularly taught, 
muft afford the moft fenfible pleafure to every humane 
difpofition, and prove an encouragement to all who are 
interefted in the health of their fellow creatures, to exert 
themfelves in purfuing every difcbvery which may tend to 

the 



369 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

the relief of the fick, or the reinftatement of an impaired 
conftitution. 

From thefe confiderations, I have undertaken to try the 
following experiments upon the Chalybeate waters of 
Briftol, in Pennfylvania, with a view to difcover their 
contents, as a guide to the further inveftigation of their 
virtues and ufes; and particularly, their application in the 
cure of difeafes. For although it muft be confeiTed, that 
a chymical analyfis is, in fome meafure, an uncertain teft 
of the medical virtues of any compound ; and that the 
qualities of its conftituent parts, when feparated, may not 
only differ from, but are fometimes oppofite to, thofe of 
the mixture ; yet w^hen we want the teftimony of experi- 
ence, a chymical analyfis is the heft means of inveftigating 
the truth, and difcovering the virtues of the compound. 

Thus, if from the following experiments it fliall be 
found that the waters of Briftol, are impregnated with the 
principles of thofe of Bath or Spa, it will be no forced 
conclufion to fay, they may be beneficial in cafes fimilar 
to thefe that have been happily cured by the latter. 

Experiment I. A fmall portion of white oak bark, in- 
fufed in the waters, induced an immediate change from 
tranfparency to a dark purple colour, which it retained 24 
hours, without depofiting any fediment. 

II. Some of the fame water, after being made hot, or 
expoled for a few hours to the open air, in a great mea- 
fure loft its irony tafte, and received no other colour than a 
common tinifture from the white oak bark. 

III. One drop of ftrong oil of vitriol, in two ounces of 
the water, produced no lenfible alteration ; and the water 
after ftanding fome time continued tranfparent, without 
depofiting any okerifh or other fediment to the fides or 
bottom. 

IV. 01. tart. pr. deliq. dropt in fome of the fame water, 
induced a change in the colour, rendering it fomewhat 
yellow ; and in time precipitated to the bottom of the cup 
a fine gold coloured oker. 

V. Sixteen 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 370 

V. Sixteen ounces avoirdupois, carefully evaporated to a 
drynefs in a China bowl in B. M. left one grain of a yel- 
lovvifh brown powder of the tafte of tart, lartariz. 

VI. Linen, moiftened with the fcum floating on the top 
of the fpring, is tinged with a ftrong iron mold. 

VII. This water in weight is exadly the fame as that 
of rain water. 

From thefe few experiments, it is fufficiently evident 
that this water, in its natural ftate, contains a large portion 
of iron diflblved in pure water by means of an acid, 
which acid is extremely volatile, and probably of the vi- 
triolic kind; principles fimilar to thofe of the much cele- 
brated waters of the German Spa, with which they like- 
wife agree in the effed:s which immediately follow upon 
drinking them; fuch as quickening the pulfe, exciting an 
agreeable warmth in the ftomach, promoting the appetite, 
and occafioning a flow of fpirits, and a greater degree of 
chearfulnefs. 

Hence we may juftly conclude, that like thofe they will 
be very beneficial in all that numerous train of difeafes, 
which arife from a debilitated and relaxed fl:ate of the folid 
parts of the human body, brought on by living in warm 
climates, immoderate evacutions, &c. fuch as hypochon* 
driacal complaints, melancholy, lofs of appetite, and in- 
digeftion, with habitual ficknefs and pains of the fl:omach. 
and bowels, and all their unhappy confequences; rickets, 
lamenefs, and fome paralytic complaints; and that they 
will likewife prove powerful deobftruents and alteratives,, 
opening obftrudions, and difcharging what is obnoxious 
by the feveral emundories. 

Nor indeed are thefe virtues attributed to them from 
conjedure and analogy only; but in fome meafure, from 
the teftimony of fad and experience. For although it 
would not be very eafy, till the waters become more ge- 
nerally known, to colled any number of accurate and 
well attefted cafes, yet, from the ftridefl; enquiry from 
perfons who have fpent their lives, near thefe fprings, it is 

certain 



371 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

certain they have, for a long time, been remarkable for 
their falutary effeds, ftrengthening the ftomach, reftor- 
ing loft appetite, &c. And that numbers have left the 
place perfed:ly cured of difeafes which, for many years, 
had eluded the mod: powerful remedies. 

But as Briftol was formerly an unhealthy place, and 
prejudices againft it may ftill remain in the minds of num- 
bers of perfons, who otherwife would be willing to try 
the benefits of thefe waters, it may not be improper to 
afTignthe caufeswhy it was then fo, and how from their re- 
moval, it is now become an exceeding healthy fpot. 

The town of Briftol is fituate on a high dry bank, with 
the river Delaware to the eaftward and fouthward. There 
is a quantity of low ground to the fouthward and weft- 
ward, which in its natural ftate, was overflowed by every 
fpring tide; to the northweft there is a large pond of wat- 
er, which, when filled by the winter's rain, overflowed 
the neighbouring hollow clayey ground, and there re- 
mained ftagnant, until exhaled by the fucceeding warmer 
feafons, which was feldom before the middle of autumn; 
at which time agues, remitting, intermitting, and conti- 
nued fevers, and indeed every fpecies of autumnal diford- 
ers, prevailed, not only amongft ftrangers, but even the 
inhabitants. This continued to be the cafe until the 
owners of the low marfliy grounds, to the fouthward and 
weftward of the town, embanked and improved them; 
and a few public fpirited inhabitants employed perfons to 
cut ditches to drain off the fuperfluous w^ater, as it flowed 
out of the pond. After thefe improvements, the place 
became healthy; the inhabitants were no longer particu- 
larly fubjedl to fevers of any kind, and, for feveral years 
paft, have enjoyed as much health, as any people in any 
part of America. 

L E T T E R. II, 

S I R, 

SOME months ago, in a letter to you (communicated 
to the public by the Philofophical Society) T gave you 
a fliort analyfis of the Briftol Chalybeate waters. 

I have 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 372 

I have fince had opportunities of profecuting that fub- 
. jed: farther, by a number of additional experiments, which, 
together with the hiftories of feveral cafes, that have oc- 
curred in my attendance here, will more clearly afcertain 
the contents of thefe waters, and determine the effects 
which may be expected from their ufe, in the cure of 
difeafes. 

I therefore take the liberty to tranfmit you the follow- 
ing account, w^hich I flatter myfelf, will be favourably re- 
ceived as an ufeful fupplement to my former letter. 

The experiments I related to you my laft, tended chiefly 
to Ihew that thefe waters owed their chief impregnation to 
iron kept in folution, by means of an acid, which I judg- 
ed to be of the vitriolic kind, 

Thofe which I am now to communicate to you confirm 
this opinion, and at the fame time difcover fome other 
principles, in their compofition, with which I was before 
unacquainted, and which probably increafe their medical 
virtues. 

Experiment I. Upon the addition of Sp. Sal. Arom. to 
h e water a flight effervefcence enfued, and upon fl:anding 
about an hour, a light yellow matter was feperated and 
floated on the top of the liquor. 

II. From a mixture of lime water, the fame feparation- 
was made, but fell to the bottom of the liquor. 

III. Powder'd chalk added to the water produced the 
fame feparation, but not in fo fhort a time, as in the pre- 
ceding experiments. 

IV. Therefiduum, after a flight calcination, was ftrongly 
attraded by the magnet. 

V. A folution of crude Sal. Ammon. being mixed w^ith- 
the water, was fucceeded by the fame appearance as the 
addition of lime-water. 

VI. The refiduum after evaporation in Bain. Mar. be- 
fore calcination, difcovered to the tafl:e a confiderable por- 
tion of fait, which left a coldnefs on the tongue, and when 
feparated by folution, filtration and evaporation, appeared 

o£ 



573 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

of the colour of fait of amber, and lliott into right angled 
cryftals, which through a microfcope appeared beautifully 
feathered; and from every experiment was found perfed:- 
ly neutral. 

VII. Silver immerfed for fome time in the water acquir- 
ed a flight yellow colour. 

VIII. The refiduum thrown on a red hot iron fparkled 
very much, and emitted a fulphureous fmell, what re- 
mained on the iron had not the lead perceptible tafle of fait. 

IX. The waters, and the folutionof thechryflalized fait, 
changed fyrup of violets, to a fine light green. 

The firlt four of thefe experiments, in which the wa- 
ters were decompofed as well by a volatile alkali, as by 
lime water, and an abforbent earth, and the refiduum (af- 
ter a flight calcination) being attracted by the magnet, evi- 
dently prove that they are impregnated with a confiderable 
portion of iron. 

The fifth experiment (in which a decompofition takes 
place by means of a double eledive attraction) flisews that 
the acid in thefe waters, has a ftronger aflBnity with alka- 
lies, than that which is the bafis of Sal. Ammoniac, (which 
is the marine acid,) and mufl: be either the nitrous or vitri- 
olic. And from a decompofition taking place, on the ad- 
dition of common nitre with the Chalybeate waters, in 
about the fame time as when left expofed in the open air, 
we may rationally conclude the acid to be of the vitriolic 
kind. 

The fixth experiment fliews that there is a fmall portion 
of neutral falts in thefe waters, vi'hich from the coldnefs 
with which they aff'ed; the tongue, and the appearance of 
the cryflals, are probably of the ammoniacal kind. 

The feventh and eighth experiments together with the 
fmell of the bath and the confiderable fxtor which the 
waters acquire when kept for any time, evidently fliew that 
they contain a third principle, which is fulphur. This 
indeed (as well as the fait) is in a fmall quantity, yet it may 
contribute fomewhat to the medicinal virtues of thefe 
fprings. The 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 374 

The ninth experiment feems to prove them to tend ra- 
ther to an alkaline nature, but as this was in a very trifling 
degree, it may be accounted for from the efcape of the acid 
which is extremely volatile. 

Thefe experiments compared with thofe I have already 
communicated to you fufficiently difcover the conftituent 
parts of thefe waters. 

From fome other experiments I find they inftantly la- 
ther with foap, are fomewhat lighter than common water, 
that they no ways coagulate milk, even when boiled with it, 
and that when mixed with an equal quantity of it, they pre- 
vent in fome meafure its acefcency; from the firft and fe- 
cond of which fad:s, we may naturally fuppofe them more 
powerfully deobflruent, and from the two laft we may 
draw this ufeful corollary, that they may not only be ufed 
with fafety along with a milk diet, but that they realy in 
a chymical fenfe prevent the ill confequences which often 
attend fuch a diet in a weak ftomach. From this circum- 
ftance their efficacy muft be in many cafes greatly increafed. 

When drank, they adt as a quick diuretic, always in- 
creafmg the quantity of urine. They generally at firft 
drinking prove cathartic, always tinge the excrements 
black, and fometimes, from the ftate of the ftomach prove 
emetic. They exhilarate the fpirits, and in fome inftances 
produce a momentary intoxication. They communicate 
an immediate vigor and flrength to the whole conftitution, 
as is evident to many patients, who with fatigue walk to 
the wells; but in returning home, are not fenfible of any 
wearinefs or languor. 

They promote digeftion, ftrengthen the ftomach and 
create an appetite. Thefe are their conftant and immedi- 
ate eff'eds m almoft every ftale of the body, from which 
one might reafonably conclude, that they would be highly 
beneficial in many difeafes. But as the beft teft of their 
utility are fads, 1 fliall feled: fome few out of thole cafes, 
which this feafon has already aff'orded me. 

Vol. I. B 3 Cafe \Jl, 



375 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

Cafe ift. W. A, A labouring man, of a fallow dufky 
complexion, who for twelve years paft, had been afflicted 
with phegadenic ulcers in his legs, and for the laft eight 
years a fchirrous liver and fpleen, for which the moft pow- 
erful deobftruent, aperient, and alterative medicines had 
been prefcribed without effect, was employed in finking 
the Bath, and digging drains, to carry off the wafte water 
for ten days, during which time he was generally up to 
his knees in mud, ochre, and water. In that time the ul- 
cers on his legs intirely healed up, without the ufe of any 
kind of medicine or dreffing, except a piece of linen cloth 
over the fores. He was then retained as bath keeper, in 
which ftation his bufinefs led him into the bath feveral 
times every day; and in eight weeks (during which time 
he conftantly drank the waters) the diforder in his liver 
and fpleen gradually gave way ; and at this time, without 
the ufe of any medicine, he has perfectly recovered his 
health and complexion. To him the waters at firft proved 
gently purgative, and afterwards diuretic. 

2d W, W. Aged about nineteen years, for two years 
paft had been affli6ted with violent rheumatic complaints, 
to fuch a degree that at the time of his coming to the bath 
it was with difficulty he could raife himfelf when feated, 
and the mufcles of his neck were fo rigid and contracted 
that he could not move his head ; he found fenfible benefit 
from the firfl ufe of the bath, and by continuing it for 
about feven weeks, perfectly recovered his health, and the 
ufe of his limbs. 

3^. L. M. Had for near two years been afflid:ed with a 
weaknefs at his ftomach, inability in the organs of digef- 
tion to perform their office, and at times a general laffi- 
tude and wearinefs over every part of his body, brought 
on by too violent exercife. Upon drinking and bathing a 
{liort time, he received very fenfible benefit, all his com- 
plaints ceafed, and he gained a much better appetite than 
he had ever experienced while labouring under his diforder. 

4^/6. Mrs. //. For five years had been aflBided with a 

violent 



MEDICAL PAPERS. n^^^ 

violent cough, attended with pain in her breaft and ahedlic 
fever which never had abated from the ufe of medicine. 
By drinking and bathing for four weeks, Ihe perfectly re- 
covered her health without any medicine, and returned 
home with a very good appetite, 

^th. Mifs R. For two years paft had been fubje(^ to 
pains in her ftomach and head, obftrud:ions in her liver, 
flight cough, perpetually feverifh, with lofs of appetite, 
and reftlels nights, for which a variety of medicines had 
ineffe<5lually been ufed, they only affording a temporary 
relief. In this ftate fhe came to the wells, in fo low a 
condition that llie could not walk the length of a ftreet but 
with the greateft difficulty. At firft ilie daily rode to the 
bath, but after ufing it for fome time, fo far recovered, 
that {he could walk without any inconvenience, and after 
ftaying about five weeks, returned home very hearty, had 
a good appetite, and refted well. 

dth. J, F. For the laft five months fubjed to an incef- 
fant cough, the effedl of a violent cold, came to the wells 
and drank the waters for ten days, in which time his 
cough by degrees abated, and he returned home perfe<5lly 
cured. 

yth, Mrs. A". Had complaints fimilar to thofe mentioned 
in the cafe of Mifs R, but attended with frequent acrid, 
black fliools, which afforded no relief from her complaints. 
She drank the waters, and went into the bath for five 
weeks, in which time fhe recovered her complexion and 
flefh, and a much better ftate of health, than fhe had en- 
joyed for a number of years. 

8/-6 Mifs H. About five weeks before fhe was brought 
to the bath, was feized with fpafmodic contractions in her 
left arm, a paralytic complaint over all the fame fide, her 
fpeech was much affedted, one fide of her mouth drawn 
up, and fhe had hardly any power over one hand and foot, 
from which the beft adapted medicines and the ufe of a 
common cold bath had afforded no relief. Immediately 
on ufing the Chalybeate bath, her fpafms began to abate, 

and 



377 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

and foon left her. She ftill remains at bath, has perfedly 
recovered her fpeech, and at this time, without the ftrid:- 
eft examination, you cannot difcover the leaft remains of 
her diibrder; fhe can now work with her needle, and 
drefs herfelf as ufual. She took fome few nervous ftimu- 
lating medicines during the time of bathing. 

i)th. Mr. D: Who had been for fome years conftantly 
fubjed: to a nervous cholic, which rendered his life a bur- 
then to him, came to Briilol, and, after ufmg the bath 
and drinking the waters for two weeks, left the place per- 
fe£lly cured without the ufe of any other medicine. 

10//:^. Mrs. — For the laft twelve years of her life was 
fubjed to obftrudtions in her liver, attended with an al- 
moin conftant menftruation, lofs of appetite, oedematous 
fwelling in her legs and feet, and difturbed and reftlefs 
nights. At the folicitation of her friends, fhe came to 
Briftol with a conftitution almoft wore down, and with a 
prepofTeflion that her cafe did not admit of any relief. Af- 
ter a fhort time bathing, and drinking the waters, the 
fwelling in her feet and legs abated, her appetite and fleep 
returned, the diforder in her liver, and every other com- 
plaint abated, her colour returned, and fhe now enjoys a 
much better ftate of health than fhe had experienced for a 
number of years, with the pleafing profped of a perfed; 
recovery. 

From thefe cafes, as well as from the fenfible effeds 
upon firft drinking thefe waters, it is evident that they are 
a fafe and adive Chalybeate, exerting the moft powerful 
effects upon the human conftitution, and agreeing with 
the moft delicate fubjeds; and that they are fafely and 
fuccefsfully drank in many cafes where the common and 
ufual preparations of iron are attended with dangerous 
confequences; which perhaps may be owing to the ex- 
treme fubtlety and minutenefs of its parts, and the inter- 
pofition of fo large a quantity of pure water; or it may 
poflibly depend on the nature of the mixture, which can- 
not eaiily be imitated by any artificial preparation. 

In 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 378 

In particular, thefe cafes teach us, the mofl: happy ef- 
fects are to be expeded from thefe waters in old and ob- 
ftinate ulcers, which they quickly and readily difpofe to 
heal. That they penetrate the mod remote and minute 
veffels of the body, prove powerful deobftruents, and re- 
move the moft obftinate of difeafes, glandulous obftruc- 
tions, even after they had refifted the moft powerful me- 
dicines. And hence they may prove highly beneficial in 
ftrumous and fcrofulous cafes of children, in jaundice, 
and other obftrudions of the liver, fpleen, and myfenteric 
glands, which lay the foundation for fo many and fuch 
obftinate chronical complaints; as alfo in cafes of obftrudt- 
ed catamenia, and where, from relaxation, the flow is too 
abundant. 

They likewife, as appears from the cafes of 7V.W. and 
L. M. cure moft obftinate rheumatifms, and that languor 
and uneafinefs whieh often arife from too violent exercife, 
and which are nearly allied to the rheumatifm. 

And however prejudices may operate againft the ufe of 
Chalybeate waters in diforders of the lungs, nothing 
is more certain than that thefe I am now treating of, have 
aft'orded eff'edlual relief in violent coughs, even where 
they have been of long ftanding, and when attended with. 
he<3:ic complaints; as is evident from the cafes of Mrs. H, 
Mifs R, and J. F. which laft was the only cafe in which 
drinking the waters without bathing completed the cure. 
Nor indeed is this doctrine of the ufe of Chalybeate wa- 
ters in pulmonary and hedic complaints intirely new, 
Morton prefcribes them in the phthifis pulmonalis, in 
which he does not ftand fingle. And there have been in- 
ftances of confiderable relief afi^orded by them even in the 
laft ftages of a confumption. Some reftridions and cauti- 
ons are certainly neceftary in their ufe, but they would be 
too tedious to mention here, and muft be left to the jugd- 
ment of the phyfician. * 

In nervous diforders arifmg from relaxation, one would 
naturally exped from them the happieft effeds, and in 

fac^ 



379 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

fa6t they have been found very efFedlual in palfies and 
nervous cholicks, as in cafes of Mifs H. and Mr. Z). In 
fliort, thefe waters, in every difeafe which arifes from that 
fruitful fource of complaints, relaxed and weakened 
ftate of the folids, may with great propriety and truth be 
termed fpecific; but in no cafes have their good effedts 
been more evident or remarkable, than in a depraved and 
dibilitated ftate of the organs of digeftion, arifing from in- 
activity, and a fedentary life, from continuing too long in 
warm climates, or from exceftive and free living; here the 
remedy is immediately applied to the feate of the difeafe, 
andofconfequence muft produce the moft immediate effe<3;s, 
nor indeed has there been one inftance, in which, if pro- 
perly perfevered in, they have failed of affording relief. 

Every particular here aflertcd is confirmed by experi- 
ments that have been carefully made, and by many cafes, 
from which thefe few are feleded, and in ftating of which 
the public may reft affured, that the moft fcrupulous fide- 
Jity has been obferved, by 

Dear Sir, 

Tours, ^c, 

Oa. 6th, 1769. JOHN DE NORMANDIE. 

T"*? Dodor Thomas Bond. 



The Cafe of a TETANOS and LOCKED JAW, cured by 
amazing quantities of O^'wim., by DoBor Archibald 
Gloster, of St. John's, Antigua; communicated to 
John Morgan, M. D. F. R, S. ProfeJJor ofPhyftc, 
in the College of Philadelphia', and by him laid before 
the American Philofophical Society. 

AJSIEGRO, aged forty years, having fuffered the ex- 
ceftive heat of the fun in the day, imprudently 
laid himfelf down and flept on the damp earth in the night. 
The next morning, he perceived a ftiffnefs in the mufcles 

of 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 380 

of his jaws, with a fomewhat painful, or rather uneafy 
fenfation in thofe of the neck; having no other complaint 
at the time, he was blooded, and had an emolient lini- 
ment for the parts affected, and was ordered a lenient 
purge, ex Mann, if' Sal, Glaub, This operated immedi- 
ately. 

The day following the pains in his jaws increafed, the 
mufcles of his back and neck were frequently feized with 
violent fpafms, which proceeded to the mufcles of his thighs 
and legs, rendering them quite rigid. 

He could fcarcely refrain from crying out at thei'e times, 
and could not, but with difficulty, open his teeth, fo far 
as to admit a knife between. Luckily for him his under 
jaw projedied naturally beyond the upper jaw, fo that his 
food paffed between his teeth, and he had no great diffi- 
culty in fwallowlng liquids. His pulfe was flow and fmall, 
and his fkin was below the natural heat : He had no fleep, 
for fo foon as he dofed, fevere fpafms would roufe him. 

Having obferved in the London Medical Eflfays, that 
thefe complaints had been fuccefsfully treated with free 
exhibitions of opium, and having before this obftinate cafe 
came under my obfervation relieved patients by \i^ry libe-- 
ral dofes of it, I thought nothing in the Materia Medica 
u'ould be fo likely to yield relief in this cafe. I therefore 
prefcribed on the evening of the fecond day as follow, 'viz, 
June jth. R. Ful'u: Contrayer'v: Com\'?>ifs. Nitre:. 
pur: Camph\ Opic pur: ana r,fs. M D in P 
JEfex. Cap: unafu ^tia quaque hora. 
^th. He was no better, his ftiffnefs continued with fre- 
quent fpafms fevere and painful. The powders were re- 
peated with Bij of opium. 

9/A He had no fleep, no difturbance in his mind, nor 
the leaft: affedtion of the Senforium Commune which could 
be attributed to the opium. His powders were repeated 
as yefterday; he took liquid food, fuch as weak broths, 
gruels and ptifans. A general bath was ordered, in which 
h-e was put fl:iflF as a fliake, and the fpine with all the rigid 

parts 



38i MEDICAL PAPERS. 

parts were well rubbed after the ufe of it, with a lini- 
ment, 

ex Ca?nph, y,.folut: in 01: Oik): ^'uj. 
TeJiet: Tebaic: ?,iij. M: 
loth. The powders were repeated with ,y of opium to 
be given every two hours as ufual. 

A particular bath likewife, confifting of emollient and 
difcuticnt herbs, was direded for the mufcles of his jaws 
and neck, which were moft feverely convuHed ; indeed the 
mafleter mufcles were to the touch like wood. 

I itb. The patient was no better: I began to defpair of 
him: Emollient clyfters were thrown up morning and 
evening, he being very coftive, as well from the ufe of 
the opium, as from the effeds of the difeafe. His mind 
was clear and undifturbed, he had no lleep, nor even 
drowfmefs; nor did there appear any of the ufual efreds 
of opium given in much fmaller quantities. However I 
knew that nothing but opium could anfwer our purpofe, 
and though I had gone as great lengths with it as any one 
in thefe parts would venture, yet I not only perfifted in its 
ufe, but increafed its quantity to %ifs. in fix powders, ufmg 
lefs nitre and camphor. 

1 2th. Having taken the laft fix powders, he thought his 
fpafrns recurred lefs frequently. Yet there was no relax- 
ation of the mufcles of the jaws, nor any other favourable 
alteration. His clyfters were repeated, the baths and lini- 
ment continued, and his powders were again ordered. 

I ith. Every thing continued the fame. He had no 
fleep, nor any relaxation of the mufcles. His difcharges 
by the clyfters were hard dry fcybals; his mind was ftill 
calm, and not a fundion of it impaired, or in the leaft 
altered. He was wakeful in the day as ufual, and in the 
evening had an inclination to reft, but continued to be 
difturbed by thefe dreadful fpafrns. 

Still between hopes and defpair T ordered fix powders 
with tzvo drachms of opium which was twenty grains of 
pure folid opium in each dofe, to be given every three 
hours. ^^th. 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 382 

i^th. Having taken all thefe, he was rather eafier, his 
fpafms were lefs frequent, yet no perceptible relaxation 
of the mufcles of his lower jaw followed. His diet was 
continued as above. His clyfter produced the fame dif- 
charges as before. He was eafier always after the general 
bath, and the rubbing in of the liniment, all which were 
continued, and as I had ventured as far with opium, as I 
thought it prudent, I ordered as follows : 
R Pul. Contray. Comp. ^ 

Cinnab. Antim. > ana -yfs. 
Opii pur. J 

Molch. Chinens. yjs to be divided into fix 
parts, and one to be given every three hours. 

15//6. He faid he was eafier, had a very little fleep; his 
fpaims were lefs frequent, and he was in better fpirits. 
This encouraged me to hope for a relaxation of thefe cruel 
fpafms, which have been fatal to fo m,anv. I therefore 
boldly returned to the former dofe of opium, and gave 'hij 
in the powders with the mufk and cinnabar, 

i6th. The patient found himfelf much the fame as yef- 
terday. His baths, liniments, clyflers, fridions and pow- 
ders were repeated. 

i^th. He found himfelf much eafier to day, his pow- 
ders were repeated, and his fpafms were much relaxed every 
where, except in his right leg which was very painful. 
The mafleters gave way a very little, fcarcely perceptible. 

i^th. He was much the fame as yefterday, having 
gained however a little ground. The fame means were 
continued, and his powders repeated. 

iqtJj. He was rather better, and more free from pain; 
he could fit up; the mufcles of the back part of the body 
were fo far relaxed as to admit of that pofture, without 
much pain. He moved his lower jaw from fide to fide 
with fome eafe. The fame powders, &c. were continued. 

20th. He could open his mouth fo far as to admit my 
little finger into it, but this was done with a horrid grin, 
and I was afraid the fpafm v/ould return w^ith the effort, 
which is very common. The medicines were repeated. 
Vol. I. C 3 2 ly?. 



383 MEDICAL PAPER S. 

217?. He was much in the fame condition; ftill had 
fpafms at greater diftances, had fome fleep, and faid he 
could eat, but I was unwilling to hazard the experiment. 
His liquid food was continued, his medicines were repeat- 
ed, and every thing obferved with the fame care as before. 

22^. He continued to mend; has had fome lleep; the 
malfeters were relaxed ftill more; the fpafm recurred lefs 
frequently. He complained of lownefs of fpirits, and 
was defirous of tobacco to fmoak, which was allowed. 
He had a mixture of four fpoonfuls of old rum in a pint 
of warm water. His powders were ordered as before 
with 5/ of opium, and the ufual quantity of mufl^, to be 
given every four hours only. 

23J. He was much better, had fome fleep, opened his 

mouth, could chew, and ftill enjoyed a calm undifturbed 

mind. His powders were repeated with Bjj of opiiun 

■ivh'ich makes fifteen hundred grains of folid opium taken in 

feventeen days. 

2/\.th. He had better reft laft night and more fleep than 
during his illnefs before. He eat a bit of lamb, could 
open his mouth no farther than yefterday, but his fpafms 
recurred lefs frequently. His powders with Djj of opium 
were ordered as before. 

2^th. He was much better in all refpe£ts; he flept 
pretty well laft night, and could move his legs and arms 
very freely. There w^as ftill a fpafm on his mafleter 
mufcles, as he could not freely open his mouth. Nothing 
was ordered but a continuance of his baths, liniments, clyf- 
ters, frictions. The powders ordered for him yefterday 
not being yet expended. 

26tb. He continued to mend, although he had not tak- 
en about twenty grains of opium the two preceding days. 
There was no alteration in his fpirits. The fpafms were 
more relaxed. From this time he was vifited lefs fre- 
quently, his medicines given more irregularly, but as he 
had fpafms which recurred now and then 'till the 15th of 
July he had his bath continued, and took about %jfs of 
mufk, and 96 grains of opium in that fpace. 

Jufy 20th. 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 384 

July 20th, He is now perfectly well, in good fplrlts, 
and finds no inconvenience from his preceding ficknefs, 
nor any mifchief from the amazing quantity of opium he 
has fwallowed down. It is to be noted that from the i6th 
he was put upon a courfe of nervous pills ex G. Aflafcetid. 
and Cinnabar of Antimony without any opium. 

Left any perfon fhould imagine the opium which was 
made ufe of in this cafe, might not be good, I think pro- 
per to add that it was frelh, and appeared to be very good, 
being procured from Meifrs. Beaven, Drugglfts in Lon- 
don; and that it always anfwered to the ufual efFeds of 
opium in the common dofes, in every other inftance, hav- 
ing made fufficient ufe of it in my practice, to be certain 
of its quality. 

An account of the effccis of the ST R AMMONIUM, 
or Thorn- Apple, ^/ Benjamin Rush, M, D. Profef- 
for ofChymifiry^ in the College of Philadelphia. 

T WAS called to a child, (between three and four years 
■*- old) a few days ago, which appeared to be ill with a vio- 
lent fever, delirium, tremors in her limbs, and a general 
eruption on her fkin, accompanied with a confiderable 
fwelling, itching and inflammation. As the feafon for in- 
flammatory difeafes was now over, (it being the beginning 
of Auguft) and as I had neither feen, nor heard, of any 
cafes which bore the leaft refemblance to this in the city, 
1 acknowledge I was much furprifed at it, and knew not 
what caufe to call In, to account for a fever attended with 
fuch acute fymptoms, at a time of the year, when moft of 
people, efpecially children, were fubjefl to complaints of a 
very different nature. As her pulfe was pretty full and 
ftrong, I immediately ordered her to loofe a little blood, 
and gave her a few laxative medicines. Befides thefe, I 
ordered her to be put into a warm bath, and recommended 
the application of ftimulating cataplafms to her feet. The 

opening 



385 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

opening medicines operated the evening after I gave them, 
and brought away a great number of the afcarides worms 
which I far from thinking were the caufe of her diforder, 
as the fymptoms ftill continued with as much violence as 
ever. I cannot help remarking here, that two of the moft 
powerful vermifuge medicines we are acquainted with, viz. 
\heAnthelmia, or IVort/i Grafs of Jamaica,* and iheCarolina 
Pink Root, are both confiderably narcotic, and when taken in 
too large quantities produce effects fomewhat fimilar to 
thofe of the Strammonium. Do their vermifuge depend 
upon their narcotic qualities alone? Are all narcotic fub- 
ftances vermifuge? Or may not they be rendered fo, by 
adminiftering purges after them, in the manner we are 
direded, after ufmg the worm grafs or pink root? Thefe 
are queftions, which are perhaps foreign to our prefent 
fubjed, and yet when refolved, may have their ufes in me- 
dicine. But to return ; the mother of the child finding 
mofi: of the remedies we had ufed ineffediual, informed me 
for the fir ft time, that they had a quantity of Stra?noniinn 
growing in their garden, where the child generally play- 
ed, and that i^\f^. recolleded that ilie had been once difor- 
dcred in a flight manner, from eating fome of the feeds of 
it. This led me immediately to treat her complaints in a 
very different manner from that I had formerly done. I 
gave her a puke of two grains of Tart. Emetic, difTolved 
in water by fpoonfuls. It vomited her feveral times, but 
brought nothing but phlegm from her ftomach. After 
this I gave her fweet oil in large quantities, mixed with a 
little of the oleum Ricini, which in a little time brought 
away a great number of the Strammonium feeds. The 
relief fhe got from this evacuation, encouraged me to re- 
peat the fame medicine, which I did every day for near a 
w^eek, till I began to flatter myfelf they were all difcharged 
from the body. But notwithftanding this, fhe was far 
from recovering fo rapidly as we wifhed. The tremors 
ftill continued in her hands at times; her delirium abated, 

but 

• Sec Dr. BrownV Natural Hiftory of Jamaica. 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 386 

but it left her ftupid and blind. The pupils of her eyes 
were much dilated, and fhe catched at the bed clothes 
and at every thing around her, in the fame manner as a 
per Ton in the laft rtage of a fever. As I was perfuaded the 
oil fliehad taken, had evacuated all fuchof the feeds as were 
in the guts, I began to fufpe£t, that her complaints were 
ftill kept up by a few feeds which (till remained in her fto- 
mach. I therefore gave her four grains of Tart, emetic, 
in the manner I formerly mentioned, and had the pleafure 
to find, that it brought up above eighty of the feeds, the 
fecond time it puked her. Finding the ftupor and blind- 
nefs ftill continue, I repeated the puke, which brought 
up above twenty more. Upon this all her complaints va- 
niihed, and in a few days ihe appeared perfectly well. 

It may perhaps appear furprizing to fome, how fo many 
of the feeds of the Strammonium fhould be lodged fo long 
in a child's ftomach, without producing much worfe ef- 
fects than thofe we have mentioned, efpecially when we 
confider the accounts which Dr. Stork has given us of the 
effects of a very fmall quantity of it. In order to account 
for this, we muft remark, that the feeds the child fwal- 
lowed were of the laft year's growth, and were become 
fo dry and hard as to refemble little pieces of horn. Be- 
fides the feeds of the narcotic plants in general contain but 
very little of their virtues; even the feeds of the poppy 
itfelf may be taken in large quantities, without producing 
any of the effeds of opium. Dr. Stork\ experiments 
were made entirely with the extract of the Strammonium, 
two grains of which contain more of the narcotic quality 
of the plant, than three hundred of the dried feeds. 

My chief defign in relating the above cafe, is to make 
two obfervations, which may be of ufe in other cafes. 

I. We learn the wonderful connection between the fur- 
face of the (kin and the alimentary canal. Eruptions 
upon the fkin are generally attributed to an acrimony in 
the blood. In the prefent cafe we fee an eruption occafi- 
oned by acrid fubftances irritating the ftomach and bowels. 

It 



387 MEDICAL PAPERS, 

It would be eafy to point out feveral other matters both of 
a vegetable and animal nature, which produce effedts of 
the fame kind almoft as foon as they are received into the 
ftomach, and long before they are fuppofed to have un- 
dergone its adlion, or of being mixed with the blood. It 
is impoffible to tell, what fpecies of the eruptive difeafes are 
Gccafioned by the prefence of morbid matter in the primae 
vise; but in all thofe cafes, where it is doubtful, it would 
not be amiis to fufped: it, and to order our medicines ac- 
cordingly. Dr. Korr (of St. Croix) informed me, that he 
had once an obftinate humour upon his arm, which alter- 
nated with a complaint in his ftomach, arifing from the too 
great predominance of an acid, and that he was never able 
to remove it with all the applications he could ufe, till he 
cured the diforder in his ftomach by bitter and aftringent 
medicines. 

A fecond obfervation upon the above cafe, which I 
would beg leave to make is, that pukes may often be 
given to evacuate the contents of the ftomach, and not- 
withftanding they work tolerably well, may not anfwer 
the purpofes we intended by them. How often do we 
difcover the ftrongeft marks of worms being lodged in the 
ftomach, and yet how feldom are we able to bring them 
up from thence, by the ordinary pukes we adminifter. In 
this, and like cafes therefore, it ftiould be our prac- 
tife to increafe the dofes of our vomits, or to give 
fuch fubftances as will deftroy the life, or virus of 
thofe things we would wifti to expel from the ftomach. 
Had the laft puke, which I gave to the child, which had 
eaten the Strammonium feeds, failed of bringing them up, 
I have no doubt, but what the plentiful ufe of acids *, 
(which are fuch powerful antidotes to other narcotic fub- 
ftances,) would have rendered them harmlefs. And if we 
may be allowed to reafon from analogy, I think we may 
prefume, that there is fcarcely a poifonous fubftance in na- 
ture but what has an antidote provided for it. What thefe 

antidotes 

* Since writing the above, I have had tlie pleafiire of hearing- from Dr. Thomas Bend, and 
Dr. Harris, an account of the }(ood cffci5ls of lemon juice in a iimihir cafe, after the flrongefl 
pukes had been given to no purpofe. 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 388 

antidotes are, can never be determined by reafoning a 
prior'h but mufi: be found out by experiments alone. Con- 
fidering the frequency of the accidents which arife from 
poifons, and the little relief we are able to afford in them, 
I cannot help thinking an enquiry into this fubjed: a mat- 
ter of great importance, and well worthy of the attentioa 
of the faculty of phyfic. 



An ENQUIRY into the nature^ caufe and cure of the 
ANGINA SUFFOCATIVA, or Sore Throat Diftemper, 
as it IS commonly called by the inhabitants of the city and 
colofiy of Neiv-Tork, ^'c. ^7 Samuel Bard, M. D. 
and Prof effor of the Pra5iice of Phyfic in King^s College^ 
New-Tor k\ communicated to John Morgan, M. D, 
F. R. S. Prof effor of the Theory and Practice of Phyfic 
hi the College of Philadelphia, 

*' AS a faithful and accurate hiflory of difeafes^ their 'v a— 
nous fymptoms and method of cure -^ is the moji effec— 
*' tualivay of promoting the art of healing; phyficians Jloould 
^^ defcribe ivith the utmof care-^ the dijeafes they ivould 
" treat of and the good and bad effeSis of any method or 
" medicines they have iifed iti them. But in a more parti- 
" cular manner is this neceffary^ uohen any neiv and nn- 
" common difemper occurs^ of ivhich the peculiar patho- 
" gnomonic and diagnoflic figns fjould be carefully laid 
" doivth and a particular account given of nvhat evacu- 
" ationst regimen and medicines ivere ufeful or hurtful in it.^* 

— HuxHAM on Fevers, p. 267. 

FROM a convidion of the truth and importance of 
thefe obfervations, and in obedience to the precept 
of fo great a man as Huxham, I have determined to attempt 
the hiftory of a difeafe, which has lately appeared among 
the children of this city, and which, both as an uncommon 
and highly dangerous diftemper, well deferves an attentive 
confideration. In delivering it therefore, I fhall firft care- 
fuller 



389 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

fully enumerate the fymptoms with which it was attended, 
and defcribe the appearances which occurred on infpeding 
the bodies of fuch as died of it; and then lay down the 
method of cure which has been found to be mofl: fuccefs- 
ful in its treatment. 

In general, this difeafe was confined to children under 
ten years old, though fome few grown peribns, particu- 
larly women (while it prevailed) had fymptoms very fimi- 
lar to it. Moft of thofe who had it were obferved to 
droop for feveral days before they were confined. And 
the firft fymptoms, in almofi: every cafe, were a flightly in- 
flamed and watery eye, a bloated and livid countenance, with 
a few red eruptions here and there upon the face, and in 
one cafe a fmall ulcer in the nofe, whence oofed an ichor 
fo (harp as to inflame and erode the upper lip. At the fame 
time, or very foon after, fuch as could fpeak, complained 
of an uneafy fenfation in the throat, but without any great 
forenefs or pain. Upon examining it, the tonfils appeared 
fwelled and flightly inflamed, with a few white fpecks 
upon them, which, in fome, increafed fo as to cover them 
all over with one general flough; but this, although a fre- 
quent fymptom, did not invariably attend the difeafe; and 
fome had all the other fymptoms without it. The breath 
was either no ways offenfive, or had only that kind of 
fmell which is occafioned by worms ; and the fwallowing 
was very little, if at all impeded. 

Thefe fymptoms, with a flight fever at night, continu- 
ed in fome for five or fix days, without alarming their 
friends; in others a difficulty of breathing came on with- 
in twenty-four hours, efpecially in the time of fleep, and 
was often fuddenly encreafed to fo great a degree as to 
threaten immediate fuff^ocation. In general, however, it 
came on later, increafed more gradually, and was not con- 
ftant; but the patient would now and then enjoy an in- 
terval of an hour or two, in which he breathed with eafe, 
and then again a laborious breathing would enfue, during 
which he feemed incapable of filling his lungs, as if the 
air was drawn through a too narrow paflfage. This 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 



J 



90 



This ftage of the difeafe was attended with a very great 
and fudden proftration of flrengthj a very remarkable 
hollow dry cough, and a peculiar change in the tone of the 
voice; not eafily defcribed, but fo fingular, that a perion 
who had once heard it, could almoft certainly know the 
difeafe again by hearing the patient cough or fpeak. In 
fome the voice was almoft entirely lofl, and would conti- 
nue very weak and low for feveral weeks after recovery. 
A conftant fever attended this difeafe, but it v/as much 
more remarkable in the night than in the day time; and 
in fome there was a remarkable remiilion towards morning. 
The pulfe at the wrift was in general quick, foft and flut- 
tering, though not very low, and it was remarkable, that 
at the fame time the pulfationa of the heart were rather 
itrong and fmart than feeble. The heat was not very 
great, and the fkin was commonly moift, 

Thefe fymptoms continued for one, two, or three days. 
By that time it was ufual for them to be greatly increafed 
in fuch as died; and the patients, though commonly fome- 
what comatous from the beginning, now became much 
more fo; yet even when the diforder was at the worfl:, they 
retained their fenfes, and would give diftind anfvvers, when 
fpoken to; although on being left to thernfelves, they lay 
for the moft part in a lethargic fituation, only raifi ng up 
now and then to receive their drink. Great refilefsnefs 
and jadation came on tovv^ards the end of the difeafe, the 
fick perpetually toffing from one fide of the bed to the 
other, but they were (till fo far comatous as to appear to 
be afleep, immediately upon changing their fituation or 
pofture. An univerfal languor and dejeclion were obferved 
in their countenances; the fwelling of the face fubfided; 
a profufe fweat broke out about the head, neck and breaft, 
particularly when afleep; a purging in feveral came on; 
the difficulty of breathing increafed, lb as to be frequently 
almoft entirely obftruded, and the patient died apparently 
from the fuffocation. This commonly happened before 
the end of the fourth or fifth day; in feveral within thirty- 
fix hours from the time the difficulty of breathing came 
Vol. I. D 2s on 



391 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

on firft. One child, however, lived under thefe clrcum- 
ftances to the eighth day; and the day before he died, his 
breath and what he expectorated, was fomewhat offenfive; 
but this was the only inftance in which I could difcover 
any thing like a difagreeable fmell, either from the breath 
or expectoration. 

Out of fixteen cafes attended with this remarkable fuf- 
focation in breathing, feven died; five of them before the 
fifth day, the other two about the eighth. Of thofe who 
recovered, the difeafe was carried off in one, by a plenti- 
ful fallivatlon, which began on the fixth day; in moft of 
the others by an expedoration of a vifcid mucus. 

I diftinguifh between the fallivation and expectoration, 
becaufe in one the difcharge feemed to come from the fali- 
vary glands, and was attended with little or no cough; in 
the others it manifeftly came from the trachea, and wa's at- 
tended with an incelTant cough; and 1 judged the falliva- 
tlon to have been a natural crlfis, as the patient had taken 
but grs. vi of calomel before it came on. Her gums were 
not inflamed, her teeth were not loofe, nor had her breath, 
or faliva, the fmell of perfons under a mercurial falivation. 
In this cafe the voice, in the fpace of a few hours, from 
l^eing pretty flrong and loud, became fo low as to be with 
difficulty heard. 

One of the firft families in which this difeafe appeared, 
was that of Mr. William Waddell of this place. He had 
feven children in his family, all of whom were taken ill 
one after another; the four firff had the difeafe as I have 
juft now deicribed, and three of thefe died; the one who 
recovered was the inftance I mentioned, in which the dif- 
eafe was carried off by a fallivatlon. The other three 
were the youngeft. They had not the difficulty of breath- 
ing, but in its ftead very troublefome ulcers behind their 
ears. Thefe began with a few red pimples, which foon 
ran together, itched violently, and dlfcharged a great deal 
of very fharp ichor, fo as to erode the neighbouring parts, 
and in a few days fpread all over the back part of the ear, 
and down upon the neck. They all had a fever, particu- 
larly 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 392 

larly at night, and one of them had a perpetual tenefmus. 
This fymptom appeared in feveral who had the difficulty 
of breathing, but in none to fo remarkable a degree as in 
this child. 

After this, many other children had fimilar ulcers be- 
hind their ears; and fome of them feemed (lightly affec- 
ted with the difficulty of breathing; but it never became 
alarming while this difcharge continued. Thefe ulcers 
would continue for feveral weeks, and appeared covered in 
fome places with (loughs, refembling thofe on the tonfils; 
and at laft grcvv very painful and uneafy. ^ 

• In fome cafes they were attended with fwellings of the 
parotid and fublingual glands, which fubiided on the 
eruptions appearing behind the ears, and difcharging free- 
ly, and again fvvelled upon the difcharge being checked. 

I met with but two inftances of any thing like this com- 
plaint in adult perfons. Both of thefe were women; and 
one of them had alfifted in laying out two of the children 
that died of it. At firfl: her fymptoms refembled rather 
an inflammatory angina, but about the third day the ton- 
fils appeared covered with thick (loughs; her pulfe was 
low and feeble; (he had a moift (kin; a dejed:ion of fpi- 
rits; and fome degree of anxiety, though nothing like the 
difficult breathing of the children. 

The other was a foldier's wife, who for fome time, be-^ 
fore fhe perceived any complaint in her throat, laboured 
under a low fever. Her tonfils were (welled, and entirely 
covered with (loughs, refembling thofe of the children; but 
her breath was more offenfive, and fhe had no fuffocation. 

I have had an opportunity of examining the nature and 
feat of this difeafe, from diffeaion, in three inflances. 
One was a child of three years old. Her firft complaint 
was an uneafmefs in her throat. Upon examining it the 
tonfils appeared fwelled and inflamed, with large white 
floughs upon them, the edges of which were remarkably 
more red than the other parts of the throat. She had no 
great forenefs in her throat, and could fwallow with little 
or no difficulty. She complained of a- pain under her. 

left 



393 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

left breaft; her pulfe was quick, foft and fluttering. The 
heat of her body was not very great, and her fkin was 
moift; her face was fwelled; fhe had a confiderable pro- 
ftration of ftrength, with a very great difficuhy of breath- 
ing; a very remarkable hollow cough; and a peculiar 
change in the tone of her voice. The next day her dif- 
ficulty of breathing was increafed, and Ibe drew her breath 
in the manner before defcribed, as if the air was forced 
through too narrow a paflage, fo that flie feemed incapa- 
ble of filling her lungs : She was exceedingly refllefs, tof- 
fing perpetually from fide to fide, was feniible, and when 
afked a queftion, would give a pertinent anfwer, but 
otherways fhe appeared dull and comatous. All thefe 
fymptoms continued, or rather increafed, until! the third 
night, on which fhe had five or fix loofe ftools, and died 
early in the morning. 

Upon examining the body, which was done on the af- 
ternoon of the day fhe died, I found the fauces, uvula, 
tonfils, and root of the tongue interfperfed with floughs, 
which ftill retained their whitifli colour. Upon removing 
them, the parts underneath appeared rather pale than in- 
flamed. I perceived no putrid fmell from them, nor was 
the corps in the leaft offenfive. The oefophagus appeared 
as in a found ftate. The epiglottis was a little inflamed, 
on its external furface, and on the inner fide, together 
with the infide of the whole larynx, was covered with the 
fame tough white Houghs, as the glands of the fauces. 
The whole trachea, from the larynx down to its divifion 
in the lungs, was lined with an infpiflated mucus, in form 
of a membrane, remarkably tough and firm; which, when 
it came to the firft fubdivifions of the trachea, feemed to 
grow thin and difappear: It was fo tough as to require no 
inconfiderable force to tear it, and came out whole from 
the trachea, which it left with much eafe; and refembled 
more than any thing, both in thicknefs and appearance, a 
fheath of thin fhammoy leather. The inner membrane of 
of the trachea was flightly inflamed; the lungs too ap- 
peared inflamed as in peripneumonji? cafes; particularly 

the 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 394 

the right lobe, on which there were many large livid fpots, 
though neither rotten or offenfive; and the left lobe had 
fmall black fpots on it, refembling thofe marks left under 
thefkinby gun powder. Upon cutting into any of the 
larger fpots, which appeared on the right lobe, a bloody 
fanies iffued from them without frothing, whereas upon 
cutting thofe parts which appeared found, a whitifh froth, 
but flightly tinged with blood, followed the knife. 

This is a faithful hiftory of this complaint, as it ap- 
peared in all the cafes I have met with. 

Dr. Douglas^ of Boflon, in the year 1736, publiihed 
an account of the firft appearance of the difeafe in this 
country; from which I find that it put on much more ma- 
lignant and putrid fymptoms at that time, than it has late- 
ly been attended with, efpecially in this city, where dif- 
eafcs of the putrid kind feldom occur; and was fo con- 
ftantly attended with the eryfipelatous fymptoms, that he 
terms it an eruptive miliary fever, with an angina ulcuf- 
culofa. And even in this place, fome of the oldeft, and 
moft refpedable practitioners, alTure me, they have feen, 
but a few years ago, the fame dileale of which I am now 
treating, attended both with the eryfipelatous appearances 
and highly putrid fymptoms. 

Upon the whole, I am led to conclude that the prefent 
difeafe, as well as other fimilar difeafes, which have made 
their appearance at different times, and in different places, 
arofe from a particular difpofition of the air, or tniafmata 
fui generis; which more or lefs, according to particular 
circumftances, generate an acrimony in the humours, and 
difpofe them to putrefadion ; and which have a fmgular 
tendency to attack the throat and trachea, affeding the 
mucous glands of thefe parts, in fuch a way, as to occafi- 
on them to fecret their natural mucus, in greater quanti- 
ties than is fufhcient for the purpofes of nature: And 
which in this particular fpecies, when fecreted, is either 
really of a tougher or more vifcidconfiftence than natural, 
or is difpofed to become fo from reft and ftagnation. 

The 



395 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

The difeafe I have defcribed, appeared to me to be of an 
infectious nature, and as all infection muft be owing to 
fomething received into the body, this, therefore, what- 
ever it is, being drawn in by the breath of a healthy child, 
Irritates the glands of the fauces and trachea, as it pafles 
by them, and brings about a change in their fecretions. 
The infection, however, did not feem in the prefent cafe 
to depend (o much on any generally prevailing difpofition 
of the air, as upon effluvise received from the breath of 
infected perfons. This will account why the diforder 
fliouid go through a whole family, and not affed: the next 
door neighbour; and hence vv^e learn a very ufeful leflon, 
namely, to remove all the young children in a family, as 
Ibon as any one is taken with the difeafe; by which cauti- 
on, I am convinced, many lives have been, and may again 
be preferved. 

I Ihall now proceed to deliver the method of cure, which 
was found moft fuccefsful in the difeafe, as fai' as it fell 
under my own obfervation. And in the firft place, as 
from all the fymptoms related, it is evident that this dif- 
order is not always, and in every ftage, attended with any 
remarkable degree of putrefcency; and from the diflefti- 
ons it appears, that an inflammation of the lungs, if not 
the caufe, may at leaft be the confequence of thediftemp- 
er, one would imagine that V. S. and evacuations were 
not totally to be forbid; and accordingly we find Dr. Dou- 
glafs direding us, that if the fever is high, and the pati- 
ent is plethoric or accuftomed to venefedion, to take away 
fome blood, but with difcretion : And if the tonfils are 
much inflamed, with great pain and difficulty in fwallow- 
ing, to ufe venefedion in the jugulars. And Huxham ac- 
knowledges, in the ulcerous fore throats of which he 
treats, " That there were certainly fome of them with a 
" pretty fmart fever that bore bleeding at the beginning 
" with advantage, and that he was obliged in feveral to 
" give nitre with diaphoretics.'* 

But Fothergill fpeaking of the fore throat diftemper, 
which came under his notice, and which feems to be of a 

more 



M E D I C A L P A P E p. S. 396 

more highly putrid kind, aflures us, that although in fuch 
cafes he has been induced to order bleeding, yet it did not 
appear to have any advantageous effeds ; and concludes, 
that nothv^ithftanding the vehemence of the fymptoms, it 
is proper in general to omit this evacuation; nor can I 
hear of any perfon who has ufed it, in the fore throat 
(which appeared lately amongft us) with fuccefs; fo that 
I hardly dare venture to prefcribe it, but muft leave it to 
the difcretion of the phyfician, until farther experience 
fhall confirm its utility, or forbid its ufe. 

There is fomething very fingular in the tendency of the 
virus in this difeafe, as I have already hinted, to attack 
the throat and trachea, nor are the efFe(Sts its produces there 
lefs remarkable. Dr. FothergilU in his account of the pu- 
trid fore throat, defcribes the floughs on the tonfils, as 
mortified efcars ; but in that fpecies of fore throat I met 
with, they appeared as in the trachea, to be nothing more 
than the mucus of the part, preternaturally thickened into 
the form of a membrane. At firfi: I imagined this to be 
only a peculiar kind of pus, which is fometimes found 
upon the furface of internal inflamed membranes; but 
upon removing it, the membrane of the trachea did not ap- 
pear to have been fufficiently inflamed, to juftify fuch an 
opinion. And in a cafe I lately had an opportunity of 
examining, where the patient died of a very violent inflam- 
mation of the internal membrane of the trachea, there was 
no fuch mucous lining to be difcovered upon it. Nor can 
I think it the effect of any fpafm or conftridion of the lungs, 
as I never knew it remarked as occuring in fuch as have 
died of fpafmodic afthmas, nor is it long fince 1 had an op- 
portunity of being fatisfied as to this particular, in the cafe 
of a failor, vvho adually died in a violent fit of a Ipafmo- 
dic afthma, which had lafted for feveral days; and yet 
there was not the leaft appearance of any fuch mucous 
membrane after death, either in the large or fmaller 
branches of the trachea. This morbid appearance is par- 
ticularly noticed by feveral gentlemen who have favoured 
us with an account of the diffedtions of thofe who have 

died 



397 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 



died under an angina*. Dr. Monro, fen, found it in feve- 
ral he differed, and t -^^^-^"^^^-^ Martin-, Profeffor of Ana- 
tomy at Stockholm, mentions a very remarkable inftance 
of it, where this mucous membrane defcended into the 
minuteft branches of the trachea arteria, growing thinner 
as it defcended deeper into the lungs, until it refem.bled the 
membrane which lines the fhell of an egg. He adds, that 
the lungs were not inflamed, nor in the leaft injured, fo 
that the infant died merely from the fuffocation. And 
even thofe who have written of the ulcerous fore throat, 
as Drs. Huxham and Douglas, and have not given the ap- 
pearances from difledion, yet have mentioned many mu- 
cous linincrs being expecSlorated, which Douglas compares 
to the cuticle raifed by verfications, and Huxham con- 
ceived to be really pieces of the internal membrane of the 
the trachea. So that this is a circumftance which feems 
to be peculiar to the difeafe; and I believe thofe who die, 
on thefecond or third day, with the ftrangulated breathing, 
are generally fuffocated by this membrane. The affe<5lion 
therefore, of the mucous glands, muft be confidered as 
the proximate caufe of this difeafe, and readily accounts 
for all the other fymptoms ; and from it only, efpecially 
in the beginning of the complaint, can we fafelydraw our 
indications of cure; paying at the fame time a conftant at- 
tention to any fymptoms of putrefcency that may occur. 

And it is from viewing the difeafe in this light only, 
that we can account for the ufe of Mercury in it; a medi- 
cine, which if we confider it as a fpafmodic complaint, 
cannot poflibly have any good effed:; or if we look upon 
it merely as a putrid difeafe, feems dire(fl:ly contrary to every 
intention of cure; but which, neverthelefs, undoubted ex- 
perience has proved to be highly beneficial. And indeed, if 
we confider the peculiar acrimony which this difeafe oc- 
cafions in the fluids in general, independent of putrefac- 
tion, and the infpiffation of the mucus of the trachea, we 
might reafonably conclude a prior e, that Mercury, which 
in general corre<3:s acrimony in a very remarkable manner, 

thins 

* See Dr. Witherlng'j- TlieCs en the Angina Grangrenofa. * 
I Idem. 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 398 

thins all the mucous fecretions, particularly thofe of the 
mouth and fauces, and afFeds the breath very early, would 
be beneficial in it, and either prevent the formation of this 
membrane, or promote its feparation and expuHion, when 
already formed. Dr. Douglas viewing the matter in this 
light firft tried it, and meeting with fuccefs, afterwards 
recommended it to others; and in a very few words has 
explained both his theory and practice in this particular. 
** Any affedion of the throat (fays he) does frequently 
*' produce a natural ptyalifm. Mercurials ufed with difcre- 
*^ tion, area kind of fpecific in fuch like ulcers and ulcuf- 
" cula, and in fad here moiften the throat and mouth, flop 
** the fpreading of the ulcufcula, and promote the cafting 
" off of the Houghs; and as an acceffary advantage, the pa- 
" tients being moftly children, deftroyed worms. Amongft 
" all the preparations calomel anfwered beft. The gentle 
" vomiting and few ftools that it occafioned in fome, 
" did not confound the natural courfe of the diftemper. 
" Turbith produces too ftrong a revulfion, and the erup- 
" tion is thereby too much diverted. This diftemper did 
" not well bear any other evacuation but Mercurials. And 
in another place, fays, " the defpumation of this acrid in- 
" quination of the juices in our diftemper, that is, its na- 
*' tural crifis, feems to be by the patent and falutaryemunc- 
*' tories of the fauces and fkin. In corrofive taints, v. p-. 

o 

" venereal and others, a mercurial ptyalifm, and fudorific 
" decodion of the woods anfwer beft, this gave us the 
" hint of promoting the tendency of nature in our illnefs, 
*' by mercurials and gentle breathing fweats in bed, which 
*' with good management feldom failed, excepting where 
" the necrofis was irremediable from the beginning." 

There is a fmgularity in this Gentleman's ftile, but his 
obfervations are accurate and judicious; and, as he fays him- 
felf, being founded upon real, not imaginary cafes, muft 
therefore be of permanent truth. And indeed the cafe I 
met with, in which the diforder (and in no trifling degree) 
was carried off by a very copious falivation, is, of itfelf, 
Vol. I. E3 almoft 



399 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

almoft a fufficient vindication of this pradice; and toge- 
ther with the cafe of that child whofe body I firft opened, 
where I faw the moft powerful antifeptics faithfully admi- 
niftered, which not only failed of fuccefs, but did not even 
mitigate the fymptoms, was what firft led me to enquire 
more minutely into the nature of the difeafe, and of the 
remedies which had been ufed with moft fuccefs in its 
cure. — Upon reading Dr. Doiiglafs\ little eflay, (which 
gave me the greater fatisfadtion becaufe he wrote upon the 
difeafe as it appeared in this country, and under his own 
immediate obfervation,) I found he placed his chief de- 
pendence upon mercurials, which I was the more readily 
induced to make trial of, from the appearance I found 
from difledlion, and the idea I thence naturally formed of 
this complaint; and the experience I have had of their 
good efFeds, fully juftifies the recommendation Dr. Doug- 
lafs has given of them ; as the more freely I have ufed 
them, the better effeds I have feen from them. Calomel 
is what I have commonly ufed, and have given it to the 
quantity of 30 or 40 grains, in five or fix days, to a child 
of three or four years old ; not only without any ill effects, 
but to the manifeft advantage of my patient; relieving 
the difficulty of breathing, and promoting the cafting off 
the floughs, beyond any other medicine. That it may 
more immediately enter the blood, and a£l more power- 
fully as an attenuaht, it fliould at firft be joined with a 
mild opiate; and what is a little remarkable, is, that given 
in this way, it feldom or never raifed in children any fa- 
livation; though indeed I ftiould be apprehenfive of no ill 
confequences from it, if it fhould. After the firft or fecond 
dofe, the opiate ftiould be ommitted, as then the mercury 
will not be fo apt to go off by the inteftines, and the opiate 
if continued will, by leflening the fenfibility of the tra- 
chea, counteract in fome meafure the attenuating effedts 
of the calomel, and alfo increafe the coma. The opera- 
tion of the calomel, as an expectorant, will be very much 
promoted by a prudent ufe of oxymel of fquills, or leaft 

that 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 400 

that ihould purge, by ipecacuahna, given fo as to puke 
two or three times. 

But although I confider mercury as the bafis of the cure, 
efpecially in the beginning of this difeafe, I by no means 
intend to condemn, or omit the ufe of proper alexiphar- 
mics and antifeptics; of which the ferpentaria, contrayerva, 
and Peruvian bark are the moft powerful, and have been 
ufed with the greateft fuccefs. Sweating is certainly one 
way, by which nature carries off this difeafe; infomuch 
that Huxham declares he did not remember to have had 
one patient mifcarry, who fell into a foft, eafy, univerfal 
fweat : And therefore, whatever method of cure was pur- 
fued, this fhould be always conneded with it. The pati- 
ent {hould be kept in bed, and as the difeafe has a putrid 
tendency, the diaphoretics fhould be of the alexipharmic 
and antifeptic kinds. The bark is certainly a moft pow- 
erful antifeptic, and when the fymptoms of putrefadion, 
fuch as a moift clammy fkin, highly putrid breath, and 
haemorrhages appear, muft be attended with advantage. 
But early in the difeafe, while the fkin continues dry, at- 
tended with a great difficulty of breathing, and the fymp- 
toms of inflammation rather than thofe of putrefaaion pre- 
vail, it fhould be omitted; and here the removal of the dif- 
order fhould be attempted, chiefly, by mercurials and mild 
fudorifics. And indeed I think the whole art, in the cure 
of this difeafe, depends upon properly timeing thefe reme- 
dies, and infifling upon one or the other, as the fymptoms 
of putrefaaion do, more or lefs, prevail. 

But befides a falivation, and fweating, nature frequently 
carries off this difeafe by an eruption on the fkin, ulcers 
behind the ears, or in other parts of the body, or an exter- 
nal fwelling of the throat, all of which feem evidently to 
indicate the ufe of blifters. And accordingly Drs. Fother^ 
o-ill and Huxham recommended them; particularly Dr. 
^Huxham, who fays he has fometimes bliftered the throat 
from ear to ear with great fuccefs. It has indeed been faid, 
that they fometimes produced mortifications, and that even 
^ the 



401 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

the difcharge they occafioned, feemed to be more than the 
patient could bear; but as I have never heard this remark 
confirmed, I cannot help imagining, that the cafes in which 
they were tried, were particularly unfavourable, and more 
remarkably putrid than is ufual ; for in the child, who 
died on the eighth day, I applied blifters behind the ears, 
and they had not the leaft appearance of mortification or 
gangrene, even after the child's death. And in a cafe of 
very great danger, which I lately met with, they were cer- 
tainly of great fervice, and very effedtually fupplied the 
place of thofe natural difcharges, by which nature carries 
off this difeafe. 

I would recommend their application early in the difeafe, 
from the fame principle that they are applied in inflam- 
matory angina's or pleurifies; to relieve the throat and 
trachea, and to derive the flow of humours from the inter- 
nal, to the external parts. 

As the cafe to which I refer was a very remarkable one, 
in which the difeafe was attended with fome of the worfl 
fymptoms I ever faw, and the method I have been advifing 
was ftridly purfued, and attended with fuccefs, I cannot 
help confidering this fuccefs to be in fome meafure a proof 
of the propriety of the treatment, and for that reafon fhall 
here infert the cafe at large. 

The patient was a child of about two years and a half 
old, who had complained for about a week of a fore throat 
and hoarfenefs. The day before I faw her fhe had fome 
difficulty of breathing, which on that day was greatly in- 
creafed, and exadlly refembled the breathing of the children 
whofe cafes I have before related, when mod: flrangulated. 
Upon examining her throat I found the tonfils fwelled, 
inflamed, and covered with floughs of a yellowifh colour. 
Her breath was not in the leaft ofFenfive; her pulfe was 
fmall and fluttering, and her fkin- pale and clammy. Two 
very large blifters were immediately applied, one behind 
each ear, fo as to meet at her throat. She took four grains 
of calomel, with a quarter of a grain of opium^, and was 

directed 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 402 

directed to drink a deco6tion of ferpentar : virg : difguifed 
with old metheglin, as a common drink; and as her Ikin 
was pale and clammy, fhe had a clyfter of one drachm of 
cort. peruv. and ten grains of ferpent. virgin, in milk, to 
be adminiftered every fix or eight hours; but of thefe fhe 
received but one that night; and as we found fhe did not 
retain them, they were foon difcontinued ; nor could fhe 
be prevailed on to drink but very little of the decodion. 

I faw her feveral times during the firft day, and fhe ap- 
peared worfe at each time. About eight that evening fhe 
had fomething like a fit; and, at nine the ftrangulation in 
her breathing was much increafed; her pulfe was funk; 
her countenance changed ; her nofe appeared to be pinched 
up; her eyes were fixed and glaffy; a blue ring was ob- 
fervable about her mouth, and fhe was comatous. I left, 
her, expecting fhe would loon die. Her blifters had been 
dreffed a little before; had rifen well; and difcharged free- 
1 y; and, within two or three hours, as I was informed by the 
watches who fat up with her, fhe feemed to revive. The 
next morning 1 was greatly furprifed, not only to find her 
living, but in a fitting pofture, eating her breakfaft, with 
little or no difficulty of breathing, having her natural coun- 
tenance returned, with fome colour in her cheeks, and her 
pulfe rather rilen. At twelve o'clock however her breath- 
ing grew more difficult, and though not fo ftrangulated as 
the day before, was very quick and uneafy. From this 
time for five days flie remained in a very dangerous fitu- 
ation, and gave but little reafon to expecl her recovery. 
Her breathing continued quick and laborious, and her 
voice was almoft entirely gone; her pulfe was quick and 
low; fhe fweated profufely, particularly at nights, and 
conftantly lay in her bed in a comatous fituation, given 
however difl:in(f^ anfwers when fpoken to. I could difco- 
ver nothing difagreeable in her breath, though fometimes 
what fhe brought up was a little offenfive. During this 
time, and for many days after, the blifters difcharged con- 
iiderably, and the matter of the difcharge was fo fharp and 

corrofive 



403 MEDICAL PAPERS. 

corrofive as to inflame and erode the fkln almoft from the 
chin to the fterum. She conftantly took twice a day three 
grains of calomel ; and, except the firft dofe, without opi- 
um, until fhe had taken upwards of thirty grains; and 
continued the ufe of the decodion of ferpentar : In as large 
quantities as fhe could be prevailed on to take it. On the 
feventh day from the time 1 firft faw her, flie began to 
cough a good deal, with which Ihe expedorated pretty 
freely, and brought up fome very tough mucus. She 
breathed more freely, opened her eyes and looked about 
with fome fprightlinefs, and drank a glafs or two of wine. 
From this time fhe gradually grew better, and by the fif- 
teenth day from the time I faw her, all her fymptoms had 
left her, except great weaknefs, and (o remarkable a hoar- 
fenefs, or rather lofs of voice, that it was with great dif- 
ficulty fhe could be heard ; and a peculiar fenfibility of 
the larynx with regard to fluids, fo that the moment fhe 
attempted to drink fhe fell into a fit of coughing, although 
fhe could fwallow folid food without difficulty. This 
however foon left her, but her weaknefs and lownefs of 
voice continued, a much longer time, fo that in two months 
fhe could hardly walk alone, or fpeak in a tone above a 
whifper. 

When ulcers appear behind the ears, or in different 
parts of the body, they require a particular treatment ; 
the difcharge fhould be encouraged by frequently wafhing 
them with warm milk and water, and poultices of bread 
and milk be applied to them ; but greafy applications al- 
ways do harm, as they check the difcharge : Nor will they 
bear digeftives. I was in fome cafes, however, after the 
difcharge had continued for a great length of time, oblig- 
ged to check it, with a very weak Iblution of vitriol, alb. 
which I found anfwered this intention well ; nor did I ever 
obferve any ill effects from it : But I always ufed it with 
great caution, and never ventured on it, until I had cor- 
rected the general virus of the difeafe, by a previous uf- 
of mercurials. In refpeCt to gargles, I would entirely fole 

low 



MEDICAL PAPERS. 404 

low Dr. Fothergiir s advice. Fomentations applied to the 
breaft, and fumigations with the fleams of fome mild aro- 
matic herbs, and warm vinegar, not only give eafe, but 
ferve, in fome meafure, to attenuate the mucus in the tra- 
chea; and by gently ftimulating the lungs, raife a flight 
cough, and promote the expectoration. The treatment of 
any accidental fymptoms, after endeavouring to form a juft 
idea of the difeafe, muft be left to the difcretion of the 
phyfician. 

Such are the fentiments, which, from an attentive ob- 
fervation of the fymptoms, and progrefs of this difeafe, I 
have entertained of its nature, and moft proper treatment, 
which nothing, but a real defire of contributing to the 
ftockof medical fads, has induced me to offer to the no- 
tice of the public; thefe being the only foundation of a 
certain and rational pradice; and I can anfwer for the 
fidelity and candor with which I have related, what are 
here perferved. 



Substance of fome Papers that could not he inferted in 
their prober Place. 

Thefolloiving account of an Aurora Borealis ivas received 
from a Correjpondentt at Lancafter^ in Pennfylvania^ viz^ 

"'THH AT about half an hour after feven in the evening 
X of January 5-, 17691 there was feen at that place, 
a bright crepufculum, rifmg out of the North; v/hich in 
about a quarter of an hour extended itfelf from N. E. to 
N. W. — The upper part was deeply notched, and rofe in 
one place to the height of near 40°. above the horizon. 

"^ At three quarters after eight, it was fo light in the 
Northern hemifphere, that a perfon, who felt no decay or 
infirmity of eye- fight, mighteafily have read a book print- 
in Double Pica Roman. 

" At nine o'clock, five columns or pyramids, of a very 
vivid red, rofe perpendicular to the horizon, in theN. W» 

—They 



405 HORIZONTAL WIND-MILL. 

— They were unequal In their heights : For, whilft two of 
them role almoft to the zenith, others did not exceed 45". 
They changed colours alternately from a fiery red to a 
purple; from that to a yellow ; from yellow to a flame co- 
lour; and then to red again. Thefe changes were fo fud- 
den and quick that they afFed;ed the fenfe fo ftrongly as to 
raife horror. 

" At a quarter after nine, the columns changed their 
perpendicular pofition to an oblique one, and immediately 
began to move towards the Weft. They foon blended to- 
gether, and formed a dirty red fky, tinged with yellow. 

" N. B. There were no ftreamers, corrufcations, tre- 
mulous or dancing motions, as are common to fuch phe- 
nomena. This was a quiet one, except that it changed 
colours, and moved towards the Weft, as already defcribed, 

" During the appearance the air was uncommonly fe- 
vere and chilling; and, though the Heavens were ferene 
and befpangled with ftars, the atmofphere felt damp and 
heavy. 

" A little before ten o'clock, the whole funk below our 
horizon and difappeared.'* 



Mr. Thomas Gilpin hath prefented a ?nodel of a Horizontal 
Wind-mill ; and ivrites to the Society as folloivs, 

THAT to obviate the difficulty of turning the houfe, 
or frame, of comr^on wind-mills to the wind, he 
had contrived a model of a horizontal wind-mill, which 
he had fixed to three pumps, as he apprehended the chief 
ufe of fuch a mill would be the applying it to raife water 
out of mines and quarries, and likewife out of wells, or 
brooks for watering meadows. He thinks alfo it might be 
further applied to anfwer the various ufes of other wind- 
mills, without the inconvenience in turning or ftiifting 
them as the winds ftiift. 

" The 



HORIZONTAL WIND-MILL. 4o(S 

*' The model is three pumps eredt, in a triangular po- 
fition; in the center is a crank ered: in a ftep, and fteddied 
by a neck in a frame, from the ears of the pumps ; on the 
top of the crank are eight arms, and at the ends of each 
is a fail which alternately draws with the wind, and folds 
againfl: it, which gives a powerful motion to the crank, 
which, by a handle to each pump, works them in a regular 
fuccefTion.'* 



Mr, John Jones, of Indian River^ Worcejler County^ Ma- 
ryland^ gives thefolloixiing account of a Species of Grape 
Vines ivhich he had dij covered^ different from all others 
he had everfeen, — 

'T'HE bark (he fays,) is of a grey colaur, very fmooth, 
-*- and the wood of a firm texture. They delight in a 
high fandy foil; but W\\\ thrive very well in the Cyprus 
fwamps. The leaf is very much like that of the Englifh 
grape vine, fuch as is propagated in the gardens near Phi- 
ladelphia for table ufe. 

" The grape is much larger than the Englifh, of an oval 
fhape, and, when quite ripe, is black, adorned with a 
number of pale red fpecks, which, on handling, rub off , 
The pulp is a little like the Fox-grape; but in tafte more 
delicious. Thefe grapes are ripe in Odlober, and yield an 
incredible quantity of juice, which, with proper manage- 
ment, he doubts not, would make a valuable wine. 

" He employed a perfon to gather about three bufhels 
and one peck of them when ripe, and immediately had 
them preffed ; which, to his furprize, yielded twelve gallons 
of pure juice, though a good quantity muft have been lofl 
in the prelTmg. 

" In about twelve hours after putting the juice in a keg, 

it began to ferment, and he fuffered it to go on till it got 

to be fo violent, that it might be heard all over a large 

room. It continued in that ftatefor three days. He then 

Vol. I. F 3 checked 



407 Species of VINE GRAPES. 

checked k, fearing it might turn acid, though, he fays, he 
was afterwards convinced that if he had fuffered it to fer- 
ment as long again, it would have feparated the vinous 
parts from the flelhy, and given greater finenefs to the 
liquor, 

" After this it was racked off, and before cold weather 
buried in the garden, the top about fix inches under 
ground; where having continued till the fummer follow- 
ing, he could not difcover that it had in the leaft altered, 
either in tafte or colour. He obferves farther that, after 
eating a quantity of them, or drinking the juice, they leave 
an aftringency, as claret is apt to do. 

" There is an immenfe quantity of thefe vines growing 
on the beach, open to the fea; and they are alfo found in 
great plenty upon the ridges, and in the fwamps. Since 
their dlfcovery he has tranfplanted a number of them into 
his vineyard, from which, in a year or two more, he ex- 
peds to make a wine much better than is commonly im- 
ported." 



END OF THE FIRST VOLUME. 



PLATE! 





£cLimt 




J 



407 Species of VINE GRAPES. 

checked ir, fearing it might turn acid, though, he fays, he 
was afterwards convinced that if he had fuffered it to fer- 
ment as long again, it would have feparated the vinous 
parts from the flefhy, and given greater finenefs to the 
liquor. 

" After this it v^^as racked off, and before cold weather 
buried in the garden, the top about fix inches under 
ground; where having continued till the fummer follow- 
ing, he could not difcover that it had in the leaft altered, 
either in tafte or colour. He obferves farther that, after 
eating a quantity of them, or drinking the juice, they leave 
an aftringency, as claret is apt to do. 

" There is an immenfe quantity of thefe vines growing 
on the beach, open to the fea; and they are alfo found in 
great plenty upon the ridges, and in the fwamps. Since 
their difcovery he has tranfplanted a number of them into 
his vineyard, from which, in a year or two more, he ex- 
peds to make a wine much better than is commonly im- 
ported." 

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME. 



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The place of the Sun & Mercury a^ 
The place of the afcending Node c 
The Sun's Diftunce from the Node 
The Angle of his vifiblc path with 
The Ho'rory Motion of Mercury 
The Semidiameter of the Sun on t| 
The Scmidiameter of Mercury at I 
The Geocentric Latitude of Merci 
His HeUocentric Latitude at the fa 
The apparent time of the Eciipticj 

Meridian of Philadelphia 
The time of the nearell approac 

and Mercuiy - / 

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The central S^miduration of the 'I"' 
The apparent time of the externa 
The apparent time of the intcrnaj 

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